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affected by its breadth. The plates of glass should be fastened 5. The German concertina consists of two hand-boards with to the tape by strong cement (bored and tied would be better), bellows between. The metallic tongues by which the sound is at the distance of one quarter of their length from each end. | produced and the machinery by which the little pegs, when.

2

pressed by the hand, direct the current of air upon them are will give him me and Fax. In the same manner the fifth pes
21 concealed. We have drawn the hand-boards as though will give him son and Lay. But now, in order to continue
they
were made to face us. The right

hand is passed through ascending the scale on the right-hand board, he must no longer
the strap so that its thumb can command the valve at the side, press and draw, but draw and press. A simi'ar alteration in
and its fingers the pegs by which the notes are produced. In the recurrence of the pressing and drawing optars in the higher
a similar manner the left hand is passed through the other part of the right-hand board, where the tws draw.notes, LAH
Etrap, so that its fingers can press the pegs of the other board. and Te, are required to follow each other. Our diagram will
You can thus open or close the bellows with the hands while explain this. The first and second pegs of the left-hand board
the fingers are at liberty to play: Be very careful not to draw give notes which are very useful as accompanying harmony,
or press the bellows without either
opening the valve or press but of harmony we must not begin

to speak at present. With ing one of the pegs. If you use such careless violence the this instrument our pupils can play most of our exercises. metallic tongues will soon be put out of tune. The use of the They can play them in two parts if ihey please. Two of the valve is this : If you have drawn out the bellows to the fun "accidentals,” those most frequently occurring, can be obtained extent and wish, for the production of some note, to draw them on the instruments with two rows of pegs. Thus, if you are again, hold down the valve and press the bellows. The air will playing in the key of c, that is, on the higher row of pegs, thus escape without a sound, and you are liberty to draw the you can get the accidental," which we call tu (commonly bellows again just as you please. If you have pressed down called the sharp, fourth, but really the seventh of a new key, the bellows to the full extent and should wish to press them of which we shall have more to say in future lessons), by drawyet again, you can, in a similar way, draw with the valve held ing, on the first peg of the lower row on the right-hand board; down, and then press as you please. Holding down any one or on the second peg of the left-hand board. Tu is, in fact, of the pegs with your finger you can produce two notes, one the

Te of another key. Again, if you are playing in the key while the bellows is pressed together, and the other while it is of Q, that is, on the lower row of pegs, you can get the “accidrawn out. We have placed above the pegs in the diagram the dental" ni (commonly called the flat seventh, but really the solfa names of the notes which they produce. Those printed fourth of a new key), by drawing, on either the fourth peg of the in capitals are produced by pressing the bellows, those in small left-hand board or the third peg of the right-hand board. Fi letters are produced by drawing out the bellows. These solfa is, in fact, the fan of another key. These instruments are names of the notes apply to both rows of pegs alike ; the now commonly sold, if with one row of pegs on each board higher row of pegs playing in the key of c, and the lower row (playing only in the key of c), for about eight or ten shillings; in the key of G.

if with two rows of pegs (playing in the keys of c and a), for The learner will notice that all the press-notes are those of the about fifteen or eighteen shillings. The cheapest we have seen tonic chord Don, we, sou. So that if you were to hold down were at the musical-instrument makers above named. More ex. all the pegs at once, and press the bellows, you would produce pensive instruments are made with three rows of pegs, and good harmony. This is a great help to the memory. Let the with two additional pegs. They need not be here described. pupil who possesses such an instrument begin by holding down Of the other difficulty of our correspondents, the "moveable ihe middle peg of the left-hand board, and pressing the bellows. Don, or key-note,” we mus' speak in the next lesson. Mean, This will give him dov. Next let him draw the bellows, hold- time let our pupils practice carefully the following exercise. ing down the same peg. This will give him ray. Next, It is intended to exhibit che contrasted effects of me and sou (the holding down the fourth peg, let him press and draw. This third and fifth of the scale) in a somewhat quick movement. EXERCISE 19. I LOVE TO LINGER.

