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"Mac. Can such things be,

This prefix forms 'part also of orthography (graphè, Gr. writing), right writing, that is, in the spelling of words; as orthoepy (epos, Gr. a word) is right pronunciation.

CLASS XVI.-MONADELPHIA.

Plants bearing flowers, the filaments of whose Stamens are
joined together in one set.
PENTANDRIA.

Over, of Saxon origin, as in overarch, overbalance, overbear,
overcharge, overboard, over-boil, over-bounteous, frequently de-
noting too much, as orer-careful, that is, careful to excess. Over-
come has two significations, to conquer, and to come over or upon.
"He found the means to subdue both the one and the other, compell- THE hemlock stork's-bill is a hairy and somewhat clammy
plant, with a disagreeable smell. It grows in sandy places,
especially near the sea. Its rose-coloured, but frequently
white petals, are observable from June to September.

ing as well the overcomers as the overcome to be his tributaries."Brende, "Quinctus Curtius."

The musky stork's-bill is so called from the peculiar smell it exhales, and the plant is more hairy and clammy than the preceding. It grows in hilly pastures, and flowers in June and July, with rose-coloured petals.

The petals of the sea stork's-bill, appearing from May to September are minute, and of a pale red. This plant grows on the sandy coasts of the south of England, and in Ireland. DECANDRIA.

And overcome us like a summer's cloud,
Without our special wonder ?"

Shakspeare. Over when employed for above as "over two hundred" is to be avoided as an Americanism. To overtake is to come up with in walking or running.

"And had he not in his extremest need
Been helped through the swiftness of his steed,
He had him overtaken in his flight."

Spenser.

In the passive the verb overtake seems to denote the being sud-
denly surprised into an action; surprise is from the Fr. surprendre
(consisting of sur, above or over, and prendre, to take), whence
surprise is the same as overtake in both derivation and meaning.
"Brethren if a man be overtaken in a fault."-Gal, vi. 1.

It is not difficult to see how to overtake may mean to get over, overcome, surprise, but how it means to come up with is less easy to conceive. The notion of over, or of superiority may, however, lie in the act by which you succeed in coming up to the person you wish to overtake; thus by walking more quickly than he, you overtake your friend, you take a step over his, and get beyond him. Out, of Saxon origin, beyond a certain limit, is a very common prefix, as in outbid, outdo, outface, outlaw, outlive, outstrip, &c. Outrage has nothing to do with out. Outrage comes from the mediæval Latin word ultragium, through the French oultraige, outrage. Ultragium, from ultra, beyond, denoted a surplusage paid to the lord by his subject on failure of paying his dues in proper time, whence outrage came to signify something in excess and to have an offensive meaning. Richardson shows himself ignorant of the origin of the word.

Pan, of Greek origin (pas, m. pasa, f. pan, n. all), is found in panacea (akeomai, Gr. I heal), all-heal, a universal remedy; in pancreas (kreas, Gr. flesh), all-flesh,—that is, the sweetbread; and in pandects (dekomai, Gr. I receive), receive-alls, a common title of the Greek miscellanies. The term is known in history in its application to a digest of the civil law published by the emperor Justinian. Again, pan occurs in pantheism (theos, Gr. God), allgodness, that is, the system which regards God and the universe as the same. Pan forms the first part of pantomime (mimos, Gr. a mimic; and the word mimic is from mimos), all-mimicry, because the performance consisted solely of imitation.

"The pantomimes who maintained their reputation from the age of Augustus to the sixth century, expressed, without the use of words, the various fables of the gods and heroes of antiquity; and the perfection of their art, which sometimes disarmed the gravity of the philosopher, always excited the applause and wonder of the people."-Gibbon, "Roman Empire."

Para, of Greek origin, by the side of, as in parallels (i. e., parallel lines), has in English various acceptations. In parable (ballo, Gr. I throw), something put by the side of another thing, a comparison, a similitude. In Scripture, the parables of the Old Testament are short, pithy, and weighty sayings: the parables of the New Testament are short tales, setting forth religious truth under similitudes: the former are apothegms; the latter allegories. Para appears in paraclete (kalein, Gr. to call), the advocate or comforter (John xiv. 16).

Paradise is a Persian word, denoting a park, and has no connexion with the Greek para; in Hebrew, pardes, a garden.

Par, of Latin origin (pars, partis, a part), appears in participate (capio, Lat. I take)—that is, to partake. This word partake is a hybrid, being formed of an English and a Latin word; it is therefore a cross in the breed between Latin and English.

