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ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS.

Our SERIES OF MAPS, in illustration of the Lessons in Geography will begin with No. 27, the commencement of our Second Volume, in which EUROPE (measuring 12 inches by 9), engraved expressly for the POPULAR EDUCATOR, will appear.

exercises.-MR. SIDNEY BIRD, Professor of Music (Whitechapel): We
are obliged by his communication. We hope to treat the subject briefly
and practically in our present course of lessons.-N. T. P. (Merthyr
Tydfil): Answered partly above. For singing, we have tried to make
our own course of lessons the most thorough and practical course that
has appeared for adults and self-teachers generally. A similar course
adapted to the young is given in "Pupil's Manual;" another for congre-
gations is appended to "Solfa People's Service of Song;" and a book
for teachers and thorough students is presented in the "Grammar ”
above referred to, all published by Messrs. Ward and Co.-Mr. SOMES,
who inquires for a separate manual for teachers on the plan of our own
lessons, will find it in the book last named.-W. S. (Chelsea) is re-
minded that we do not wish to teach any "system," but to teach the
verities of music itself. Like thousands in the present day, and like our-
selves many years ago, he has probably only learnt a system, and is
quite surprised, as we were, to find how different a thing music itself is
from that which is often taught for it.-ANNETTE, "nearly eleven years
old, with a tolerable voice :" You are just at the right age for learning
to sing. A little at a time, and a little every day, should be your rale.
The little girl mentioned in Lesson VIII is about six years old. Be as
fond of pointing on the modulator as she is.-W. R. (Kinross): The
middle or tenor c, as it is called, is now commonly reckoned to have two
hundred and fifty vibrations. In books less than a century old it was
reckoned at two hundred and forty. There is no authoritative standard.
Make a "syren."-F. P. A.: Our business at present is with vocal music,
The voice is the best instrument, and the easiest learnt. Learn music
in connexion with the voice; the mere manipulation of an instrument
easily follows. The sequential system we have carefully examined. We
think some of its principles may, at a future time, be adopted generally,
but not the whole as it now stands. See preface to the "Grammar
mentioned above.-SUBSCRIBER should write to Collard and Co., and to
Broadwood and Co. (direction, London), inquiring the price of the
cheapest piano they make. Mr. Sprague, of the Pavement, Finsbury,
London, makes harmoniums in plain deal cases, very cheap and none
the worse for the plain deal cases. We have pleasure in naming thus
any man who cheapens music and musical instruments for the people.-
J. J. (Wood-street) should use his German concertina in connexion with
the solfa syllables, and not puzzle himself about the staff at present.
See Lesson VIII. He can only play in the key of c, or, if he has a double
instrument, in the keys of c and G. If he takes c for DOH, then, of
course, ME will be E, and son G, &c.
The earlier exercises may be sung
in the key of c very well. They are written (on the staff) in the key of

D.-Let NIL DESPERANDUM, "who loses his breath on the lower notes,"
attend steadily to our instructions on the management of the voice.
Let him take the trouble of inquiring for himself, at the nearest music-
shops, the cost of hiring pianos.-T. N. B. (Southgate): The English con-
certina is incomparably a better instrument for leading than the violin "in
the hands of a middling performer."—A. R. (Thurso): The old wine is the
best." But our correspondent may yet be gratified by seeing good
original songs in the EDUCATOR. Original songs are easy to get, but
few are so good as those which have stood the test of years.-W. S.
(48.)
(Portsea): Hamilton's "Modern Instructions for the Pianoforte "
Even Cramer's, if we remember rightly, three times the price, would not
is so good a book for the purpose, that we need not name another.
take its place.-W. GALT, C. J. E. S., R. T. T., G. T. C.: The violin,
of all instruments, most imperatively demands for you the instructions
of a master; it requires to be so delicately and perfectly played. It is
better not played at all than badly played. With a master you would
-2a; probably use the instruction-books of Parry (48.), Blagrove (88.), or
Loader (128.). The price of Dr. Marx's great work on Composition
and Harmony is one guinea.

