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Euclid: see Thomson's edition, Prop. H, Book VI., where it is made to ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS.
rest on Prop. XXI., Book III. Perhaps our geometrical correspondenta HENRY E. B. should give the preference to English, but he might may yet accomplish its demonstration within the limits of the First try the French along with it, if he has time.-F. S. CRAIG (Sheffield): Book of Euclid.-A SUBSCRIBER, W. G. (Birmingham): Mr. J. We are willing to do anything in reason for our correspondents ; but to Guest, Bull-street, will supply you with the PoPULAR EDUCATOR, ask us to correspond in phonography is too much.-DOUGALL CHRISTIE fine or common edition, in parts or numbers. (Glasgow): The first part of his paradoxical question has been put be- SELF-TAUGHT (Duke-street) has made a good choice of studies, Eng. fore, p. 256, and has not been answered.--An esteemed correspondent lish, Arithmetic, and Geology: a most useful language, the most useful, takes us politely to task for apparently misleading our readers, by allow- pure, or exact science, and an interesting mixed science to relieve the ing them to suppose that it is possible to find the square of £99 198. 113d! former. Go on and prosper.—THEOPHILUS (Shrewsbury): See p. 161, Now, we must say that we made no remark whatever about the square line 44, and p. 162, No. 26.-GENTILHOMME : Très bien.-M. J. (Norof this quantity; for we entirely agree with him in saying that it is wich): Hiscase is very hard; but we admire his determination. All Nichol. “utterly absurd;" yet we deny that it is absurd to multiply this sum by son's works are useful to carpenters. Consult John Weal's “Catalogue of itselt! And, in order to put the matter to the test, we propose a question, Architectural Books."-J. P. K. (Polygon) wishes to know why a small in which this multiplication will be necessary, and the answer will be portion of Kent is situated on the Essex side of the Thames, opposite to quite free from absurdity. “ If £i in a certain number of years, Woolwich ?-X. X. X. (Liverpool): Punctuation will be included in the becomes £99 193. 113d.; what will £99 19s. 114d. become in the same English Lessons. There is a treatise on “Grammatical Punctuation," period p" Here it will be necessary to multiply the sum in question by by John Wilson, of Manchester.-GULIELMUM: Why not mus? H. L. itself, and yet it will be no square! Some of our readers will, no doubt, s.: Dr. Freund's Latin Dictionary, just published, is the most complete : favour us with the answer.-R. C. A. (Gourock) should try the “Cold and Zumpts Latin Grammar is reckoned the best.-Two FRIENDS shall Water Cure” for all his ailments.-A London Boy may bind the have Penmanship soon; the POPULAR EDUCATOR will continue by the POPULAR EDUCATOR in Russia leather, and if well done, it will look continued exertions of all its friends. - JAMES KER (Aughnacloy) His very handsome; besides it will preserve the book for a very long period ; solutions and queries are good. Measure off from the lower corner of but it is rather expensive.-J. R. (Delph) wishes us to propose a question, the square along the side to the right, a part equal to the hypotenuse of originally proposed by Sir Isaac Newton: “ If 12 oxen will eat 3i acres No. 2, and through its extremity draw a parallel to the side of the of grass in 4 weeks, and 21 oxen will eat 10 acres in 9 weeks; how largest square, p. 239.—Jonn IngLIS (Aberdeen): The final e is always many oxen will eat 24 acres in 18 weeks; the grass being supposed to sounded in German, with some trifling exceptions, such as Sie, Die, grow uniformly in all the cases?"- A Lover of the PopULAR EDUCATOR &c.-B. P. (Islington): Smart's Walker's Pronouncing Dictionary is (Brecon) should write to the “ Head Master of King's College School”
reckoned among the best. Some other languages must come before at once for the information he requires. There can be no doubt that a Dutch ; but not till those in hand are brought to a close.—JAMES prospectus will be sent on application.-STUDIOSUS (Newbury): The WILKINSON (Earby): We shall assist him in his question for the good common phrase "were you" is quite currect, and " was you” quite of all, if he will send us the name of the book, and the page, from wrong. Lessons in Compoeition are already given by Dr. Beard. The which it was taken.-JOHN BAXTER (Acomb) may trust us on the best rule for the acquisition of the pronunciation of geographical proper subject of Religion.-A Birmingham Subscriber, whose signature is names is, to listen to the conversation of an enlightened traveller or illegible, is informed that the person-endings are the same for every merchant.