Pent, or penta, of Greek origin, as in pentagon, a figure having five sides; pentateuch (five-fold), the name given to what are called "the five books of Moses,"-namely, Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy.,

LESSONS IN BOTANY.-No. XIII.

fragments of rocks, a very beautiful little flower is observable In waste ground, in woods, by walls, among stones and from the beginning of May to the end of October; it is the herb Robert, or Poor Robin. It has a red stem, sending out numerous branches at the base; leaves tinged with red, and lance-shaped; petals twice the length of the calyx, oblong, bright rose-red, with three white veins. When the plant grows on exposed situations, the stems and leaves are of a rich crimson colour, and when autumn has come on, and they long survive the blossoms, they are scarcely less beautiful than the flowers themselves. Its stems are brittle; and the whole of the plant is very hairy.

A peculiar resinous substance is secreted by this plant, as well as by several others of the same species. Its odour is threfore disagreeable, particularly when the plant has been So abundant is the resin in some foreign long gathered. species, that if a light be applied to their stems, they will burn like torches, and yield a very agreeable perfume during their

combustion.

How numerous these plants are in our own land may be seen at a rapid glance. The dusky crane's-bill grows in woods and thickets, and flowers in May and June; the wood crane'sbill flowers in June and July, and grows in woods and thickets by rivers; the spots in which to find the meadow crane's-bill, may be gathered from its name; it flowers in the two lastmentioned months. The dove's-foot crane's-bill appears early in April, and continues in bloom till August, and is observable on every bank or waste place, and in every pasture: it has long spreading stems, and broad roundish leaves, deeply cut into segments, of a pale gray-green, and downy as colour. And, besides these, there are six other species of velvet; while the flowers are small, and of a purplish-red

crane's-bill.

Among these plants are found those universal favourites the geraniums. How often may one of them be observed in circumstances reminding us of Cowper's words when he says,—

"That man immured in cities, still retains
His inborn, inextinguishable thirst
Of rural scenes, compensating his loss
By supplemental shifts as best he may.

The most unfurnish'd with the means of life,
And they that never pass the brick-wall bounds,
To range the fields, and treat their lungs with air,
Yet feel the burning instinct; overhead
Suspend the crazy boxes, planted thick,
And watered duly. There the pitcher stands,
A fragment, and the spoutless teapot there:
Sad witnesses how close-pent man regrets
The country, with what ardour he contrives
A peep at nature, when he can no more."

Of the real geraniums some species or other may be found growing wild almost everywhere. Several flower-stalks very commonly diverge from one centre, forming what is called an umbel, but in most of the British plants of this tribe each principal stalk bears but two flowers. The petals are five in number, except in a few instances, in which one is undeveloped; their veins are unusually prominent, and they give to the petals a streaked or pencilled appearance. These veins consist

almost exclusively of air-vessels, and they serve as beautiful flowers rendering them special objects of attention. The Eng, objects for microscopic inspection.

lish name is derived from the Saxon holyoak or holihoc, the When the fruit is ripe it strikingly resembles the bill of meaning of which is not very perceptible. Besides their floral certain birds; whence the British geraniums are known by the beauty, hollyhocks are of great utility to bees, as they flower at name of cranesbill. These plants are extensively diffused a season when most other blossoms have faded. The fibrous over the globe. What are commonly termed geraniums by bark of the flower-stalks furnishes no mean substitute for horticulturists are not really such, but belong to the allied hemp; and a blue dye, little inferior to indigo, can be obtained genus pelargonium. The chief residence of the pelargoniums from the whole plant. is at the Cape of Good Hope, from whence these ornaments of our gardens and windows have been derived. These have been greatly improved by cultlvation, and many more varieties

LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.-No. VIII. have sprung up

Among the old favourites is the horseshoe pelargonium, known from the brown circle on the leaves in the

DISCOVERIES OF THE EIGHTEENTH AND form of a horseshoe, and the parent of many of the finest

NINETEENTH CENTURIES. hybrid scarlet-fowered varieties introduced by crossing. The flowers of the original plant are small, and not now esteemed. FRANCE, desirous of taking her share in the progress of mariThe oak-leaved and the gooseberry-leaved are rapidly disap- / time discovery, fitted out, in 1786, a new expedition undsr the pearing.

command of La Perouse, an able and intrepid officer. The POLYANDRIA.