W.D. (St. James's): Latin and Greek are the keys to many languages, but not to all. French is useful in relation to the English, and in a commercial and international point of view.-B. C. P. (Blackfriars-road): -There will be an article on Wood Engraving in the Illustrated Exhibitor in an early number.-J. T. (Manchester): The proper expression is "before a mute h.”—AN APPRENTICE (Edinburgh) is right; we wish our students would take his admirable hint; viz., "We ought not to begin | the study of Euclid with a mind overwhelmed with the difficulty we have to encounter, but prepared to receive the easiest reasoning that can be adduced."-LATIN AND ENGLISH: No.-GEORGE Cox (West Bromwich) is right; the Bible is intended to convince the ungodly, but not to be made their laughing-stock, "Whoever comes to God, must believe that he is, and that he is a rewarder of them that diligently seek him." Gesenius's Hebrew Lexicon is reckoned the best; but be sure to buy Bagster's edition. Gesenius's views of Bible truth are exceedingly erroneous; but the student is carefully warned at every step, in the edition we recommend. Bagster's Analytical Dictionary is invaluable to a student of the Scriptures. Liddell and Scott's Greek Lexicon is much the best.-H. S. WATLING (Clare): We have proposed the question of multiplying £99 198. 114d, by itself, in a rational way, in No. 23, p. 368, and we here solve it: First,

:

£1: £99 19s. 11ąd.:: £99 19s. 11 d. the answer. Now, reducing all into farthings, this becomes

b3-2a 36 this, transposing and changing signs, you have a2=

960 95999: 95999: 959980085, where the fourth term is obtained in the usual way by multiplying the second and third terms together, and dividing by the first. The fourth term being now in farthings, if it be reduced to pounds, it will give the answer £9999 158. 10d. This might be done very shortly as follows:-First, we have

£1: £99958: £99858: the answer. or putting this statement in the following form, we have £1: £100-:: £100-go: the answer. Then, (100-)×(100—9)=10000-88+2= £10000(200 farthings)+ of a farthing £9999 15s. 10 d. the answer.-J. J. B. (Taunton): The subject of Greek is ever before us.S. C. (Salford): Answered before.-A YOUNG GARDENER: We shall see.-F. BEETS (Grimstone); J. LATTA (Watten): Received.

A. BOYD (Glasgow) requests us to solve the equation (a+x)+3v (a−x)=b. Putting (a+x)=m, and 31/(a-x)=n, you have m+n=b. Cubing both sides of this, you have m3+3m2n+3mn2+n32=b3; which may be put thus, m3+n3+3mn(m+n)=b3; or thus, m3+n3+3mnb=b3 (^). But by cubing, you have a+am3, and a-xn3; also, by multiplying, you have (a+x)×3√ (a—x)=mn, or 3y (a2x2)—mn. Now, substituting these values in equation (A), you have a+x+ax+3b3√(a2—x2)=b3, or 2a+3b 3√ (a2—x2)=63; whence by transposing and dividing, you have 3 (a2—x2)= Now cubing 63-2a 3 36

3

whence, extracting the square root, you have =√ {(2
{(312 = 24)3
-2a}.

36

Received: T. U. P.-W. NICHOLSON-J. HOUGH-BELL's steno phonography from the author.-W. F. RANKINE (Seskanore).-... (Southampton).-ENGLISH (St. Pancras): Smart's Walker is the best edition.-SOCIETY OF LITERARY FRIENDS (Exeter): We certainly

AMY LAWRENCE, and JOSHUA: Look at Lesson VIII.-G. F.; J. S.