-B. D. S. (Bradford): 26 numbers will make the first verb of the same conjugation.-J. W., jun. (Gateshead): Any Latin volume.-H. H.S E (Lynn): The following are some subjects that dictionary will do.-J. H. and H. H., two subscribers at Chorley, are might be discussed in a “ Young Men's Society." 1. What is the informed that the distance between the meridians on the globe diminishes nearest relation to any individual of the human race, who has reached from the equator, where it is greatest, to the pole, where it is nothing. A the years of maturity, and has performed all the functions and duties ship in passing from one meridian to another makes the same difference required by nature and religion ? 2. What are the causes of the dis- of longitude in whatever part of the globe she may be, but she has a respect so generally shown by children to their parents, and
to aged much greater distance to sail near the equator than near the poles.-J. persons in general, in modern times, and in civilised and Christian T. (York-street): You may say cheese when speaking of a large quantity : countries, as compared with what we read of in ancient times, par- but you must say cheeses when speaking of number or variety.-A ticularly in the sacred Scriptures and in the authentic history of heathen GRATEFUL SUBSCRIBER should study English Grammar before phononations; and, especially, looking at the example of the Saviour? (Luke graphy, and learn it well before he meddles with that art. Our correii. 51.)-W. S. H. (London): Thanks for his suggestion as to the geo- spondence informs us that the students of phonography are the worst graphical planisphere.- WILLIAM HOARE (Grosvenor-square): We writers of English, whether it be as regards penmanship, spelling, intend to give lectures on Algebra, when the questions in the Arith- grammar, or politeness, with one amiable exception at Newcastle-uponmetic will be explained.
Tyne. England comes from the Saxon Engla-land, which meant the A SchooL ASSISTANT (Reigate): Natural history commonly denotes country of the Angles in the south of England. These uniting with the the science which gives us a history and description of animals, and Saxons conquered the south of Britain, and gave the name of the small traces their peculiar habits, qualities, and uses. Physiology is the part which they originally possessed to the whole of it. By a wise ex. science of the different functions of which life is the manifestation, as tension of the name in our day, England virtually includes Scotland, and respiration, circulation, nutrition, &c. It is divided into animal and English
is now synonymous with British.—Thos. WATKINSON (Glemsvegetable physiology ; and, still further, into human, which relates to man; ford): The a in amaverim is pronounced like the a in mat. You may and comparative, which relates to inferior animals and to vegetables. get an old copy of Beza's Latin Testament for a shilling at a bookstali
. On classification our correspondent is referred to the POPULAR | Go on and prosper.-B. D. (Portsea) : Capital ; success to your endeaEDUCATOR, p. 88. We are now treating the order carnivora ; the other vours, and those of your shopmates. orders will follow in due course.
INDOCTUS (Sutton-in-Ashfield): An F.R.A.S., instead of emoluments, LATIN.-W. McP. : The Latin moods do not in all cases correspond is required to pay money on admission to that honour; and as to rewith the English ; the diversities will be made clear in due time. The quirements, he must, we suppose, have some claim to be considered an translation is correct.-SANS-MAITRE : The imperfect tense denotes an
astronomer, either from his writings or his obsevations.-J. P. Y. action continued or repeated in past time. In the given sentence, abso- (Devonport): We have not tried, and therefore don't know.-R. P. lutus est is in the perfect, because it denotes one simple act; while accus-HAYES (Chorley): The patent laws are in a sort of transition state ; but abatur is in the imperfect, because a continued state or condition is in. if he applies to a patent agent, he will get the newest information.tended.-Poor DOCTOR's Boy is informed that the first person plural is J. R. E. (Pudsey): For elocution read Smart's Practice of English often used when one person only is meant; the great we of reviewers is Elocution;" for etiquette, the treatise by Agogos; but sencing we can. merely I under a cloak of dignity ; so the Queen says we when she not recommend, as we are on the peace side of the question. As to means herself alone.-P. 275, 2nd col., lines 55 and 56 from the top, rules for a self-instruction society, we know nothing better than the for perfect read future.