principal theatre of the explorations of this little French squaThe leaves of the marsh-mallow are simple, and very soft dron was the north-west coast of America, and the shores of feet high.' The petals are of a pale roge-colour. The plant latitude 59° N. on the north-west coast of America. The ex. and downy; and so are the stems, which are erect, and three Tartary and Japan. Their vessels La Boussole and L'Astrolabe

visited Easter Island, then the Sandwich Isles, and reached grows in salt marshes, and flowers from July to September. abundant in England. It has an erect stem, leaves with five befell them, which cost twenty-one persons their lives, while The common mallow, though very rare in Scotland, is pedition explored with great care a great part of this line of

coast. During their hydrographical operations, a sad accident or seven somewhat acute lobes ; leaf-stalks and flower-stalks hairy. Its petals, which are numerous, of a purplish-red, and making an attempt to land. These operations being finished, deeply-notched, appear about hedges and road-sides, 'from they traversed the Pacific, determined, on their way, the position June to September. The recollections of some of our readers of the Ladrone Islands, and arrived at Macao on the 2nd Jan. accord, very probably, with those of our rural poet Clare, 1787. At the outset of his second expedition, La Perouse

looking back to past times, he describes himself and went along the coast of Corea, and discovered Cape Nota on other children, as

the coast of Japan. The officers of the expedition applied

themselves particularly to the determination of the latitudes “ Sitting down when school was o'er,

and longitudes of the places which they visited. In latitude Upon the threshold of the door,

45°, they discovered an harbour which they called the bay of Picking from mallows, sport to please,

Ternay. They next discovered the strait which separates the The crumpled seed we call a cheese."

island of Jesso from Tchoka or Sagalien, and which is called The name thus given to the circular fruit of the plant, leads the Straits of La Perouse. The expedition then sailed for to its being called "cheese-flower," in some country places. Kamtschatka, where it was hospitably received. At this point This play is not peculiar to the English child; it amuses also M. Lesseps, who had accompanied La Perouse as interpreter French children, who call the seeds of the mallow by the of the Russian languages, was sent overland to France. This same name les petits fromageons.

intrepid young man, to whom had been intrusted the journals The wild and cultivated mallows of our country are used in and charts of the voyage, traversed the old continent through medicine for the mucilage they contain. Country people apply its whole extent from east to west, and happily arrived at the leaves when boiled to wounds and bruises ; and, in Paris, Paris with the valuable observations which had been made mallow-tea is considered a specific for many diseases. The during the expedition. La Perouse returned to Oceanica, to mallows do not possess, however, any active properties. meet severe trials. At Maouna, one of the Navigators' Islands,

The musk-mallow has an erect stem, about two feet high, his companion De Langle, captain of L'Astrolabe, and twenty little branched, and rough ; its flowers, which grow on long, of his attendants, were cruelly murdered by the natives. Lamasimple stalks, with large rose-cloured petals, appear in July non, the naturalist of the expedition, perished in this attack. and August. The plant grows in pastures, and by way-sides. After a short stay at Botany Bay, New Holland (now Aus

The dwarf-mallow has a prostrate stem; roundish heart- tralia), La Perouse prepared for his third expedition. He shaped leaves ; stems numerous, lying flat on the ground; purposed to explore the Tonga Isles, the south part of New flowers pale-lilac, growing from June to September, and fruit- Caledonia, the Louisiade Islands, New Guinea and other stalks bent downwards. It grows in waste ground, and by islands, the gulf of Carpentaria, and the coast of Australia way-sides.

from this gulf to Van Diemen's Land. He left the shores of Besides these plants, there is the sea tree-mallow: the stem New Holland full of hope and enterprise; but his task, bo woody; the leaves downy, and plaited, with seven angles ; courageously self-imposed, was left unfinished ; his career the petals purplish rose-colour, and darker on the base ; grow- came to a close. From that moment he was never more ing on rocks along the sea-shore, and flowering from July to heard of; for two years, expectation was kept on the stretch October. It is, however, between the tropics, that the most looking for news of the expedition. La Perouse and his remarkable species of mallow abound.