MUSIC.-W. FORD, A PIANOFORTE PLAYER, ENQUIRER, CHARLES, advise them to buy all Cassell's publications, on account of their extra(Vauxhall); M. B. S. C. (Edinburgh): See Lesson IX. We are much ordinary cheapness; a list will be sent on application to this office.interested in the account, by the last-named, of the monochord which he AGRICOLA (Belfast) has made some mistakes which will disappear as he has made, and in the thorough way in which he has tested our assertions late a Latin sentence, always look first for the nominative, then the verb, studies our Euclid.-CAROLUS (Manchester): In attempting to transand calculations on the structure of the scale. Several other corre- and then the case governed by the verb, which is generally the accusative, spondents have sent us drawings and descriptions of the monochords but sometimes the dative. In the sentence amicorum fidei debemus salutem which they have constructed. Their intelligent communications will be made use of in future lessons.-W. S. (Portsea): Among the best of the in adversis rebus, you will look in vain for a nominative, because it is cheap books on "Thorough Bass" is "Hamilton's Grammar," published contained in the verb itself; you then look for the verb, which is debeby Cocks. His " Catechism of Counterpoint" (28.) is also well written, mus, then for the accusative, which is salutem; now translate: we owe and a good book for beginners. The mode of tuition employed in our safety; this is good English. Next, ask yourself: to whom do we owe lessons has peculiar facilities for making the principles of harmony safety? Look for the answer, and you find it in fidei amicorum, which easily understood. One chapter in the "Grammar of Vocal Music" means, to the fidelity of friends. Again, ask yourself: in what circum(28. 6d., Messrs. Ward and Co.) contains all the rules which a beginner stances, do we owe safety to the fidelity of friends? Look for the answer, requires. There is an admirable little "First Book of Musical Gram- and you find it in the words in adversis rebus, which means in adverse circumstances. mar," by Mr. James Gall, of Edinburgh, who adopts to a great extent Now the whole sentence is translated into good English: the same principles with us, only using the figures instead of the better-elegantly, in adverse circumstances, we owe safety to the fidelity of friends. we owe safety to the fidelity of friends, in adverse circumstances; or, more sounding solfa syllables. Of the more expensive works, Dr. Marx's "School of Musical Composition," just published by Cocks and Co., is Printed and Published by JOHN CASSELL, La Belle Sauvage Yard, recommended as the best. It is admirably progressive in its lessons and Ludgate-hill, London.-September 18, 1852.

LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.–No. X.

DISCOVERIES OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY (concluded).

Tax Russian Admiral Krusenstern, in 1804-5, made an ex. Captain Maxwell also visited the Loo-Choo Islands, where he ploratory voyage in Oceanica, which enlarged our hydro- was only welcomed by feigning shipwreck, and seeking the graphical knowledge of the Pacific. In 1819, Bellinghausen assistance of the inhabitants. revisited a part of the Polynesia, and made additions to some The northern coasts of Asia having been previously im. of the groups.

About the same period, Freycinet discovered perfectly known, M. Gedenchtrom was commissioned to exRose Island, and solved some interesting questions relating to plore them in 1808 ; but his efforts were limited. Lieutenant, those distant seas. In 1823 and 1824, Captain Duperré made afterwards Admiral, Wrangell was charged to complete the some additional discoveries in Polynesia, and re-explored the exploration of these coasts, and to fill up the blanks which Papuan group and New Zealand. Captain Lütke, of the Im- then existed in the maps of Siberia, by revisiting the most peria. Russian Marine, who navigated the seas of Oceanica, dis. northern latitudes of these dreary regions. The object of this covered some new islands in the Caroline group, ard Olimarau, expedition was to examine the whole of the coast from Cape between them and the Ladrone Islands. Recently, the French Chelagsk to Cape North, discovered by Cook to the west of Commodore Laplace, of the frigate l’Artemise, and Captain Du Bhering's Straits, and to determine whether there existed in

[graphic][merged small]

Petit-Thouars, of the Venus, having navigated the Pacific in dif- the vicinity of these capes an isthmus uniting Asia and Ameferent directions; the former has explored the coasts of Arabia, rica. This dangerous expedition occupied from 1820 to 1824. and the latter, besides other countries, those of Kamtchatka, Beyond Cape Chelagsk, he discovered Cape Baranoff, and surCalifornia, and Australia. The Russian Admiral, Krusenstern, veyed the coast from this cape to the mouth of the river also made additions to the geography of the Kurile Isles, the Kolyma. He discovered that the hypothesis of the existence coasts of Japan, and the sea of Okhotsk. Captain Maxwell, of land in this vicinity was unfounded; and he rectified and of the suite of Lord Amherst, our ambassador to China, completed the geography of this part of the continent of Asia. extended our knowledge of these Asiatic regions. The In 1843, M. Middendorff successfully explored, in the midst squadron under his command made several important dis of innumerable dangers, the coasts of the Frozen Ocean coveries in the Yellow Sea, particularly Sir James Hall's between Turukansk, the sources of the Khatounga, and Cape Islands. This expedition ascertained that the western coast of Taimoura. Traversing Siberia from north-west to souththe peninsula of Corea had been placed on our maps greatly to west, he visited the coasts of the Sea of Okhotsk, and part of the westward of its true position; and made known to the world Tartary. a vast archipelago which no European had previously visited. Expeditions into the interior of Asia have, from time VOL. 1.