Apostolio injunction : “We then that are strong, ought to bear the T. N. B. (Southgate): The best books on Botany are Loudon's infirmities of the weak, and not to please ourselves."—W. SMITH " Encyclopædia of Plants," Lindley's “ Elements of Botany," and his (Coseley): Thanks for his communication on the construction of lenses. “ Introduction," also Balfour's “ Manual."--M. Y. F. (Bristol) should -DISCIPULUS (Hackney); G. E. BINFIELD : The order of Latin words study Dr. Beard's Lessons both in Latin and English in preference to a can only be learned from deep acquaintance with the classics ; follow variety of other lessons. On poetry we can give no advice; poeta nasci- Dr. Beard as closely as you can. Homo is used of a man considered as tur, non fit.-R. M. STUDENS (Fife): Riddle's Dictionary (12s.) contains belonging to mankind in general; vir, of a man considered as a member both the Latin-English and the English-Latin parts. You may get it of the state, and fulfilling all his duties to the same.-JOSEPH BLACK. through any respectable bookseller.-J SOWDEN: His demonstration of LOCK (Wigtown): Thanks for his useful information relating to Alexander query 4, p. 111, is very good, and would have been inserted but for its Murray.-A. MENKOY (Bradford): Read Cassell's “ New and Popular length. The same proposition is demonstrated in Bland's "Geometrical History of Ireland,” 3 vols. in one, price 2s. 3d.-JOHN SMITH (Leeds): Problems," Sect. 4, No. 10, in a shorter manner; but it depends like his See page 161, col. 1, line 45.-A PUPIL TEACHER (Farnham): Both. upon the lemma, that “the three perpendiculars drawn from the three Angles of a triangle to the opposite sides intersect each other in the Printed and Published by John CASSELL, La Belle Sauvage Yard, same point." This is demonstrated in several well-known editions of
Ludgate-bill, London.-September 4, 1852,
The origin of the Tuscan order of architecture is involved in the wealth, and the vanity of the Romans, led them to increase obscurity. During the era of the kings of Rome, it appears the number, the magnitude, and the decorations of their that this order was followed in the buildings of the Romans; edifices to a degree far beyond those of Greece. In the but it originally belonged to the people of Etruria or Tuscany; theatre of Marcellus, and in the Coliseum, the Doric and the and in that country remains of this order are found, which can Ionic styles were both introduced; but the Corinthian style, be traced to a very remote antiquity. The characteristic with its rich ornaments, was most adapted to the taste of the qualities of the Tuscan style were solidity and grandeur, masters of the world ; and as if not left by the inventors in features in which it resembled the ancient Egyptian architec- shape sufficiently expressive of splendour and magnificence, ture, with less gigantic but more
they loaded every member of it with graceful forms. To whom the Etru
ornaments unknown to the Greeks. rians were indebted for their style of
In the Composite, sometimes called architecture cannot now be deter
the Roman order, there was espemined, or whether it originated en
cially a profusion of ornament; and tirely with themselves ; some indeed
there was scarcely a moulding which say that they brought it from the
was not loaded with decorations. east; but we cannot agree with those
When the particular members could who would deprive it of all origi
receive no more ornaments, they had nality, and assert that it was only
recourse to varying the outlines of the ancient Doric stripped of its
their edifices (particularly their finest features. The early Romans
temples) into every shape that could who used this style did not invent
be produced by the union of circular it, for they were mere warriors and
and triangular figures. Specimens not artists. They adopted from time
of the Roman style of architecture to time the arts of the nations which
are to be seen in the arch of Titus they conquered. Hence, first came
and the baths of Diocletian; and the Tuscan style, and then the
two magnificent capitals are to be Grecian orders, to be adopted by
seen in the baptistry of Constantine, the Romans. For an example of
which belonged to some elder edifice the Tuscan column see fig. 19. The
whose history is now unknown. For Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, begun
a specimen of the column of the by Tarquinius Priscus and finished by Tarquinius Super- , Composite order, see fig. 20. bus, said to have been built by Etrurians, and the tomb In the decline and fall of the Roman empire, Constantine the of Porsenna, king of that people, were splendid early speci- Great transferred the capital from Rome to Byzantium, and mens of this order ; but no remains of them are to be found. attempted to make the latter rival the former in monumental The column of Trajan, built about a century after the grandeur by erecting immense public edifices. Here, however, Christian era, and which remains to this day, is considered to as in Italy, art and science took a retrograde course, and the be a remarkable specimen of the Tuscan column.