KEY A. M. 160. (Words from MARTIN TUPPER, Esq. Tune, Old English.)

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My foot falls lightly on the sward

13. De combien le négociant, est il riche. 14. Je ne puis Yet leaves a deathless dint,

vous le dire au juste, il est riche d'une centaine de millefrancs. With tenderness I still regard

15. Ne vaut il pas mieux rester ici que d'aller au marchés 16. Its unforgotten print.

Il vaut mieux aller au marché. 17. Votre chaine d or vaui Old places have a charm for me

elle plus que la mienne ? 18. Elle vant tout autant. 19. Elle The new can ne'er attain,

ne vaut pas grand'chose, elle est casséc. 20. Cela vaut il cinOld faces ! how I long to see

quante francs ? 21. Cela vaut tout au plus deux francs ? 22. Their kindly looks again !

Avez vous demandé au marchand ce que cela vaut: 23. Je ne le lui ai pas demandé. 24. Il m'assure que cela vaut une

centaine de francs.
LESSONS IN FRENCH.—No. XXIII.

EXERCISE 96.
By Professor Louis FASQUBLLE, LL.D.

1. How much is my house worth? 2. It is worth about SECTION XLVIII.

twenty thousand francs. 8. Is that horse worth as much as

this one. 4. This horse is worth two hundred dollars, and 1. The verb seoir (3 ir. Sect. 46, R. 3), is also used uniper- that one three hundred. 5. Is it worth the while to write to sonally :

your brother

6. It is not worth the while, 7. Is it Il ne vous sied pas de parler ainsi. It does not become you to speak thus. I worth the while to go out when one does not wish to walk : 8

2. The verb convenir (2 ir, sce § 62), to suit, is at times used It is not (n'en) worth the while. _ 9. Does it suit you to write
unipersonally. It then signifies to be suitable, advisable, &c. :- to my brother to-morrow 10. It does not suit me to write
Il convient de lui écrire.
It is advisable to write to him.

to him. 11. Does it become you to reproach me with my ne3. The irregular verb valoir (see table, $ 62] corresponds in glect? 12. It becomes me to blame (blåmer) you when you signification to the English expression, to be worth :

deserve it. 13. What is that man worth? 14. I cannot tell

16. Is that cloth Cette maison vaut cinq mille francs. That house is worth five thousand you exactly, about fifty thousand francs.

francs.

good? 16. No, Sir, it is good for nothing. 17. Is your gun

worth as much as mine? 18. Yes, Sir, it is worth more. 19, 4. Ne rien valoir means to be good for nothing ; ne pas valoir Will you go to my father's? 20. No, Sir

, I have something grand'chose, to be worth little, not to be good for much.

else to do. 21. Is it better to go to market early than late? Ce drap ne vaut rien.

That cloth is good for nothing. 22. It is better to go early. 23. How much may your horse be Notre maison ne vaut pas grand'chose. Our house is not good for much. worth? 24. It is not worth much, it is very old.' 25. Is your

5. Etre riche de . . . means to be worth, to possess ; when a watch better than mine? 26. It is not worth much, it does person is the nominative of the verb, valoir is never used in not go. 27. Is that book worth two francs ? 28. It is worth this sense.

one, at most. 29. Have you asked your sister what that.book Cette personne est riche de cing That person is worth five thousand is worth? 30. I have not. [Sect. 24, R. 12. Sect. 46, R. 4.) 31. mille piastres.

dollars.

What must I do? 32. You must speak to your father. 33. 6. Valoir mieux, conjugated unipersonally, means to be bet- Must he have money?

34. He must have son.e. 35. Has he not ter; valoir la peine, to be worth the while :

sold his horse ? 36. He has sold it, but it was not worth much. Il vaut mieux travailler que d'être it is better to labour than to be idle.