26

time, thrown great light on the geography of this part of the old world. We owe much of our knowledge of China to the Jesuit missionaries who laboured in that country; of the northern frontiers of this empire, to Klaproth, Timkowsky, De Iumboldt, and Pierre de Tehihatcheff; of Thibet, to Turner; of the Himalaya chain of mountains and the adjacent countries, to Lieutenant Webb, Captain Raper, Moorcraft, Colonel Crawford, M. Frazer, Victor Jacquemont, and Major Rennell. H. Pottinger made us acquainted with Beloochistan and Scinde; Elphinstone and Burnes with Afghanistan; Burnes with Bokhara; and M. Mouravief with Turcomania and Khiva. Persia has, at different periods, been visited by a number of able travellers, to whem we owe a knowledge of this country; as, Tavernier, Chardin, A. Jubert, Moorcraft, Morier, Frazer, Kerr Porter, Alexander, and Messrs. Coste and Flaudin. Of Arabia, we have gained information from Niebuhr, Burkhardt, and Ruppel.

itself. This tense leaves the beginning, duration, and end of
an action undetermined. It may often be rendered in English
by the auxiliary was, &c., and the participle present of the
verb [§ 119. 120] :—
J'écrivais ce matin quand vous

êtes entré.

Je passais hier quand vous m'ap.
pelätes.

Thou

After the travels of Sporrman, Shaw, Norden, Bruce, Le Vaillant, Mungo Park, and Horneman, which threw a flood of light upon the geography of Africa in the last century, we owe much to Adams, Tucker, Bowditch, Mollien, Major Laing, and Messrs. Ritchie and Lyon in the present century. The necessity of bringing our introductory lessons to a close, permits us only to mention the labours of Mes-rs. Denham and Clapperton, and Dr. Oudney, in exploring the interior of this continent in 1822. When we look upon a modern map of Africa, all the geographical positions which are laid down in Bornou, round Lake Tehad, the lake itself, the direction of the course of rivers in this region, the rectification of the course of the Niger, and other topographical details, such as the position of mountains, &c., are due to the last mentioned travellers. Clapperton closed his successful career by reaching Sakkatoo Je from the gulf of Benin, and died in 1826, leaving his labours I unfinished, after having accomplished the remarkable journey Tu from Tripoli to Benin, and enriched geography with a vast collection of new and accurate discoveries. Timbuctoo, that I singular object of African travellers, was reached by Major Laing in the same year, but at a later period, when he also paid the debt of nature. In 1830, Richard and John Lander undertook to resolve the problem of the direction of the Niger to the point where it had been traced by Park and Clapperton. They proposed to descend the.river along its course from Boussa, where it had so far been traced, and to follow its course to the Atlantic Ocean, in order to ascertain its embouchure. After encountering many and great dangers they reached the sea by the central or principal branch of the Niger, which is the river called Nun, and which disembogues itself into the Atlantic between the bights of Benin and Biafra. Thus, the source of this river, as determined by Laing, was at the foot of Mount Loma, between Soulimana and Sangara. From this point to Timbuctoo is course was known; but the brothers Lander made it known from this town to the ocean, and resolved a part of the geographical problem which so long existed without a satisfactory solution. More recent explorations have been made in this continent, especially with regard to the source of the Nile; bat we must hasten to the explanation of the different countries and states of the world, whose history is better known, and which are of more practical importance to the general reader. Our pupils may, perhaps, think that we have spent a longer time and space than was necessary on the history of geographical discovery; but when we consider that this is rarely attempted in the ordinary treatises on geography, we believe that the preceding lessons will be duly appreciated. In our next number, which will commence our second volume, we shall give some account of the earth as a globe, of the map of the world, with its divisions and geographical circles, and a map of Europe, which will form the subject of several succeeding lessons.

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3. The imperfect can seldom be rendered in English by the past tense which takes did as an auxiliary. The past definite never corresponds in meaning to the English imperfect composed of the auxiliary "was," and the participle present. It cannot be rendered by the verb preceded by "used to." J'allais à la chasse hier matin

quand nous nous recontrâmes. J'allai à la chasse hier matin.

chant -ais
was singing
parl -ais
wast speaking

donn -ait
He was giving
Nous cherch -ions
We were seeking
Vous port -jez
were carrying
-aient

You

s

ai

I was writing this morning when you

came in.

I was going a hunting yesterday morn
ing when we met (did meet)
I went (did go) a hunting yesterday
morning.

