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13.De combien le négociant, est il riche ? 14. Je ne puis vous le dire au juste, il est riche d'une centaine de millefrancs. 15. Ne vaut il pas mieux rester ici que d'aller au marché : 16. Il vaut mieux aller au marché. 17. Votre chaîne d or vaut elle plus que la mienne ? 18, Elle vaut tout autant. 19. Elle ne vaut pas grand'chose, elle est cassée. 20. Cela vaut il cinquante francs ? 21. Cela vaut tout au plus deux francs ? 22. Avez vous demandé au marchand ce que cela vaut ? 23. Je ne le lui ai pas demandé. 24. Il m'assure que cela vaut une centaine de francs. ExERcIsE 96.
l. How much is my house worth ? 2. It is worth about twenty thousand francs. 8. Is that horse worth as much as this one ? 4. This horse is worth two hundred dollars, and that one three hundred. 5. Is it worth the while to write to your brother ? 6. It is mot worth the while. 7. Is it worth the while to go out when one does not wish to walk : 8 It is not (n'en) worth the while. _9. Does it suit you to write to my brother to-morrow ? 10. It does not suit me to write to him. , ll._Does it become you to reproach me with my neglect ? 12. It becomes me to blame (blâmer) you when you deserve it. 13. What is that man worth ? 14. I cannot tell you exactly, about fifty thousand francs, 15. Is that cloth good ? 16. No, Sir, it is good for nothing. 17. Is your gun worth as much as mine ? 18. Yes, Sir, it is worth more. 19. Will you go to my father's ? 20. No, Sir, I have something else to do. 21. Is it better to go to market early than late # 22. It is better to go early. 23. How much may your horsebe worth ?, 24. It is not worth much, it is very old. 25, Is your watch better than mine ? 26. It is not worth much, it does not go. 27. Is that book worth two francs ? 28. It is worth one, atmost. 29. Have you asked your sister what that,book is worth ? 30. Ihave not. [Sect. 24, R. 12. Sect. 46, R. 4.] 31. What must I do ? 32. You must speak to your father. 33. Must he have money ? 34. He must have som.e. 35. Has henot sold his horse ? 36. He has soldit, butit was mot worth much.
1. When the verbs prendre [4 ir. see $ 62], to take; voler, to rob, to steal; acheter, to buy; demander, to ask for; payer, to pay, are followed by one regimen only, or by several regimens in the same relation ; these regimens, if nouns, must not be separated from the verb by a preposition : if pronouns, they take the form of the direct regimen, le, la, les :
Avez vous pris le livre ? Have you taken the book ?
2. When the verbs above mentioned are accompanied by several regimens holding different relations, the regimen representing the thing or object will be direct, and come under the above rule, and that representing the person, will, ifa noun be preceded by the preposition à, and, if a pronoun, assume the form of the indirectregimen : lui, to him, to her; leur, to them :J'ai pris le livre à mon frère. I have taken thebook from my brother J'ai payé le livre au libraire. I have paid the bookseller for the book. Je le lui ai payé, &c. I have paid him,for it. 3 Demander is used also in the sense of to inquire for, to ask for :J'ai demandé ce monsieur. Iasked for thatgentleman. RésUME or ExAMrLEs. Vous a-t-on volé vos livres ? Has any one stolen your books from
Mérit-er, 1. to deserve ;
- Tout au plus, at most ;
Va from aller, to go;
Vingtaine, f. about tuventy.
houndred; Négociant, merchant ; Chaine, f. chain ;
1. Vous sied-il de nous reprocher notre négligence ? 2. Il me sied de vous faire des reproches quand vous le méritez. 3, Vous convient il d'aller trouver mon frère ? 4. Il ne me convient pas d'aller le trouver, j'ai autre chose à faire. 5. Combien ce champ peut il valoir ? 6. Il peut valoir une vingtaine [$ 27 (2)] de mille francs. 7. Valez vous mieux que votre frère. 8. Mon frère vaut beaucoup mieux que moi. 9. Ce couteau ne vaut il pas plus que le vôtre ? 10. Le mien est meilleur, il vaut davantage, ll. Combien votre montre vaut elle ? 12. Elle ne vaut pas grand'chose, elle ne va pas bien.
did you inquire this morning? 12. I inquired for your brother.