companions were lost to their country. The cruel uncertainty In a wild state, the corollas of the hollyhock are generally which remained in France regarding the fate of the expedition, single, and of a red, white, or yellow colour; but by transfer- caused the national assembly to pass a decree in February 1791, ence to a more favourable situation, and to more fertile soil, by which it entreated the king, Louis XVI., to solicit the their flowers can be doubled to any extent, and, by care on the assistance of the other sovereigns of Europe in the search for part of the cultivator, brought into aimost every hue. "Oh, the lost expedition. This decree also directed the organisation ihe hollyhock !” says a modern writer, “no garden should be of an expedition, which had the double object of endeavour without a hollyhock, whether it belong to a prince or a peasant. ing to find some trace of the unfortunate navigator, and of Stately and aspiring, and requiring space, it yet wisely accom- completing the discoveries which had been left unachieved: modates itself to its circumstances, adorning alike the gay par. This expedition took place under the command of Admiral terre and the cottage door. Whether puce, crimson, scarlet, D'Entrecasteaux, but without success, It was almost as yellow, or white, it is always elegant, and never forgets that it unfortunate as that of La Perouse, although it was useful in is a hollyhock.”

making those coasts better known which had been carefully Dr. Turner speaks of hollyhocks as familiar plants in 1564; explored in search of him. The place of his shipwreck, in and Gerard, in 1697, observes that they were then seen in gar- fact, was not discovered till 1827, by Captain Dillon, who dens almost everywhere. There can be no doubt that they were ascertained that he and his unfortunate companions were lost very early cultivated, their majestic height and splendid on the rocks of one of the Feejee Islands, and found the

remains of the vessel and part of the articles that belonged | latitude 70° N. the expedition returned and explored the coasts to him. The singular voyage of Captain Bligh, who, owing to as far as Cape Walsingham, in Cumberland Island, whence it the mutiny of his crew, was obliged to traverse an immense sailed for England. The other expedition to the north was extent of ocean in an open boat, led to the discovery, in 1789, undertaken by Captain Buchan and Lieutenant Franklin; but of Waitoutaki, one of the Manaian group, or Harvey Islands. it was productive of no new discovery, as they were compelled The surprising explorations, also, of Captain Flinders and to return when they had reached Spitzbergen, glad to escape the Surgeon Bass, who attempted to effect the periplus of New alarming dangers of sailing in the midst of floating icebergs. Cap Holland, in a sorry boat, ended in the discovery of the strait tain Parry continued the exploration begun by Captain Ross. which separates that continent from Tasmania (Van Diemen's In a new expedition, he discovered the passage called Prince Land), and which still retains the name of Bass; and, at the Regent's inlet, south of Lancaster Sound, Wellington's inlet same time, in the delineation of an immense line of coast on farther north in the same sound, and the islands of Cornwallis, the same continent. Flinders, especially, has a right to the Griffith, Bathurst, Byam Martin, Melville, and others, all inremembrance of geographers, for the steadiness with which he cluded, under the name of the North Georgian Islands. He pursued during many years, his difficult and dangerous also discovered Banks's Land, south of Melville Island, and labours, almost always in an open boat or frail skiff which North Somerset, which forms the north-west point of Prince the smallest storm would have foundered in a moment. To Regent's inlet, and wintered in 1819-1820, in Melville Bay, him we owe the discovery of Kangaroo Island, the hydro- where, during the long months, from the 4th of November till graphy of Van Diemen's Land, the exploration of the southern the 3rd of February following, they lived in continued darkand eastern coasts of New Holland, and the determination of ness, and in an atmosphere, whose temperature was below the numerous points in Torres' Straits and the Gulf of Carpen-freezing point. In a second voyage executed in 1821-1822, taria. The expedition to the same coasts under the French Captain Parry discovered Melville Peninsula, north of Southcaptain, Baudin, was productive of little utility in a geo- ampton Island, in the northern part of Hudson's Bay. He graphical point of view, after the labours of Flinders. passed through the strait which he named after his two vessels, the Fury and Hecla, and which separates Melville Peninsula from Cockburn Island, on the north. Captain Scoresby, at the same period, explored a part of the east coast of Greenland. Parry made a third voyage in 1823, to the same regions he had formerly visited; but the Fury was shipwrecked, and the expedition failed. During the period from 1823 to 1826, Lieutenant Beechy sought for the passage between the two oceans by Behring's Straits, and reached latitude 71° 23′ N., and longitude 154° 3′ W. The indefatigable Parry attempted a fourth expedition to the north in search of the same passage, but it entirely failed, because he disregarded the experience of former navigators, as well as his own in preceding voyages.