elegant orders invented by the Greeks rapidly lost their original After the introduction of the Grecian orders of architecture purity and simplicity. A new style was then grafted on Roman into their edifices, the Romans chiefly employed Greek artists, art ; the capitals lost their graceful outlines, and assumed and made no alteration upon these orders, except sometimes cubical forms; the columns were shortened, and the entablablending them together in the same building. In general, ture no longer possessed its regular proportions. This style of Fig. 17.
The Exchange at Paris. they employed the Corinthian order as the most elegant; and architecture was called the Byzantine; its ornamentation was a modification of this order is attributed to them, as the only no more that of Rome; it again approached the older Greck attempt which they made at originality in architecture; but style, but shorn of the grandeur and magnificence of the whole, some are inclined to believe that even this invention was due to and of the exquisite beauty of its_details. The Byzantine some Greek architect. This new order was called the Com- style lasted during the period of the Eastern empire, and to this posite, because it was in fact a compound order, made by the day it is employed by the Greeks in their buildings. From union of the Corinthian and the Ionian orders. The power, the combined influences of that empire, and the memorials VOL I.
which Rome still preserved in the first ages of the Christian fourth or a fifth of its thickness. Pilasters have their bases, era, of the finest periods of her architecture, a variety of capitals, and entablatures with the same parts, heights and prostyles arose, of which the oldest was called the Latin style, jections as columns have; and they are distinguished like them, because it was adopted by the whole of the Latin church. by the names of the five orders of architecture, Doric, Ionic, Numerous examples of this style are to be found in Italy, and Corinthian, Tuscan, and Composite. They are supposed to be some in Brence;
such as the churches of St. Laurence-without- of Roman origin, as they only appear in the later periods of the-wa!! and St. Agnes, at Rome; the ancient bapistry of Greek architecture; and they are much more numerous in the Eta Toan, at Poitiers, &c. This style, in which may be found Roman monuments. Vitruvius calls them parastate because of ali che divisions of an order, was preserved entire until the age their standing close to a building or forming part of it. The of Charlemagne, of which the cathedral of Aix-la-Chapelle, Greeks, though they did use pilasters in their designs, had a kind and the porch of the monastery of Lorsch are striking proofs. of square pillars at the end of their walls which they called After the reign of this emperor, new innovations and a retro- antæ, and which sometimes projected a good way from the grade movement in the forms of the orders of architecture led principal front; they were also at the entrances to a building. to the Romanesque style, in which all regular proportion was Attics were a sort of low square pillars completely abandoned, and in the most of the applications of with their cornices, which originated in
Fig. 20. this style the entablature was altogether omitted. From the Athens, and were used in buildings to Romas-sque to the pointed style the
conceal the roof. These were ranged transition was easy ; in the latter the Fig. 19.
in a continued line, and raised above column departed still more from the
the rest of the structure, in front of the rules established by antiquity; it was
roof, so as to hide it entirely, presenting a lengthened out of all proportion, and
new order as it were, above that of the degenerated into a group of slender pil
building. The Greek attics are not now lo wars. Towards the end of the middle
be found among the ruins of Athens. ages, the fact of the numerous rela.