Wh you not inquire for my father? 14. I know that tour father is in En i. 15. Has the hatter been paid for lis hats? 16. He has been paid for them. , 17. Has your
money been taken from you? 18. My hat has been stolen from me. 19. Have you asked your brother for your money? 20. I have asked him for it, but he cannot return it to me. 21. Has he no money?. 22. He has just paid all his debts, and he has no money left (de reste). 23. Have you asked your father for money?. 24. I have not asked him for any, I know that he has none. 25. From what bookseller have you bought your books? 26. I bought them from your bookseller. 27. Are you wrong to pay your debts? 28. I am right to pay them. 29. %. is inquiring for me? 30. The physician is fog for you. 31. Who knocks? 32. Your shoemaker knocks.
seCTION VIII. on the elevation and subsidence or Land. fx reading geological works you find that geologists describe certain strata, which rest upon one another, as being some marine beds, and others fresh-water beds. They are called so, because in the marine beds they find the shells and other remains of fish, which only live in the salt water of the ocean; and in the fresh-water beds they find fossils of animals which live in rivers, lakes, estuaries, and marshes. Try your own reason upon these strata. At the bottom there is a stratum full of marine shells. A few feet higher up is a stratum full of fresh-water remains. Some feet yet higher, anothermarinebed, and higher still, another fresh-waterstratum, How can you account for this? At one time the lower marine bed must have been the bottom of the sea. It then rose a little beyond the reach of the sea, and became perhaps a marsh, perhaps the estuary of a river. Both beds sank again and became the bottom of the sea. In the course of ages the three beds now rose, and the surface became again the bottom of an estuary, or perhaps a lake. It is this rising and sinking of the surface
2. On m'a pris Ines livres, mes
It is well known that during the paroxysms of earthquakes some districts of the land are elevated above their former level, while other districts are depressed and sink below it. The instances in which towns, cities, and regions on the coast, have been either completely or partially submerged under the sea, are almost innumerable. I will mention a few of the most remarkable. JAMAICA was agitated by a violent earthquake in 1692. At Port Royal, then the capital of the island, several large storehouses in the harbour subsided, some 24 feet, some 36, and some 48 feet, under water. The buildings remained whole and standing, and the tops of their chimneys were seen erect above the waves. A large tract of land around the town, about 1,000 acres in extent, sank down in less than a minute, and became the bottom of the sea. In the harbour, was the Swan frigate repairing near the wharf. This ship was raised, and driven over the tops of many buildings, and was, at last, thrown upon one of the roofs, which it crushed. In PERU, in 1746, a tremendous earthquake destroyed Lima, and the whole coast near Callao was converted into a bay of the sea. The main-land near Lima shows that it had been subject to such changes before, even within the human epoch. At a place inland, a rock is found 80 feet above the sea. On this elevation there is a stratum full of sea-weeds and shells. Wh proves that this bed was the bottom of the sea since man wa created, is that the stratum contains cotton-thread and plaited rushes, which must have been of human manufacturing. Just before the earthquake of Lisbon, in 1755, a new quay had been built in the harbour, consisting of massive and solid marble. To escape the dangers from tottering houses during the convulsions, a vast concourse of people collected for safety on this large quay. Suddenly the whole quay sank down with all the F. on it, and not one of the bodies ever floated to the surface again. At a little distance off the quay, boats and vessels *. anchor, and full of people. Suddenly the body of water beneath them sank, the boats and ships went down as into a whirlpool, and not a single fragment of the wrecks ever came to the surface. When, a short time afterwards, the spot occupied by these boats was sounded, it was found unfathomable, and subsequently it was ascertained to be two hundred yards deep. During the earthquake at MEssINA, in 1783, of which you . have had an illustration in fig. 24 of Lesson X., similar phenomena were observed. The ground along the port of Messina was perfectly level before the earthquake, but afterwards it slo much towards the sea, and the sea itself became deeper and deeper according to its distance from the shore. This shows that the sloping of the coast continued far under the sea, and that, consequently, the bottom of the sea, as well as the shore, had sunk. Even the quay itself had sunk about fourteen inches. If the shore sank seaward it is natural to infer that the coast had also sloped inland. This inference was established by facts. In the interior of the island, Sicily, it was found that several new ravines had been formed by the fissures of the earthquake. The fresh faces of the rocks on each side of these ravines proved that there had been considerable shiftings of the strata that were continuous before they were fissured. Some of them had risen, and others had sunk, six or ten feet above or below each other respectively. This elevation and subsidence, or the shifting of strata, is well explained by a disturbance of regular masonry in the walls of the Round Tower at TERRA Nova, in Calabria. In many streets of the town, some houses had been raised above their usual level, and others had sunk down in the ground. Adjoining the town was a massive circular tower of solid masonry. One part of this tower remained undestroyed by the earthquake, but it was divided by a vertical rent. One side of it was raised much above the other, and the foundation
of the upraised portion was brought up to view.
as if they had been
- - It is remark- by Mr. Cuming, the celebrated conchologist, who was at Walable, thot along the whole line of shift, the divided walls were paraiso at the time; but it has been verified by the German found to adhere as firmly to each other, and to fit as closely I travellers, Dr. Meyen M. Freyer, and by our own Darwin.