SECTION XLIX. oisif. Il ne vant pas la peine de parler It is not worth the while to speak when rob, to steal ; acheter, to buy ; demander, to ask for ; payer, to

1. When the verbs prendre [4 ir. see $ 62], to take ; voler, to quand on n'a rien à dire.

.

pay, are followed by one regimen only, or by several regimens RESUME OF EXAMPLES.

in the same relation ; these regimens, if nouns, must not be Il ne vous sied pas de nous faire, It does not become you to reproach take the form of the direct regimen, k, la, les :-

separated from the verb by a preposition; if pronouns, they des reproches. Il ne vous convient pas de parler it is not suitable for you to speak so. Avez vous pris le livre ?

Have you taken the book! de la sorte.

Avez vous payé le libraire ?

Have you paid the bookseller? Il ne nous convient pas d'y aller. Il does not suit us to go there.

Avez vous demandé votre argent ? Have you asked for your money ? Combien votre jardin vaut il ? How much is your garden worth ?

L'avez vous demandé ?

Have you aska for him?
Il vaut beaucoup plus que le vôtre. It is ni uch more valuable than yours. 2. When the verbs above mentioned are accompanied by
Il ne vaut pas autant que le mien. It is not worth so much as mine. several regimens holding different relations, the regimen re-
Notre maison ne vaut rien.
Our house is good for nothing.

presenting the thing or object will be direct, and come under Votre habit ne vaut pas grand'. Your coat is not good for much.

the above rule, and that representing the person, will, if a noun chose. Cela ne vaut pas la peine. That is not worth the while.

be preceded by the preposition à, and, if a pronoun, assume the Ce château peut valoir cent mille That villa may be worth one hundred

form of the indirect regimen: lui, to him, to her; leur, to them :francs. thousand francs.

J'ai pris le livre à mon frère. I have taken the book from my brother
De combien votre oncle est il riche ? How much is your uncle worth? J'ai payé le livre au libraire. I have paid the bookseller for the book.
Il est riche de deux cent mille He is worth two hundred thousand Je le lui ai payé, &c.

I have paid him for it.
francs.
francs.

3 Demander used also in the sense of to inquire for, to
Ne vaut il pas mieux lire que jouer? | Is it not better to read than to play ask for :-
EXERCISE 95.

J'ai demandé ce monsieur.

I asked for that gentleman.
Assur-er, 1. to assure; Couteau, m. knife; Pouvoir, 3 ir. to be able;
Au juste, precisely ; Marché, m. market; Reproch-er, l. to re.

RESUME or EXAMPLES.
Autre chose, something Mérit-er, 1, to deserve ;

proach;
Vous a-t-on volé vos livres ?

Has any one stolen your books from
merit;
Tout au plus, at most ;

your
Cass-er, 1. to break; Montre, f. watch; Va from aller, to go; On me les a volés (Sect. 34. 1, 2]. They hare been stolen from me.
Centaine, f. about a Négligence, f. neglect; Vingtaine, f. about A-t-on payé 128 souliers au cordon. Has the shoemaker been paid for the
Peindred;
Négociant, merchant; twenty.

nier?

shoes? Chaine, f. chain;

On ne les lui a pas encore payés. He has noi been paid for them.

What has been taken from yo.1)* 1. Vous sied-il de nous reprocher notre négligence? 2. Il Qu'a-t-on pris à votre père ? sme sied de vous faire des reproches quand vous le méritez. 3.

ter 1 Vous convient il d'aller trouver mon frère ? 4. Il ne me con

On lui a pris son argent.

His moncy has been taken from him. Ne vous a-t-on rien payé ?

Has nothing veeni pozill you ! vient pas d'aller le trouver, j'ai autre chose à faire. 6. Com

On m'a payé presque tout.

I have been paid almost all bien ce champ peut il valoir ? 6. Il peut valoir une vingtaine j'ai acheté des livres au libraire. I bought books from the bookseller. 1$ 27 (2)] de mille francs. 7. Valez vous mieux que votre Qui avez vous demandé ?