Roman attics are seen in the remains of tions which subsisted between Italy and
the triumphal arches, and in the piazza all parts of Europe, and of the continued
of Nerva. In the arch of Constantine, existence in that country of the prin
the columns are surmounted with peciples and specimens of ancient archi.
destals, as high as the base of the attic, tecture led to a return to the esta
upon which are placed isolated statues. blished rules of the Greeks and the
There are various other ancient ruins Romans. This return produced a change
which exhibit these attics, but they apin the appearance of architectual monu
pear to be of different proportions, ments in Europe ; this epoch, which
some being nearly one-half of the height was called the Renaissance period,
of the order. The moderns make the brought back the different orders to rea
height of the attics equal to that of the sonable and true proportions, and archi.
en tablature, tecture has continued in this state, with
A series of columns, separate or conmore or less variation, to the present
nected, used in the support of an entaday.
blature, is called a colonnade; it reIn our first page are represented some
ceives a specific name, from the number niodern edifices built after the most orna
of columns employed; as, tetrastyle, mental of the Greek styles of archi.
when there are four ; hexastyle, when tecture; namely, fig. 16, the Pantheon
there are six; octostyle, when eight; or Church of St. Genevieve; fig. 17, the
and decastyle, when ten. Church of the Magdalen; fig. 18, the
between the columns, is called the inBourse, or Exchange: all in Paris. The
tercolumniation. There are five kinds church of St. Paul's, London, which we
of intercolumniation,--namely, the areopass every day, unites the Corinthian
style, or thinly set, where the columns and Composite orders.
are at the distance of four diameters of It is now time to give an explanation
the column; the diastyle, when they of the terms used in speaking of the
are at the distance of three diameters; different orders of architecture. Among
the eustyle, when at the distance of the Greeks an order was composed of
two and a quarter; the systyle, when columns and an entablature; the Romans Tuscan Order. at two; and the pycnostyle, or thickly added pedestals under the columns of
set, when at one diameter and a hali. various orders to increase their height. The column is generally Of these, the eustyle was most genea round pillar constructed either to support or to adorn an edifice. rally used by the ancient architects. Besides columns the Greeks employed human figures to support Other names have been given to the inthe entablature. Vitruvius informs us that when male figures tercolumniation of the Doric order, were employed they were called Persians, to indicate the con- according to the number of the tritempt in which that nation was held ; and they represented glyphs placed over them; as, monotri
Composite Order. these figures accordingly in the most suffering posture, and giyph, when there was one; ditriglyph, loading them as it were with the heaviest entablature, that when there were two, &c. Coupled, grouped, or clustered of the Doric order; and when female figures were used, they columns, appear not to have been used by the ancients, with were called Cariatides, to signify their contempt for the some apparent exceptions at Rome. Carians, whose wives had been taken away captive in their Every column, except the Doric, to which the Romans give wars with the Athenians. Some critics doubt the truth of no base, is composed of a base, a shaft, and a capital. The these stories of Vitruvius, and endeavour to account for the base is that part of the column, which is beneath the shaft and origin of the figures and their names in a different manner. upon the pedestal, when a pedestal is used; it has a plinth, a Whether the Greeks invented this mode of supporting entab- member of a flat and square form like a brick, called in Greek latures, or copied it from the ancient Egyptian edifices or from plinthos, with mouldings that represent rings, with which the the tombs and temples of India and Persia, it is needless to bottoms of pillars were bound, to prevent their cleaving. These inquire. Fragments of male figures apparently employed for rings, when large, are called tori, and when small, astragals. the same purposes, have been found among the ancient Roman The tori have generally hollow spaces cut round between monumental remains,
each torus, called rundels, scotia, or trochilus. The pilaster is a square pillar used for the same purpose as The shaft of the column is the round and even part extende the column; instead of standing isolated like the column, it is ing from the base to the capital; this part of the column is generally inserted in the wall of an edifice showing only a ; arrower at the top than at the bottom. Some architects
would give the column a greater breadth at the third part of
Indicative. Subjunctive. its height, than at the bottom of the shaft ; there is no instance
monitus eram monitus essem of this being practised among the ancients. Others make the
monitus eras monitus esses shaft a cylinder from the bottom to the third part of its height,
monitus erat monitus esset and thus lessen it from this to the top. And some consider
moniti eramus moniti essemus that it should begin to lessen from the bottom. The capital is
moniti eratis the upper part of the column immediately above the shaft.