In 1819 a great subsidence of land took place in Hindostan, at the mouth of the river Indus, where the bed of the river sank eighteen feet, and the fort of Sindree became submerged. To the southeast of the eastern branch of the Indus, is an island district called Cutch. From the delta of the Indus to Cutch was an inlet of the sea, about a foot deep when the tide was out, and never more than six feet at flood-tide. After an earthquake in 1819, this
took place towards the close of the last cen
o inlet was deepened to t In 1807. Ameri o more than eighteen feet ury. In , Ameri- Fo -o- Pl - at low water. In concan travellers found oo:: oš sequence of this sinking here a forest of i. o o, Jozo of the district, many standing erect, under he shift i woolt. In ot --- ... ." -: - arts of the inland naviwater, in the body of The shift in the on's #. £, % o in Calabria, occasioned o: that had been tl y rthquake of 1783. le river, some twenty closed for centuries befeet deep. Another traveller, in 1835, found the trees still came again practicable. The fort of Sindree, on the eastern standing in their natural position, but the tops of the trees, branch of the Indus, was completely submerged; and yet the between high and low water-mark, had decayed away. The masonry of the houses was not disturbed, either by the vioroots were seen -- lence of the earththrough the clear Fig. 28. quake, or by the rush
water, spreading as of the sea.
When this region was examined in 1826-1827, it was found that, after the earthquake, the sea rushed into the mouth of the Indus, and then, in a few hours, converted a tract of land, about 2,000 square miles in area, into an inland sea. After the subsidence, one of the towers of Fort Sindree continued to stand above the water, and the inhabitants betook themselves in boats to this elevation for safety. While they were on , this tower, they could see at the distance of full five miles to the north-west of them, an elevated land, where, before the earthquake, all had been level plains. This new-raised district turned out to be more than fifty miles in length from east to west. Its breadth from north to south was about sixteen miles. Its uniform rise above the level
four feet; but a mile inland, it was six or seven feet. This I of the delta was ten feet. Its direction ran parallel to the elevation has been disputed by several naturalists, especially district that had sunk, so that as one region subsided, the
other rose. To this raised r Ullah Bund, “The Mount of God.” Through this Ullah Bund the Indus had to force a cutting. The cutting revealed the fact that the whole bed of the soil consisted of clay with marine shells, proving that at a previous period the region had been a bed of the sea. The most remarkable instance of the repeated processes of elevation and subsidence in the same district, is found in the Bay of Baiae, to the north of Naples. In that bay is situated the town of Puzzuoli, formerly called Puteoli. It is the place where Paul landed after his voyage on his visit to Rome. “And after one day the south-wind blew, and we came the next day to Puteoli, where we found brethren, and were desired to tarry with them seven days.” (Acts xxviii. 13, 14.) Were he to land there now, he would not know the district; for, in the north of the bay, an entire mountain, called Monte
ion was given the name of
Novo, has been raised up, which was not there at the time of
his visit. At Puzzuoli, close by the sea-shore, are the remains of a magnificent building—whether of a bath or a temple has not been decided, but it is known all over the world as the Temple of Serápis. The building was quadrangular, 70 feet in diameter. The roof was supported by 46 pillars, 24 of granite, and 22 of marble, each consisting of a single block. Of these 22 marble columns, three remain standing, the tallest of them being 42 feet high. The surface of these columns is smooth and uninjured up to about twelve feet from the pedestal. Then begins a series of perforations and holes in the marble. These holes and perforations continue upward in a regular band round the column to the height of nine feet, and then cease; and the surface continues smooth all the way to the summit. The upper edge of the perforated band is now 23 feet above the level of the sea. How came these perforations into the columns? All the holes are deep, and in the shape of a pear-i.e., very narrow at the entrance, but become larger as it enters the marble. It is evidently the work of a species of mussels called modiola titkophaga-marine shell-fish which eat into stones. A large number of these holes contain to this day the shells of the fish which perforated them, though many have been emptied by travellers. How did the mussels come to attack these columns 2 and ‘ow did they come to limit their