Whom have you acked for? frère. 8. Mon frère vaut beaucoup mieux que moi. 9. Ce J'ai demandé mon frère ainé. I inquired for my allest brother. couteau ne vaut pas plus que le rôtre? 10. Le mien est Avez vous demandé de l'argent à Have you asked your friend for meilleur, il vaut davantage. i1. Combien votre montre vaut votre ami ?

money) elle? 2. Elle ne vaut pas grand chose, elle ne va pas bien. Je ne lui en ai pas demandé. I have not asked him for any.

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clse;

rent.

EXERCISE 97.

that is called by geologists the elevation and subsidence of the Chapelier, m. hatler ;

land. Instances of these processes are found abundantly in Loyer, m. rent ;

Renseignements, m. p. Crayon, m. pencil; Pantoufle, f. slipper; information; England, especially in Sussex, Hampshire, and the Isle of Demeur-er, 1. to dwell; Paysan, m. peasant;

Revenu, m. income ; Wight. Fenêtre, f. windour; Proprietaire, m. land. Tout, e, all;

These elevations and subsidences are the results, in some Frapp-er, 1. to knock ; lord;

Voyageur, m. traveller. instances, of the vertical action of earthquakes; and in others, Légume, m. vegetable; Rend-re, 4. lo return;

they are the consequences of the intense heating and of the 1. Que vous a-t-on pris? 2. On m'a pris mes lirres, mes subsequent cooling of rocks deeply seated in the interior of the crayons et mon canif. 3. Savez vous qui vous les a pris : earth. 1. Je ne connais pas celui qui me les a pris, mais je sais

fi. Elevation and subsidence by earthquakes. qu'il demeure ici. 5. Avez vous demandé vos livres ? 6. It is well known that during the paroxysms of earthquakes Je les ai demandés à mon cousin. 7. Vous les a-t-il rendus ? some districts of the land are elevated above their former level, 8. Il me les a payés. 9. Vous a-t-on volé beaucoup de fruit while other districts are depressed and sink below it. The incette année? 10. On m'a volé des légumes, mais on ne m'a stances in which towns, cities, and regions on the coast, have point volé de fruit. 11. Arez vous payé votre chapeau au been cither completely or partially submerged under the sea, paysan? 12. Je ne le lui ai pas payé, je l'ai payé au chapelier. are almost innumerable. I will mention a few of the most re12. A qui avez vous demandé des renseignements ? 14. J'en markable. ai demandé au voyageur. 15. Savez vous qui vient de frapper Jamaica was agitated by a violent earthquake in 1692. At à la porte ? 16. C'est M. L., qui vous demande. . 17. Qui Port Royal, then the capital of the island, several large storeavez rous demandé? 18. J'ai demandé votre frère. 19. Votre houses in the harbour subsided, some 24 feet, some 36, and frère a-t-il payé toutes ses deties? 20. Il ne les a pas encore some 48 feet, under water. The buildings remained whole and payées, parce qu'il n'a pas reçu ses revenus. 21. Lui avez standing, and the tops of their chimneys were seen erect above vous payé ce que vous lui avez acheté ! 22. Je le lui ai payé. the waves. A large tract of land around the town, about 1,000 23. Ne leur avez vous pas payé votre loyer: 24. Je le leur ai acres in extent, sank down in less than a minute, and became payé, 25. Ils nous ont payé notre maison.

the bottom of the sea. In the harbour, was the Swan frigate EXERCISE 98.

repairing near the wharf. This ship was raised, and driven

over the tops of many buildings, and was, at last, thrown upon 1. Have you paid your landlord? 2. I have paid him my one of the roofs, which it crushed.