moniti erant moniti essent The entablature is the part of the order above the columns, and is composed of three parts : 1. The architrave* or lower
monitus ero part; 2. The frieze or middle part; and 3. the cornice or upper
monitus eris part. The architrave represents a beam, and lies immediately
monitus erit above the capitals of the columns : the Greeks called it epistylion. The frieze is the space between the architrave and the
moniti erimus cornice; it represents the ceiling of the building. The cornice - moniti eritis is that which surmounts the whole order; it is composed of moniti erunt several mouldings, which, projecting over each other, are EXERCISES.—According to this mod l, form habeor, I am employed to shelter the order from the rain upon the roof. possessed; terieor, I am frightened ; exerceur, I am exercised. The pedestal is the lowest part of an order. It is of a cubical
VOCABULARY. or prismatic form, and consists of three parts : 1. the base or foot which stands on the area or pavement; 2. the die or Despéro 1, despair; augeo, augere auxi, auctum, I increase (E. R. middle part which rests upon the base ; and 3. the cornice or augment); deterreo 2, , frighten from, deter; oppleo, opplere wave, upon which the column is placed. The use of pedestals opplevi, oppletum 2, I fill up; jungo, jungere, junxi, junctum 3, appears to have been introduced into architecture subsequent I join ; vivo, vivere, vixi, victum 3, 1 live; cingo, cingere, cioxi, to the loss of political independence in Greece. In the original fossa, ae, 'r. a ditch, moat ; difficultas, atis, f. difficulty: obsidio, examples of Greek architecture the columns are generally ónis,'t. blockade ; cognitio, onis, f. knowledge; subitus, a, um, formed standing on the uppermost of three steps ; the temple sudden; naturális, e, natural; castra, orum, a camp; extemplo, ad. of Theseus has but two steps. When the Romans elevated the forthwith ; strenue, earnestly, strenuously; postquam, aftericards. floors of their temples and other edifices, they were obliged to
EXERCISES.--LATIN-ENGLISH discontinue the erection of front stairs, on account of their in. convenience in occupying so much ground around the build. Exerceor; exerceris; exercetur; exercebar; exercebaris; exing, and to adopt the pedestal or podium raised to a level with ercebatur; exercebor; exercébere ; exerceditur; pater curat ut the top of the stairs, and projecting to the front of the steps ego, bene exercear; oppletur fossa; curo ut bene exercearis; curo which profiled it on all sides. Vitruvius makes no mention of curabam ut bene exercereris; curabam ut filia tua bene exerceretur;
puer bene exerceatur; pater curabat ut filius bene exerceretur; pedestals, in treating of the Doric, Tuscan, and Corinthian quis nescit quam praeclaris fructibus animi nostri in literarum orders ; and in treating of the Ionic, speaks of the pedestal as studiis augeantur; timemus ne exercitus noster ab hostibus a part of the construction, but not of the order,
vincatur; omnes cives metuebant ne urbs ab hostibus obsidione cingeretur; quum in literis exercemur, animi nostri multarum
rerum utilium cognitione augentur; quum subito periculo terreLESSONS IN LATIN.-No. XXII.
mur, non debemus extemplo de salute desperare ; virtutis honos
nullá oblivione delebitur; pueri in literarum studiis strenue By John R. BEARD, D.D.
exerciti sunt; metuebamus ne urbs ab hostibus obsidione cincta REGULAR VERBS.
esset; metuo ne milites subito periculo territi sint; strenue
exercetor puer ; ne rerum difficultatibus a proposito deterretor ; THE SECOND CONJUGATION.
boni discipuli student exerceri in literarum studiis ; puer bene
educatus omnibus placet ; hostes territi ia castris manent; pueri Example.—Moneor 2, I am reminded.
strenue exercendi sunt.