4. The imperfect is formed from the participle present, by
changing ant into ais, &c. 61. It may also be formed by
adding ais, &c., to the stem of the verb fcr the 1st and 4th
conjugations, issais, &c., for the 2nd, and evais, &c., for the 3rd.
5. TERMINATIONS OF THE IMPERFECT TENSE OF THE FOUR
CONJUGATIONS.
fin -issais rec -evais
rend -is
was finishing was receiving was rendering
chérissais
apercevais vend
wast cherishing wast perceiving wast selling
fournissait
percevait
tend -ait
was furnishing was gathering was tending
pun -issions conc-evions entend -ions
were punishing were conceiving were hearing
sais -issiez d -eviez perd -jez
were seizing were owing were losing
un -issaient des vaient mord -aient
were uniting were deceiving were biting.
RESUME OF EXAMPLES.

I was passing yesterday when you

called me,

-ais

LESSONS

IN FRENCH.-No. XXV.
By Professor LOUIS FASQUELLE, LL.D.

SECTION LII.

THE IMPERFECT (§ 119).

1. THE imperfect or simultaneous past tense may be called the descriptive tense of the French. The action which it represents, or the situation which it describes, is imperfect of

They were loving

Je chantais quand on m'apporta

I was singing when they brought me

your letter.

I used to like formerly to read the
English poets.

I was in your room when you came

in.

votre lettre.

J'aimais autrefois à lire les poètes
anglais.

J'étais dans votre chamber lorsque

vous êtes entré.

Je parlai hier toute la matinée.
Je parlais hier à votre père, lorsque

votre ani nous recontra.
Je cherchais votre père.

I spoke yesterday the whole morning.
I was speaking to your father when
your friend met us yesterday.
I was looking for your father.
EXERCISE 103.
Ecolier, m. scholar.
Noir, e, black.
Mérit-er, 1. to deserve.
Pantoufle, f. slipper.

Parchemin, m. parch

ment.

Autrefois, formerly.
Brun, e, brown.
Chambre, f room.
Crayon, m pencil.
Demeur-er, to live, dwell.
De Duveau, again.
1. De qui parlicz-vous ce matin quand je suis venu rous
trouver? 2. Ma cousine parlait de son frère et je parlais du
mien. 3. N'aimiez-vous pas mieux le bœuf que le mouton,
autrefois? 4. J'aimais le boeuf, mais je n'ai jamais aimé le
mouton. 5. Ne vendiez-vous pas beaucoup de livres, lorsque
vous demeuriez à Paris? 6. J'en vendais beaucoup parce que
j'étais libraire. 7. Le libraire a-t-il vendu beaucoup de crayons
ce matin? 8. Il a vendu beaucoup de crayons aujourd'hui.
9. Vendiez-vous beaucoup de parchemin lorsque vous étiez
libraire? 10. Je n'en vendais presque pas. 11. Votre frère
portait-il un habit vert lorsqu'il demeurait à Londres? 12. Il
portait un habit brun et des pantoufles noires. 13. Que cher-
chiez-vous? 14. Je cherchais mon livre. 15. Depuis quand
l'aviez-vous perdu? 16. Je l'avais perdu depuis hier. 17.
L'avez-vous retrouvé? 18. Je l'avais retrouvé, mais je l'ai

Presque pas, almost

none.

Retrouv-er, 1, to find again.

Theme, m. excrcise,

Vert, e, green.

used to expressed or understood.
Except when, in interrogative sentences, did is used as an auxiliary to

perdu de nouveau. 19. Ce boulanger vous fournissait-il de
bon pain? 20. Il nous en fournissait d'excellent. 21.
Punissiez-vous souvent vos écoliers? 22. Je les punissais
quand ils le méritaient. 23. Où étiez-vous ce matin quand je
Vous cherchais? 24. J'étais dans ma chambre. 25. Je finissais
mon thême.
EXERCISE 104.

1. Who was at your house this morning? 2. My friend G. was there, and was looking for you. 3. Did you speak to my father yesterday? 4. I was speaking to him when they brought me your letter. 5. Did your father used to wear a white hat when he lived in London? 6. He use to wear a black hat, and my brother wore a black coat. singing when my father came? 8. No, Sir, I was finishing my 7. Were you exercise. 9. Had you lost your pencil this morning? 10. I had lost it, and was looking for it when you spoke to me. You used to like reading (la lecture), did your sister (use to) like it also? 12. She liked it also. 13. What song were you singing this morning? 14. I was singing an Italian song. 15. Have you been afraid to speak to me? 16. I have never been afraid to speak to you. 17. Have you brought my book? I have not brought it.