3. Have you paid him for the windows which you have In Peru, in 1746, a tremendous earthquake destroyed Lima, broken: 4. I have paid him for them. 5. Has the hatter paid and the whole coast near Callao was converted into a bay of the for all his hats? 6. He has not paid for them, he has bought sea. The main-land near Lima shows that it had been subject Chem on credit (à crédit). 7. Do you pay what you owe, every to such changes before, even within the human epoch. At a day? 8. I pay my butcher every week. 9. Have you paid place inland, a rock is found 80 feet above the sea. On this him for his meat ' 10. I have paid him for it. 11. For whom elevation there is a stratum full of sea-weeds and shells. What did you inquire this morning? 12. I inquired for your brother. proves that this bed was the bottom of the sea since man wa 13. Why did you not inquire for my father? 14. I know that created, is that the stratum contains cotton-thread and plaited your father is in England. 15. Has the hatter been paid for rushes, which must have been of human manufacturing. his hats ? 16. He has been paid for them. 17. Has your Just before the earthquake of Lisbon, in 1755, a new quay money been taken from you 18. My hat has been stolen had been built in the harbour, consisting of massive and solid from me. 19. Have you asked your brother for your money! marble. To escape the dangers from toitering houses during 20. I heve asked him for it, but he cannot return it to me. 21. the convulsions, a vast concourse of people collected for safety Has he no money! 22. He has just paid all his debts, and he on this large quay. Suddenly the whole quay sank down with has no money left (de reste). 23. Have you asked your father all the people on it, and not one of the bodies ever Boated to for money. 24. I have not asked him for any, I know that the surface again. "At a little distance off the quay, boats and he has none.

25. From what bookseller have you bought vessels lay at anchor, and full of people. Suddenly the body your books? 26. I bought them from your bookseller. 27. of water beneath them sank, the boats and ships went down as Are you wrong to pay your debts? 28. I am right to pay into a whirlpool, and not a single fragment of the wrecks ever them. 29. Who is inquiring for me? 30. The physician is came to the surface. When, a short time afterwards, the spot inquiring for you. 31. Who knocks: 32. Your shoemaker occupied by these boats was sounded, it was found unfathom. knocks.

able, and subsequently it was ascertained to be two hundred yards deep.

During the earthquake at Messina, in 1783, of which you . LESSONS IN GEOLOGY.-No. XII.

have had an illustration in fig. 24 of Lesson X., similar pheBy Thomas W. JEN KYY, D.D., F.G.S., &c.

nomena were observed. The ground along the port of Messina CHAPTER I.

was perfectly level before the earthquake, but afterwards it

sloped much towards the sca, and the sea itself became deeper ON THE ACTION OF VOLCANOES ON THE EARTH'S CRUST and deeper according to its distance from the shore. This SECTION VIII.

shows that the sloping of the coast continued far under the ON THE ELEVATION AND SUBSIDENCE OF LAND.

sca, and that, consequently, the bottom of the sea, as well as

the shore, had sunk. Even the quay itself had sunk about In reading geological works you find that geologists describe fourteen inches. If the shore sank seaward it is natural to certain strata, which rest upon one another, as being some infer that the coast had also sloped inland. This inference was marine beds, and others fresh-water beds. They are called so, established by facts. In the interior of the island, Sicily, it because in the marine beds they find the shells and other was found that several new ravines had been formed by the remains of fish, which only live in the salt water of the fissures of the earthquake. The fresh faces of the rocks on ocean ; and in the fresh-water beds they find fossils of ani. each side of these ravines proved that there had been considerInals which live in rivers, lakes, estuaries, and marshes. Try able shiftings of the strata that were continuous before they your own reason upon these sirata. At the boitom there is a were fissured. Some of them had risen, and others had sunk, stratum full of marine shells, A few feet higher up is a six or ten feet above or below each other respectively. stratum full of fresh-water remains. Some foet yet higher, This elevation and subsidence, or the shifting of strata, is another marine bed, and higher still, another fresh-waterstratum. well explained by a disturbance of regular masonry in the How can you account for this? At one time the lower marine walls of the Round Tower at TERRA Nova, in Calabria. In bed must have been the bottom of the sea. It then rose a many streets of the town, some houses had been raised above little beyond the reach of the sea, and became perhaps a marsh, their usual level, and others had sunk down in the ground. perhaps the estuary of a river. Both beds sank again and became Adjoining the town was a massive circular tower of solid the bottom of the sea. In the course of ages the three beds now masonry. One part of this tower remained undestroyed by rose, and the surface became again the bottom of an estuary, or the earthquake, but it was divided by a vertical rent. One perhaps a lake. It is this rising and sinking of the surface side of it was raised much abore the other, and the foundation