The boys are earnestly exercised; let boys be earnestly exercised ; Indicative. Subjunctive. Imperative. Infinitive. Participle. the boys' must be strenuously exercised; the boys will be strenu. móneor mónear
ously exercised; the boys are streneously exercised; the boys monéris moneáris monére or more
were being strenuously exercised ; the boys have been strenuously monétur monedtur mondtor
exercised; the boys will have been strenuously exercised; I take
care that the boys are (may be, in Latin) strenuously exercised ; monémur
I took care the boys were (might be) strenuously exercised ; monemini moneamini monémini
my sisters have been strenuously exercised; the girl will have monentur mopeántur monentor
been strenuously exercised; I fear the city will be surrounded with monébar monérer
blockade (blockaded). monebáris(e) monereris
THE THIRD CONJUGATION. monebatur
EXAMPLE.-Lego 3, I read.
Chief Parts ; lego, legi, lectum, legěre.
Characteristic letter, E short. monébéris(e)
Indicative. Subjunctive. Imperative. Infinitive. Participle, monébitur
legere legens legis
legas lege or légito
(itste monitus sum monitus sim
légitis legatis légite or legmonitus es
legunt legant legunto monitus est monitus sit
rlegebam legerem moniti sumus moniti simus
legebas legeres moniti estis
legeret moniti sunt moniti sint
Flegebimus legeremus Architrave is a morgrel term, derived from arche, Gr, beginning or
legerdlis Joundation, and trabs, Lat. a beam.
LESSONS IN MUSIC.-No. IX. lecturum lecturus
By JOHN CURWEN. leges
WHILE our pupils are advancing in their own practicai stady
of the three principal notes of the scale, in connexion with the egimus
tunes given in this and the following lesson, we shall usefully legetis
occupy our time in reviewing and making the more sure some legent
of the steps already taken. One of the chief anxieties of the
art of teaching is that of ascertaining where lie the real diffi. legerim
culties of our pupils. This we are enabled to do by means of legisti legeris
the correspondence with which we have been favoured. Most legeril
of the mistakes of our pupils have arisen from careless reading
or from a forgetfulness of the pledge to which at first we sought Jegérimus
to bind them. This was the pledge: “We lave only iwo légilis legérilis legerunt (ére) legérint
things to ask of you ;-the first, that you will be content to learn
one thing at a time, instead of being impatient for knowledge legissem
not for the moment helpful, perhaps just then only confusing légeras legissez
to you; the second, that when something is set before you to légernt legisset
be done, you will really do it, instead of supposing it to be done
and going on; for only by doing we truly understand.” But legerámus legissemus
without judging our friends too nicely we will try to meet their legeratis legiasilis
difficulties. Those difficulties relate to the “modulator," the lege unt legissent
“pattern," and "the moveable Dou." Clégero
2. “What I want,” says one of our correspondents, " is to legeria
be able to measure to the eye the exact interval the orice is taking." légerit
It is just for this purpose that the modulator is provided. The
ordinary staff of five lines and four spaces does not measure legerimu8
to the eye the exact interval the voice is taking, because it fails
to show pictorially the places of the "semitones” (tonules) of legeritis legerint
the scale, and, indeed, makes, pictorially, no difference between
tone and “semitone." This is, however, a point of vital imlegovali
portance to the learner, and one which should be kept constantly legenulo GERUNDS.
before his eyes. Hence the necessity of some such scale as the Surines Are. legendum
modulator affers. The modulator also possesses the advantage legerudo
of showing not only lines or marks for the notes, but the names InstANCES. --After this model write out fundo, fundere, fudi, middle column at present. In order thus to measure to the
of the notes themselves. Our pupils have to use only the funum, 1 pour ; tribuo, tribuere, tribui, tribútum, I bestow; and eye the interval the voice is taking, our pupil must not be conscribo, scribere, scripsi, scriptum, I write.
stantly looking from the book to the modulator and from the VOCABULARY.