11.

18.

SECTION LIII.

THE IMPERFECT (continued).

1. The imperfect of the indicative of every French verb, regular or irregular, ends in ais, ais, ait, ions, iez, avent.

2. No verb of the first conjugation, ER, is irregular in this tense.

3. The only irregularity found in the irregular verbs of the second conjugation, IR, is that, to form the imperfect, the stem of these verbs takes ais, &c., instead of issais: as, ven-ir, je ven-ais; cour-ir, je cour-ais; cueill-ir, je cueill-ais. Exception: Fuir, to flee-je fuyais.

4. The irregular verbs of the third conjugation, orn, change that termination (oir) into ais, &c., like the regular verbs of the same; as, sav-oir, je sav-ais; av-oir, j'av-ais. Exceptions: se-oir, to become; voir, to see; and their compounds, and déchoir [see § 621.

5. The changes which the stem of the irregular verbs of the fourth conjugation undergoes, in this tense, are too various to admit of a complete classification. We, however, offer the following:PRENDRE, to take.

Je pren -ais, etc.

ECRIRE, to write.
écriv -ais, ete.
CONNAÎTRE, to know.
Connaiss -ais, etc.

6. Like prendre and écrire are conjugated, in this tense, those verbs in which prendre and erire appear in composition : as, comprendre, je comprenais; souscrire, je souscrirais.-Like eraindre and connaître, those ending in indre and aître : teindre, je teignais; paraître, je paraissais.-Like conduire, those ending in ire: as, lire, je lisais; faire, je faisais; luire, je luisais ; dire, je disais, &c.-Exceptions: rire, traire, écrire, and their compounds.

7. Mettre and its compounds, and être are regular in this

RESUME OF EXAMPLES.

De quoi notre ami avait-il peur?
Il n'avait peur de rien.
N'aviez-vous pas besoin de mon
frère ?

CRAINDRE, to fear.
craign -ais, etc.
CONDUIRE, to conduct,
Conduisais, etc.

Nous avions besoin de lui.
Le marchand n'avait-il pas besoin
d'argent?

Il en avait grand besoin.

Quelle voiture conduisiez-vous?

LESSONS IN GEOLOGY.-No. XIV.
By THOMAS W. JENKYN, D.D., F.G.S., &c.
CHAPTER I.

tense.

8. The participle present, from which the French gram- ON THE ACTION OF VOLCANOES ON THE EARTH'S CRUST. marians derive the imperfect, presents of course the same irregularities: as, venant, valant, prenant, écrivant, craignant, connaissant, conduisant. Exceptions: avoir, ayant; savoir, sachant.

SECTION IX.

ON SUBMARINE VOLCANOES.

THE subterranean fires that lie deep in the earth's crust, and cause the elevation of land described in the last lesson, act, not only on the rocks which are in the open air, but also on the beds which form the bottom of the sea. When the vents, which are formed by these interior fires, act beneath the waters of the ocean, they are called submarine volcanoes.

He had great need of it.

It had been long suspected that such volcanic phenomena were occasionally taking place in the bed of the sea. Officers and crews of vessels had frequently reported that, on their voyages, they had seen in different places sulphureous smoke, jets of flame, and spouts of water, rising up from the sea. other places the waters of the ocean were found greatly dis

What carriage were you driving?
For whom were you taking me?

In

J'écrivais à ma sœur et à mon frère.

Pour qui me preniez-vou‹?

Je venais vous trouver quand je I was coming to you when I met you. coloured, and appeared in violent agitation, as if boiling. At

vous rencontrai.

A qui écriviez-vous ce matin ?

To whom were you writing this morn-
ing!

some points, shoals and reefs of rocks were observed as having
just emerged, where, on a previous voyage, the water was

I was writing to my sister and to my known to have been many fathoms deep. These reports led scientific men to infer, that a power from below must be pro

brother,

Autrement, otherwise.
Cass-er, 1. to break.
Chasse, f. hunting.
D.re, 4 ir. to say.

Of what was our friend afraid?
He was afraid of nothing.
Did not want my brother?
you

We wanted him.