of the upraised portion was brought up to view. It is remark- | by Mr. Cuming, the celebrated conchologist, who was at Valable, thot along the whole line of shift, the divided walls were paraiso at the time; but it has been verified by the German found to adhere as firmly to each other, and to fit as closely I travellers, Dr. Meyen M. Freyer, and by our own Darwin. as if they had been

In 1819 a great subthus constructed and

Fig. 27.

sidence of land took cemented from the very

place in Hindostan, at first. The only signs

the mouth of the river of their having been

Indus, where the bed of divided were, that the

the river sank eighteen top of one part was

feet, and the fort of much higher than the

Sindree became subother, and the courses

merged. To the southof the stone on each side

east of the eastern of the rent did not cor

branch of the Indus, is respond. This is repre

an island district called sented in fig. 27.

Cutch. From the delta In North America,

of the Indus to Cutch just above the falls of ITAL

was an inlet of the sea, the Columbia River, there is a district twenty

about a foot deep when

the tide was out, and miles in length, and one

never more than six feet mile in breadth, where

at flood-tide. After an aremarkable subsidence

earthquake in 1819, this took place towards the

inlet was deepened to close of the last cen

more than eighteen feet tury. In 1807, Ameri

at low water. In concan travellers found here a forest of pines

sequence of this sinking

of the district, many standing erect, under

The s'ist in the Round Touer of Terra Nova in Calabria, occasioned parts of the inland navi. water, in the body of by the Earthquake of 1783.

gation that had been the river, some twenty

closed for centuries be. feet deep. Another traveller, in 1835, found the trees still came again practicable. The fort of Sindree, on the eastern standing in their natural position, but the tops of the trees, branch of the Indus, was completely submerged; and yet the between high and low water-mark, had decayed away. The masonry of the houses was not disturbed, either by the vioroots were seen

lence of the earththrough the clear

Fig. 28. water, spreading as

quake, or by the rush

of the sea. they had grown in

When this region their native forest.

was examined in This phenomenon oc

1826-1827, it was curs in a region of

found that, after the extinct volcanoes; for

earthquake, the sea the river passes amid

rushed into the and through hills of

mouth of the Indus, basaltic rocks.

and then, in a few The most extensive

hours, converted a elevation of land by

tract of land, about earthquake is that

2,000 square miles in which took place on

area, into an inland the coast of Chili,

sea. After the subSouth America, in 1822. The shock was

sidence, one of the

towers of Fort Sindree felt along the coast

continued to stand for 2,000 miles. For

above the water, and more than one hun

the inhabitants bedred miles the whole

took themselves in coast was elevated

boats to this elevation three or four feet

for safety. While high, and an area of

they were on this about 100,000 square

tower, they could see miles, nearly half the

at the distance of size of all France,

full five miles to the was thus raised above

north-west of them, the level of the sea.

an elevated land, Some geologists sup

where, before the pose that the whole

earthquake, all had country, from the

been level plains. foot of the Andes to

This new-raised disa great distance under

trict turned out to be the sea, was thus

more than fifty miles elevated; for the

in length from east to greatest rise was at

west. Its breadth the distance of two

from north to south miles inland from the

was about sixteen shore. On the coast, Present state of the Temple of Serapis at Puzzuoli, Italy.

miles. Its uniform the rise was two or

rise above the level four feet; but a mile inland, it was six or seven feet. This of the delta was ten feet. Its direction ran parallel to the elevation has been dispured by several naturalists, especially district that had sunk, so that as one region subsided, the

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