|

The voyage of Vancouver preceded the French expedition above mentioned, and added to the knowledge of the Australian continent. He discovered the harbour of King George in the south-western extremity of New Holland, and completed the labours of Cook at New Zealand. To the cast of the latter, Captain Broughton, commander of the tender, discovered Chatham Island, and the expedition proceeded to Tahiti to prepare for exploring the north-western coast of America. Vancouver, in company with a Spanish expedition which he met, under the command of Captain Quadra, discovered the island which now bears the name of both; he then explored the river Colombia as far as the expedition could ascend its streams. A rest at the Sandwich Islands, and new expeditions on the American coasts detained Vancouver till the winter of 1794, when he returned to the same archipelago. Having, in a new hydrographical expedition, explored another part of the coast of the new world, including Cook's inlet, Vancouver returned to England, laden with geographical information, and signalised by not a few discoveries. These regions were scarcely revisited until the voyage of Kotzebue, which took place in 1815-1818. This Russian navigator discovered to the north of Behring's Straits, between latitudes 679 and 68° N., and in longitude 163° 37′ W., a great bay or sound to which he gave his name. His object was to find a passage to the Atlantic, and to ascertain first whether Icy Cape was an island; but illness prevented him from carrying his designs into execution. He discovered several unimportant islands in the Pacific, particularly the eastern part of the Caroline group.

LITERARY NOTICES.

Three Hundred Engravings from Drawings from Nature.-In THE THE SCIENCE OF BOTANY beautifully Illustrated by upwards of ILLUSTRATED EXHIBITOR AND MAGAZINE OF ART, for September 4th, a series of chapters has been commenced on the instructive science of Botany. Each chapter will be profusely illustrated with engravings, carefully executed. These chapters on Botany will not interfere with the general character of the work, which contains first-class engravings, including portraits and specimens of the works of the great masters, in painting, sculpture, and architecture; portraits of eminent characters; views of cities palaces, and public buildings; natural history; manufacturing processes; machinery and inventions; scientific, including the elements of design, perspective, hydraulics, the stereoscope, &c.; ornamental sculpture, needlework, &c.; with original literary articles, includAs to the northern passage between the Atlantic and the ing biographies, descriptions of works of art, details of manufacturing Pacific, it seemed to elude all the skill and vigilance of navi- processes and machinery, papers on natural history and other branches of science; and much interesting fragmentary matter. The ILLUSgators. Captain Phipps, in 1773, had reached latitude 80° 37′ TRATED EXHIBITOR AND MAGAZINE OF ART is published in weekly N. from the Atlantic side; Captain Cook, as we have seen, at- Numbers, twopence each, or in monthly Parts, 9d. or 11d. each, accordtempted it from the Pacific side; Pickersgill and Young suc-ing to the number of weeks in each month. ceeded no better by sailing through Baffin's Bay; and Lowenorn, Egede, and Rothe, in 1786-1787, attempted, but without success, to explore the eastern shores of Greenland, which is said to be unapproachable in consequence of the accumulation of ice since the beginning of the fifteenth century. At the beginning of the present century, northern expeditions were revived; and they have been pursued with more or less ardour till the present day. In 1818 two expeditions were £tted out for the north. The one was placed under the command of Captain Ross, who sailed from England towards the end of April of that year, accompanied by Lieutenant Parry, who commanded under his direction the ship Alexander. Between latitudes 76° and 77° 40' N. they discovered land which they called the Arctic Highlands. This country occupied a space of 120 miles in the north-east corner of Baffin's Bay. On the 30th of August they reached the entrance of Lancaster Sound, ard as it was 50 miles broad from north to south, and as the soundings were 750 fathoms, they fancied they had discovered the north-west passage; but they soon perceived their mistake by observing land in their course at a distance of 30 miles from the entrance of the sound. Having reached

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Euclid: see Thomson's edition, Prop. H, Book VI., where it is made to rest on Prop. XXI., Book III. Perhaps our geometrical correspondents may yet accomplish its demonstration within the limits of the First Book of Euclid.-A SUBSCRIBER, W. G. (Birmingham): Mr. J. Guest, Bull-street, will supply you with the POPULAR EDUCATOR, fine or common edition, in parts or numbers.

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS.