operations just to a band nine ‘eet in width There can be no doubt that the temple to which they belonged, and the ground on which they are placed, were submerged under the water of the sea. When they were in this sunken state, the basement was protected from the boring mussels by masses of rubbish, tufa, and silt which the sea-water washed around them, and the upper part of the columns was beyond the reach of the sea. The perforations in this column prove-1, that this coast has, since the temple was built, sunk beneath the level of the sea; 2, that the same coast has been again elevated; 3, that the movement downward and again upward was more than twenty feet; and 4, that the elevation and subsidence was so gradual as to permit these columns to maintain their erect position. Now, all these changes of this temple have transpired since the time that Paul landed at Puteoli. Among the ruins, inscriptions have been discovered, which record that certain embellishments of marble were conferred on the building by Septimius Severus, and Marcus Aurelius. . The Emperor Severus died A. D. 211. This proves that this temple was in its original position at the commencement of the third century of our era. In A. D. 1198, in , consequence of an eruption of Solfatara, in that neighbourhood, a subsidence of the coast took place, and the temple sank with it, and the columns came within the reach of the boring mussels. They continued for some time to sink lower and lower, and as they sank the mussels carried on their perforations higher and higher. They must have continued in this submerged state till near the middle of the sixteenth century, for in 1530 it is well known that the whole of that coast was covered by the sea. In 1538 an earthquake, connected with Vesuvius, agitated this district, threw up in one night on this shore a mountain 450 feet high, raised the coast on which the temple is built to the height of 20 feet, and formed a new tract of coast six hundred feet in breadth. It was then that these columns were raised beyond the reach of Whe mussels of the sea. These columns have been latterly
much studied by scientific geologists, and it is now ascertained that, for the last thirty or forty years, a gradual sinking of the coast is again going on, and that the floor of the temple becomes frequently covered again by water from the sea.
L ES SONS IN ARITH METI C.–No. XVI.
CONTRACTIONS IN DIVISION. The operations in division, as well as those in multiplication, may often be shortened by a careful attention to the application of the preceding principles. Case I.--When the divisor is a composite number.
ExAMPLE 1.-A man divided 837 crowns :4ually among 27 pursons, who belonged to 3 families, each family containing 9 persons: how many crowns did etch person receivee
Analysis.-Since 27 persons received 837 crowns, each one must have received as many crowns as the number of times that 27 is contained in 837. But as 27 (the number of persons), is a compotite number whose factors are 3 (the number of families), and 9 (the number of persons in each family), it is obvious we may first find how many crowns each family received, and then how many each person received.
Ans. 31 Share of each person.
Explanation. If 3 families received 837 crowns, 1 family must have received as many crowns as 3 is contained times in 837 ; but 3 is in 837, 279 times. That is, each family received 279 crowns. Again, if 9 persons (the number in each family) received 279 crowns, 1 person must have received as many crowns as 9 is contained times in 279; and 9 is in 279, 31 times. Therefore 31 crowns is the share of each person. To divide by a composite number. Rule: Divide the dividend by one of the factors of the divisor, then divide the quotient thus obtained '#'"; factor; and so on till all the factors are employed. The last quotient will be the answer required. To find the full remainder. Rule : If the divisor is resolved into but two factors, multiply to last remainder by the first divisor, and to the product add the first remainder, } any; the sum will be the compound remainder. When more than two factors are *::::::::: multiply each remainder by all the preceding divisors, and to the sum of their products add the #: remainder; the sum will be the jt... emainder. The full remainder may also be found by multiplying thu uotient by the divisor, and subtracting the product from the ividend. This contraction is exactly the reverse of that in multiplication. The quotient will evidently be the same, in whatever order the factors are taken. ExAMPLE 1.-A man bought a quantity of clover seed amounting to 507 pints, which he wished to divide into parcels containing 64 pints each ; how many parcels can he make 2 Since 64-2x8x4, we divide by the factors respectively. Operation. 2)507 Dividend.