Did not the merchant want money?

EXERCISE 105.
Oubli-er, 1. to forget.
Pêche, f. fishing.
Peind-re, 4. ir. to paint. Toile, f linen cloth.
Reven-ir, 2. ir. to re- Rencontr-er, 1 to meet.

Teind-re, 4. ir to dye.
Teinturier, m. dyer.

turn.
Savoir, 3 ir. to know.
Se tromp-er, 1. to be
mistaken.

Val oir, 3 ir, to be worth.
Ven-ir, 2. ir. to come, to
have just.
Vite, quickly.

Montre, f. watch.
Moins (au), at least.
Mort, e, dead.
Offens-er, to offend.
Parceque j'avais peur de me tromper. 3. Ne craiuiez-vous
1. Pourquoi n'écriviez-vous pas plus vite ce matin? 2.
pas d'offenser cette dame? 4. Je craignais de l'offenser, mais
5. Que ce
je ne faire autrement?
turier que teignait-il? 8. Il teignait du drap, de la soie et de
matin? 6. Je peignais un tableau d'histoire. 7. Votre tein-
la toile. 9. De quelle couleur les teignait-il? 10. Il teignait
11. Conduisiez-
le drap en noir, et la soie et la toile en vert.
12. Je conduisais mon fils ainé à l'église. 13. Que lisicz-
vous le jeune Polonais à l'école lorsque je vous ai rencontre?
vous? 14. Je lisais des livres que je venais d'acheter
Ne saviez-vous pas que ce monsieur est mort? 16. Je l'avais
oublié. 17. Combien la montre que vous avez cassée valait-
elle? 18. Elle valait au moins deux cents francs. 19. Ne
valait-il pas mieux rester ici que d'aller à la chasse? 20. Il
valait beaucoup mieux aller à l'école. 21. Votre ami que
vous disait-il? 22. Il me disait que son frère est revenu
d'Espagne. 23. N'alliez-vous pas à la chasse tous le jours
lorsque vous demeuriez à la campagne? 24. J'allais souvent
à la pêche. 25. Mon frère allait tous les jours à l'école quand
il était ici.

15.

EXERCISE 106.

1. Were you afraid this morning when you came to our house? 2. I was afraid. 3. Of what were you afraid? 4. I was afraid of the horse. 5. Was not your friend afraid of falling? (de tomber. See Sect. 20, R. 2. 4.) 6. He was not afraid of falling, but he was afraid of making a mistake (de se tromper. See 2. in Exercise above). 7. Were you taking your son to school? 8. I was conducting him to school. J. What some red and some green. colour was the dyer dyeing the silk? 10. He was dyeing 11. Was he dyeing his linen cloth black or green? 12. He was neither dyeing it black nor green, he was dyeing it pink (rose). 13. What was the gentleman reading? 14. He was reading a let er which he had just received. 15. Were you cold when you came here? 16. I was cold, hungry, and thirsty. 17. Were you not ashamed of your conduct (conduite)? 18. I was ashamed of it. Whither were you going when I met you? 20. I was going to your house. 21. Were you driving your brother's carriage? 22. I was driving my own (la mienne). 23. Were you writing to me or to my father? 21. I was writing to your friend's cousin.

19.

pelling the bottom of the sea upwards towards the surface. This philosophical conjecture or inference has been established by a copious variety of facts, in the formation of new islands above the waters of the ocean.

In 1831, at a spot about thirty miles to the south-west of Sicily, a submarine volcano rose out of the sea, and formed an island. Before its appearance, it was well known that the depth of the sea at that place was 600 feet. The process of its rise was this. First, there were violent spoutings of steam and water from the bed of the sea, jetting sixty feet high. Then a small island of dry ground appeared with a burning crater in the centre of it. This crater ejected ashes, scoria, and thick volumes of smoke; and the whole sea around became covered with floating cinders and with shoals of dead fishes.

This volcanic island rose gradually till it reached the elevation of nearly 200 feet, with a circumference of about three miles at the base. In its centre was the crater, which was now a basin, six hundred feet in diameter, full of dingy red water in a boiling state, and continued so for three weeks.

This volcanic island continued above the sea for nearly three months, and then it sank gradually again into the sea. Before it began to sink, its circumference became much diminished by the continued action of the waves on all its sides. It appeared July 18, 1831. Towards the close of October, the whole was nearly on a level with the surface of the sea. After it disappeared, it left behind it Fig. 30. a dangerous reef of hard volcanic rock just eleven feet under water, encompassed by shoals consisting of scoriæ and sand. Fig. 31 is a representation of its general appearance when at its highest elevation.