HENRY E. B. should give the preference to English, but he might try the French along with it, if he has time.-F. S. CRAIG (Sheffield): We are willing to do anything in reason for our correspondents; but to ask us to correspond in phonography is too much.-DOUGALL CHRISTIE (Glasgow): The first part of his paradoxical question has been put be- SELF-TAUGHT (Duke-street) has made a good choice of studies, Engfore, p. 256, and has not been answered.-An esteemed correspondent lish, Arithmetic, and Geology: a most useful language, the most useful, takes us politely to task for apparently misleading our readers, by allow-pure, or exact science, and an interesting mixed science to relieve the ing them to suppose that it is possible to find the square of £99 198. 114d! former. Go on and prosper.-THEOPHILUS (Shrewsbury): See p. 161, Now, we must say that we made no remark whatever about the square line 44, and p. 162, No. 26.-GENTILHOMME: Très bien.-M. J. (Norof this quantity; for we entirely agree with him in saying that it is wich): His case is very hard; but we admire his determination. All Nichol"utterly absurd;" yet we deny that it is absurd to multiply this sum by son's works are useful to carpenters. Consult John Weal's "Catalogue of itsel! And, in order to put the matter to the test, we propose a question, Architectural Books."-J. P. K. (Polygon) wishes to know why a small in which this multiplication will be necessary, and the answer will be portion of Kent is situated on the Essex side of the Thames, opposite to quite free from absurdity. "If £1 in a certain number of years, Woolwich ?-X. X. X. (Liverpool): Punctuation will be included in the becomes £99 199. 11d.; what will £99 199. 11 d. become in the same English Lessons. There is a treatise on "Grammatical Punctuation," period?" Here it will be necessary to multiply the sum in question by by John Wilson, of Manchester.-GULIELMUM: Why not MUS? H. L. itself, and yet it will be no square! Some of our readers will, no doubt, S.: Dr. Freund's Latin Dictionary, just published, is the most complete ; favour us with the answer.-R. C. A. (Gourock) should try the "Cold and Zumpt's Latin Grammar is reckoned the best.-TWO FRIENDS shall Water Cure" for all his ailments.-A LONDON BOY may bind the have Penmanship soon; the POPULAR EDUCATOR will continue by the POPULAR EDUCATOR in Russia leather, and if well done, it will look continued exertions of all its friends.-JAMES KER (Aughnacloy): His very handsome; besides it will preserve the book for a very long period; solutions and queries are good. Measure off from the lower corner of but it is rather expensive.-J. R. (Delph) wishes us to propose a question, the square along the side to the right, a part equal to the hypotenuse of originally proposed by Sir Isaac Newton: "If 12 oxen will eat 34 acres No. 2, and through its extremity draw a parallel to the side of the of grass in 4 weeks, and 21 oxen will eat 10 acres in 9 weeks; how largest square, p. 239.-JOHN INGLIS (Aberdeen): The final e is always many oxen will eat 24 acres in 18 weeks; the grass being supposed to sounded in German, with some trifling exceptions, such as Sie, Die, grow uniformly in all the cases?"—A Lover of the POPULAR EDUCATOR &c.-B. P. (Islington): Smart's Walker's Pronouncing Dictionary is (Brecon) should write to the "Head Master of King's College School" reckoned among the best. Some other languages must come before at once for the information he requires. There can be no doubt that a Dutch; but not till those in hand are brought to a close.—JAMES prospectus will be sent on application.-STUDIOSUS (Newbury): The WILKINSON (Earby): We shall assist him in his question for the good common phrase "were you" is quite correct, and "was you" quite of all, if he will send us the name of the book, and the page, from wrong. Lessons in Composition are already given by Dr. Beard. The which it was taken.-JOHN BAXTER (Acomb) may trust us on the best rule for the acquisition of the pronunciation of geographical proper subject of Religion.-A Birmingham Subscriber, whose signature is names is, to listen to the conversation of an enlightened traveller or illegible, is informed that the person-endings are the same for every merchant.-B. D. S. (Bradford): 26 numbers will make the first verb of the same conjugation.-J. W., jun. (Gateshead): Any Latin volume.-H. H. S- -E (Lynn): The following are some subjects that dictionary will do.-J. H. and H. H., two subscribers at Chorley, are might be discussed in a " Young Men's Society." 1. What is the informed that the distance between the meridians on the globe diminishes nearest relation to any individual of the human race, who has reached from the equator, where it is greatest, to the pole, where it is nothing. A the years of maturity, and has performed all the functions and duties ship in passing from one meridian to another makes the same difference required by nature and religion? 2. What are the causes of the dis- of longitude in whatever part of the globe she may be, but she has a respect so generally shown by children to their parents, and to aged much greater distance to sail near the equator than near the poles.-J. persons in general, in modern times, and in civilised and Christian T. (York-street): You may say cheese when speaking of a large quantity; countries, as compared with what we read of in ancient times, par- but you must say cheeses when speaking of number or variety.-A ticularly in the sacred Scriptures and in the authentic history of heathen GRATEFUL SUBSCRIBER should study English Grammar before phononations; and, especially, looking at the example of the Saviour? (Luke grapby, and learn it well before he meddles with that art. Our correii. 51.)-W. S. H. (London): Thanks for his suggestion as to the geo- spondence informs us that the students of phonography are the worst graphical planisphere.-WILLIAM HOARE (Grosvenor-square): We writers of English, whether it be as regards penmanship, spelling, intend to give lectures on Algebra, when the questions in the Arith-grammar, or politeness, with one amiable exception at Newcastle-uponmetic will be explained. Tyne. England comes from the Saxon Engla-land, which meant the country of the Angles in the south of England. These uniting with the Sarons conquered the south of Britain, and gave the name of the small part which they originally possessed to the whole of it. By a wise extension of the name in our day, England virtually includes Scotland, and English is now synonymous with British.-THOS. WATKINSON (Glemsford): The a in amaverim is pronounced like the a in mat. You may get an old copy of Beza's Latin Testament for a shilling at a bookstall. Go on and prosper.-B. D. (Portsea): Capital; success to your endeavours, and those of your shopmates.