Quotient. 7 parcels, and 59 pints over,
Dividing 507, the number of pints, by 2, gives 253 for the quotient, or distributes the seed into 253 equal parcels, leaving 1 pint over, . Now the units of this quotient are evidently of a different vain. from those of the given dividend; for since there are but half as many parcels as at first, it is plain that each parcel must contain 2 pints, or 1 quart; that is, every unit of the first quotient contains two of the units of the given dividend; consequently, every unit of it, as 5, that remains will contain the same; therefore this remainder must be multiplied by 2, in order to find the units of the given dividend which it contains. Dividing the quotient 253 parcels, by 8, will, distribute them into 31 other equal parcels, each of which will violently covtsin 8 times the
LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC. .
o of the preceding, viz: 8 times 1 quart=8 quarts, or 1 peck; that is, every unit of the second quotient contains 8 of the units in the first quotient, or 8 times 2 of the units in the given dividend; therefore what remains of it, as 3, must be multiplied by 8x2, or 16, to find the units of the given dividend which it contains. In like manner, it may be shown, generally, that the division by each successive factor reduces each quotient to a class of units of a higher value than the preceding; that every unit which remains of any quotient, is of the same value as that quotient, and must therefore be multiplied by all the preceding divisors, in order to find the units of the given dividend which it contains. Finally, the several remainders being reduced to the same units as those of the given dividend according to the rule, their sum must evidently be the compound remainder,
It has been shown that annering a cipher to a number increases its value ten times, or multiplies it by 10. Reversing this process—that is, removing a cipher from the right hand of a number— will evidently diminish its value ten times, or divide it by 10; for, each figure in the number is thus restored to its original place, and consequently to its original value. Thus, annexing a cipher to 15, it becomes 150, which is the same as 15X10. On the other hand, removing the cipher from 150, it becomes 15, which is the same as 150+10.
In the same manner it may be shown, that removing two ciphers from the right of a number, divides it by 100; removing three, divides it by 1000; removing four, divides it by 10000, &c. Hence,
To divide by the numbers 10, 100, 1000, &c. Rule:
Out off as many figures from the right hand of the dividend as there are ciphers in the divisor. The remaining figures of the dividend will be the quotient, and those cut off will be the re
mainder. ExEncis Es.
------ - - 379 4. Divide 123456789 by 290000. Operations in long division may be shortened by subtracting the product of the respective figures in the divisor into each quotient figure as we proceed in the operation, setting down the remainders only. This is called the Italian Method. How many times is 21 contained in 4998? Operation. 21)4998(238 79 168 1. Divide 1188 by 33. 4. Divide 2516 by 37. 2. Divide 3128 by 86. 3. Divide 7125 by 95. CAse IV,-When the divisor is the number 5. A merchant laid out 873 pounds in flour, at 5 pounds a barrel; how many barrels did he get?
Operation. Earplanation. 873 We first double the dividend, and then divide 2 the product by 10, which is done by cutting off - the right-hand figure. But since we multiplied 10)1746 the dividend by 2, it is plain that the 6 cut of 1743 Ans. is 2 times too large for the remainder; we
therefore divide it by 2, and we have 3 for the true remainder,
When the divisor is the number 5. Rule: Multiply the dividend by 2, and divide the product by 10. When the figure cut off is a significant figure, it must be divided by 2 for the true remainder. This contraction depends upon the principle that any given divisor is contained in any given dividend, just as many times as twice that divisor is contained in twice that dividend, three times that divisor in three times that dividend, &c. 1. Divide 6035 by 5. 3. Divide 8450 by 5. 2. Divide 32561 by 5. 4. Divide 43270 by 5. CAs E. W.--When the divisor terminates in 5. To divide by 15, 35, 45, 55, &c. Rule: Double the dividend, and divide the product by 30, 70, 90, 110, &c., as the case may be. This method is simply doubling both the divisor and dividend. We must therefore divide the remainder, if any, by 2, for the true remainder. 3. Divide 2673 by 35.
1. Divide 1256 by 15. 2. Divide 3507 by 45. 4. Divide 7853 by 55. CAs E VI.--When the divisor terminates in 25 or 75. To divide by the number 25. Rule: Multiply the dividend by 4, and divide the product by 100. This process is obviously the same as multiplying both the dividend and divisor by 4. ence, we must divide the remainder, if any thus found, by 4, for the true remainder. 1. Divide 2350 by 25. 3. Divide 4860 by 25. 2. Divide 42340 by 25. 4. Divide 94880 by 25. To divide by the number 125. Rule : Multiply the dividend by 8, and divide the product by 1000. This contraction is multiplying both the dividend and divisor by 8. For the true remainder, therefore, we must divide the remainder, if any, by 8. 1. Divide 8375 by 125. 2. Divide 25426 by 125. To divide by 75, 175, 225, or 275. Rule: Multiply the dividend by 4, and divide the product by 300, 700, 900, or 1100, as the case may be. This contraction is multiplying both divisor and dividend by 4. For the true remainder, divide the remainder, if any thus found,