modulator to the book. He must first learn a few notes of his
tune" by heart" and then sing them from the modulator adune, Duco, ducere, duxi, ductum 3, I lead; pingo, pingere, pinxi, and so on till he can point the whole tune from memory, and pinctum 3, I paint (E.R. picture); instruo, instruere, instruxi without the book. Thus, if he is learning exercise five, let Instructum 3, I draw up, form (E.R. instruct); acies, ei, f. a line of him just read and repeat to himself “DOH, SOH, ME, DOK" battle ; vivo, vivere, vixi, victum 3, I live ; quoad, as long as ; gero, several times over. Then let him, laying aside his book, turn gerere, gessi, gestum 3, 1 carry on : simulatque, as soon as ; excolo, to the modulator and sing those notes while he points to them. excolere, excolui, excultum 3, I cultivate ; currigo, corrigere, correxi, Next let him learn to " point and sing," without book, the correctum 3, I correct; comburo, comburere, combussi, combustum $: I burn ; disco, discere, didici, I learn; libenter, willingly; defendo, phrase "MB, ME, DOH" in the same manner, and after that the letendere, defendi, detensum 3, 1 defend; coerceo, coercere, coercui, whole exercise. Very extensive experience in teaching has oercitum 2, I restrain , dico, dicere, dixi, dictum 3, I say.
made us feel increasingly the importance of requiring the
pupils thus to "see," and themselves point out, the intervals EXERCISES.–LATIN-ENGLISH.
they sing on a perfect scale like the modulator. It is only by Duximus ; duxisti ; ducis; ducebam ; ducet ; ducat; dum ego the pupil will begin at the beginning and faithfully pursue this
this painstaking that a real knowledge of interval is gained. If pingebam, tu scribebas, et frater legebat; hostes aciem instruebant; quoad vives bene vives; si virtutem coletis, boni te diligent; plan, we can promise him that long before he has reached this hostes aciem instruxerunt; hostes aciem instruent; multas literas ninth lesson he will have attained such a facility in “pointing hodie scripsimus; bellum atrocissimum gesserunt bostes ; Caesar from memory on the modulator” as will make the exercise quite aciem instruxerat; simulatque literas scripserimus ambulabimus; a delightful one to him. “Oh," said a little girl to her mamma, curo ut puerorum animos escolam; curabam ut filii mei preceptor as they were travelling in a railway-train, and a stranger animum exco eret; nemo dubitat quin ego puerum semper diligenter opened a number of the Porular EvtcaTOR, "Oh, mamma, correxerim; metuimus ne hostes urbem copbusserint; nemo there's a modulator!" dubitar quin hostes urbem obsidione cincturi sint; narrate nobis tor:" said the stranger.
“ What do you know of the modulaquid parentes scripserint; scribito; disce, puer; boni pueri libenter answer, and the happy child soon convinced the stranger that
“Oh! I know something," was the discunt ; miles se fortiter contra hostes defendens, laudatur; cupi- she knew something" by singing and “pointing” as she sang ditates bercere debemus.
several of the tunes she had learnt at school. Upwards of a ENGLISH-LATIN.
hundred and fifty adult pupils from various classes in London I defended the city: the soldiers defended the city; they will de-ability to sing plain music at first sight, and every one of them
last season took “certificates of proficiency," implying the fend the city: they have defended the city; they were writing; he was required to bring proofs to the examiners of his ability to has written a letter; no one doubts that you will write a good sing and point
on this scale from memory a large number of letter; take care to write a letter; the teacher takes care that his tunes. Let not our pupils of the Popular Educator be scholars write good letters; I have written a letter to-day; the ene behind the others in this
vital exercise of self-discipline, mies will draw up (their) line of battle; the soldiers have burnt the city, I have read the letter which thou wrotest; I fear that the ene.
3. Many of our correspondents want to know " whether they mies will blockade the city; correct that boy; the master will take can learn the Music Lessons without the aid of a friend to set *re to correct his scholars; tell (narro) me what thou saidst to try the pattern." A large number of cur pupils are, no doubt, *; restrain thy desires; we ought to restrain our desires; i like one of them
who says, “ I have naturally a good ear for ") restraining his desires is loved; strenuously cultivate thy music, and am able to sing almost any song after hearing it ay son!
iwo or three times." To such persons, very little patterning