A SCHOOL ASSISTANT (Reigate): Natural history commonly denotes the science which gives us a history and description of animals, and traces their peculiar habits, qualities, and uses. Physiology is the science of the different functions of which life is the manifestation, as respiration, circulation, nutrition, &c. It is divided into animal and vegetable physiology; and, still further, into human, which relates to man; and comparative, which relates to inferior animals and to vegetables. On classification our correspondent is referred to the POPULAR EDUCATOR, p. 88. We are now treating the order carnivora; the other orders will follow in due course.

LATIN.-W. MCP.: The Latin moods do not in all cases correspond with the English; the diversities will be made clear in due time. The translation is correct.-SANS-MAITRE: The imperfect tense denotes an action continued or repeated in past time. In the given sentence, absolutus est is in the perfect, because it denotes one simple act; while accusabatur is in the imperfect, because a continued state or condition is intended.-POOR DOCTOR'S BOY is informed that the first person plural is often used when one person only is meant; the great we of reviewers is merely I under a cloak of dignity; so the Queen says we when she means herself alone.-P. 275, 2nd col., lines 55 and 56 from the top, for perfect read future.

T. N. B. (Southgate): The best books on Botany are Loudon's "Encyclopædia of Plants," Lindley's "Elements of Botany," and his "Introduction," also Balfour's "Manual."-M. Y. F. (Bristol) should study Dr. Beard's Lessons both in Latin and English in preference to a variety of other lessons. On poetry we can give no advice; poeta nascitur, non fit.-R. M. STUDENS (Fife): Riddle's Dictionary (128.) contains both the Latin-English and the English-Latin parts. You may get it through any respectable bookseller.-J SOWDEN: His demonstration of query 4, p. 111, is very good, and would have been inserted but for its length. The same proposition is demonstrated in Bland's "Geometrical Problems," Sect. 4, No. 40, in a shorter manner; but it depends like his upon the lemma, that "the three perpendiculars drawn from the three angles of a triangle to the opposite sides intersect each other in the same point." This is demonstrated in several well-known editions of

INDOCTUS (Sutton-in-Ashfield): An F.R.A.S., instead of emoluments, is required to pay money on admission to that honour; and as to requirements, he must, we suppose, have some claim to be considered an astronomer, either from his writings or his observations.-J. P. Y. (Devonport): We have not tried, and therefore don't know.-R. P. HAYES (Chorley): The patent laws are in a sort of transition state; but if he applies to a patent agent, he will get the newest information.J. R. E. (Pudsey): For elocution read "Smart's Practice of English Elocution;" for etiquette, the treatise by Agogos; but fencing we cannot recommend, as we are on the peace side of the question. As to rules for a self-instruction society, we know nothing better than the Apostolic injunction: "We then that are strong, ought to bear the infirmities of the weak, and not to please ourselves."-W. SMITH (Coseley): Thanks for his communication on the construction of lenses. -DISCIPULUS (Hackney); G. E. BINFIELD: The order of Latin words can only be learned from deep acquaintance with the classics; follow Dr. Beard as closely as you can. Homo is used of a man considered as belonging to mankind in general; vir, of a man considered as a member of the state, and fulfilling all his duties to the same.-JOSEPH BLACKLOCK (Wigtown): Thanks for his useful information relating to Alexander Murray.-A. MENKOY (Bradford): Read Cassell's "New and Popular History of Ireland," 3 vols. in one, price 2s. 3d.-JOHN SMITH (Leeds): See page 161, col. 1, line 45.-A PUPIL TEACHER (Farnham): Both.