The first well-ascertained instance of an island being elevated by a submarine volcano, was that near St. Michael in the Azores. In the same neighbourhood, various eruptions had been known in the years 1638, 1691, and 1719; but in the year 1811, a most terrific earthquake was felt at St. Michael. For more than half a year previously several shocks had been felt, but on January 31st, the convulsions were at the height of violence. On February 1st, at a spot about two miles out at sea, from the village of Genites, volumes of sulphureous vapours were seen to rise out of the sea, which spread themselves in all directions. These were accompanied with jets of fire. At the same time, the wind carried volcanic ashes from the sea as far as the town of Ponta del Gada, 18 miles off, where they fell and covered the houses and the adjacent fields. The columns of ashes and erupted materials, as they were rising from the sea, could be seen for many miles round, and appeared by night like pillars of fire. While these were rising, the sea boiled in terrible agitation.

In about eight days these eruptions ended, and the bottom of the sea was raised nearly to a level with the water. This was in a part of the sea which was known to be from 300 to 500 feet deep. On June 13th another earthquake announced the approach of another eruption, which broke out at the distance of two miles and a half from the other spot, a little to the west of Cape Pico das Camarinhas, and on the 17th it was at its greatest violence. Columns upon columns of ashes and smoke rose at intervals with fearful agitations, to the height of many hundred feet above the sea, and spread themselves out in thick clouds, which were rendered more terrible by frequent flashes of lightning.

At the close of this eruption, an island became visible, and rose gradually to the height of three hundred feet. It had, at one end, a summit, in the form of a cone, and at the other, a deep crater, out of which violent flames of fire were gushing, though it was under water at full tide.

[graphic]

Submarine Eruption, near St. Michael, in the Azores, 1811.

Captain Tillard, who was in the neighbourhood, visited the island, and called it, after the name of his ship, "Sabrina." He found its mass of ashes and cinders too hot for walking on it. He could see that when the tide returned, the sea flowed with tremendous violence into the burning crater, where the water was boiling as in a hot caldron. Through the continued eruptions of burning stones, sands, and ashes, from the crater, the conical hill already mentioned, on one side of the island, rose eventually six hundred feet above the sea. After all, in the last days of February, 1812, the entire island'sank into the sea and completely disappeared. The annexed engraving (fig. 30) will assist you in imagining the appearance of these phenomena at sea.

This little island received seven different names. It was well known by the name of Ferdinandea; but the name "Graham Island" has been fixed upon by both the Royal and the Geographical Societies.

I want you now to apply your geological knowledge to the inves. tigation of this phenomenon. Here was a sea 600 feet deep, and here is an island raised, in a few weeks, 200 feet high. Here is, therefore, a quantity of land three miles in circumference, raised up to a

total elevation of 800 feet in a very brief period. The shoals of dead fish, which were found in the volcanic sands around it, will explain similar facts which have been discovered in strata connected with volcanic districts. When the crater of this little island was ejecting mineral masses, it is probable that they would envelop some of the dead fish at the sea bottom, and that, when the erupted ashes fell again, both they and the fish which they contained were ingulfed in the bottom of the ocean. You can imagine that if ever this sea bottom will become elevated above the waters of the sea, and be explored by some future geologist or ichthyologist, the fossil fish of the Mediterranean, imbedded in volcanic tufa, will prove an important study.

In a former lesson it was mentioned that some of the cavities of subterranean fires must be of immense areas. This is proved by the fact that the reservoir of volcanic fires, which lies under the southern part of Italy, extends far and wide beneath the bed of the Mediterranean, and sometimes occasions the rise of fresh shoals and new islands in that sea.

Graham Island presents to you the advantage of having been carefully examined by scientific men. On this account, the study of its structure will much aid your inquiries into the volcanic formation of rocks. As much of the island as was visible was formed of loose incoherent materials, such as sand, scoriæ, pumice, &c., ejected from the crater. These loose materials, after having been hurled to a considerable height, fell again on each side of the central basin, and settled down in regular strata, as represented by the dark lines on the left and the right of fig. 31, and parallel to the deep inward slopes of the crater. But at some distance from the rims around the

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