Printed and Published by JOHN CASSELL, La Belle Sauvage Yard,
Ludgate-hill, London.-September 4, 1852.

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The origin of the Tuscan order of architecture is involved in the wealth, and the vanity of the Romans, led them to increase obscurity. During the era of the kings of Rome, it appears the number, the magnitude, and the decorations of their that this order was followed in the buildings of the Romans; edifices to a degree far beyond those of Greece. In the but it originally belonged to the people of Etruria or Tuscany; theatre of Marcellus, and in the Coliseum, the Doric and the and in that country remains of this order are found, which can Ionic styles were both introduced; but the Corinthian style, be traced to a very remote antiquity. The characteristic with its rich ornaments, was most adapted to the taste of the qualities of the Tuscan style were solidity and grandeur, masters of the world ; and as if not left by the inventors in features in which it resembled the ancient Egyptian architec- shape sufficiently expressive of splendour and magnificence, ture, with less gigantic but more

they loaded every member of it with graceful forms. To whom the Etru

Fr. 16.

ornaments unknown to the Greeks. rians were indebted for their style of

In the Composite, sometimes called architecture cannot now be deter

the Roman order, there was espemined, or whether it originated en

cially a profusion of ornament; and tirely with themselves ; some indeed

there was scarcely a moulding which say that they brought it from the

was not loaded with decorations. east; but we cannot agree with those

When the particular members could who would deprive it of all origi

receive no more ornaments, they had nality, and assert that it was only

recourse to varying the outlines of the ancient Doric stripped of its

their edifices (particularly their finest features. The early Romans

temples) into every shape that could who used this style did not invent

be produced by the union of circular it, for they were mere warriors and

and triangular figures. Specimens not artists. They adopted from time

of the Roman style of architecture to time the arts of the nations which

are to be seen in the arch of Titus they conquered. Hence, first came

and the baths of Diocletian; and the Tuscan style, and then the

two magnificent capitals are to be Grecian orders, to be adopted by

seen in the baptistry of Constantine, the Romans. For an example of

which belonged to some elder edifice the Tuscan column see fig. 19. The

The Pantheon.

whose history is now unknown. For Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, begun

a specimen of the column of the by Tarquinius Priscus and finished by Tarquinius Super- , Composite order, see fig. 20. bus, said to have been built by Etrurians, and the tomb In the decline and fall of the Roman empire, Constantine the of Porsenna, king of that people, were splendid early speci- Great transferred the capital from Rome to Byzantium, and mens of this order ; but no remains of them are to be found. attempted to make the latter rival the former in monumental The column of Trajan, built about a century after the grandeur by erecting immense public edifices. Here, however, Christian era, and which remains to this day, is considered to as in Italy, art and science took a retrograde course, and the be a remarkable specimen of the Tuscan column.

elegant orders invented by the Greeks rapidly lost their original After the introduction of the Grecian orders of architecture purity and simplicity. A new style was then grafted on Roman into their edifices, the Romans chiefly employed Greek artists, art ; the capitals lost their graceful outlines, and assumed and made no alteration upon these orders, except sometimes cubical forms; the columns were shortened, and the entablablending them together in the same building. In general, ture no longer possessed its regular proportions. This style of Fig. 17.

Fig. 18.

[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]

The Magdalen.

The Exchange at Paris. they employed the Corinthian order as the most elegant; and architecture was called the Byzantine; its ornamentation was a modification of this order is attributed to them, as the only no more that of Rome; it again approached the older Greck attempt which they made at originality in architecture; but style, but shorn of the grandeur and magnificence of the whole, some are inclined to believe that even this invention was due to and of the exquisite beauty of its_details. The Byzantine some Greek architect. This new order was called the Com- style lasted during the period of the Eastern empire, and to this posite, because it was in fact a compound order, made by the day it is employed by the Greeks in their buildings. From union of the Corinthian and the Ionian orders. The power, the combined influences of that empire, and the memorials VOL I.

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