« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
tive pronoun whom ; the principal sentence is that into which | In Latin, good in the former instance would be bona; in the the subordinate sentence is introduced; as you see in this latter, bonus. So sponsus, bridegroom, becomes in the feminine, diagram :
By these statements and explanations, then, you are taught,
that in both nouns and adjectives, case, number, and gender, are in The bad boys SUBORDINATE SENTENCE. I always love much play
Latin indicated by divers terminations. It is an easy inwhom I mentioned
ference that if a change is made to turn a singular noun into a Revert now to the simple sentence.
plural form, a corresponding change must be made in the adjective which accompanies it; that is to say, if the noun is plural, the adjective must be plural, if the noun is singular, the
adjective must be singular ; thus bonus puer becomes in the The dog
plural boni pueri. In the ordinary phraseology of Latin
grammars, this correspondence in form between the noun and and turn the sentence, thus :
the adjective is called concord. Here you are to consider the first concord to require that the noun and adjective should agree in number, that is, both must in form be either singular
or plural, and not one singular while the other is plural. A The man
second concord requires the noun and the adjective to be in the What I wish to set before you is, that dog and man remain the same gender, so that if you have to say good bridegroom, you bame in form, they are unchanged in this respect, whether they use the words, bonus sponsus, but if you wish to speak of a form the subject or the object of a proposition. In Latin, it is good bride, you change the us into a, and say bona sponsa. A not so. In Latin, the former sentence or statement is,
third concord is found in agreement in case between the adjective and noun, so that if the noun is in the nominative case,
the adjective must be in the nominative case; if the noun is Canis
in the objective or accusative case, in the same case must the The latter sentence is,
adjective be. Putting these three instances of concord or argument together, we say, that
Adjectives must agree with their substantives in GENDER, NUM
BER, and case.” A change, you see, has taken place, the subject, canis, has be
This general statement we call a rule ; and all such general oome the object, canem ; and the subject, nomo, has become the statements or rules you should commit to memory. Case, you object, hominem. A similar change takes place in the Latin see, is denoted by a change at the end of a noun or adjective. adjectives; as thus,
In nur English nouns we have something of a similar nature.
possessive case. The condition of the noun is called the posMalia canis momordit bonum hominem. sessive case, because possession is thereby signified. But why A bad dog
a good man.
is it called case ? Case is a Latin term, siguifying fall. And Invert the statement,
as the different terminations are gone down successively, as
you will shortly learn by experience; gone down or declined SUBJECT.
one after the other, on the part of the boys who learnt grammomordit malu canem.
mar in the schools, so were those terminations called cases, or A good man
successive falls, that is, falls of the voice. The cases then in Hence, you learn, that the subject and the object are, in Latin, Latin are the changes which the noun undergoes conformably marked by different terminations in the nouns and the ad- to variations in the meaning. Thus, as in English, father jectives.
becomes father's when used with book, as father's book, so in
Latin, pater-father, becomes patris, when used in dependence Diversities of termination are, in Latin, used to mark num.
on liber, book. Notice that I say, “when used in dependdar, in nouns and adjectives. In English we say good boy and
ence;" for the possessive (or genitive) case denotes connexion good boys, denoting the plural by adding to a noun, but leaving or dependence.” In father's book, the form father's is pethe adjective the same in the plural as it is in the singular. In cessitated by the dependence of the word on book. Such Latin, however, both adjective and noun undergo a change in dependence is denoted in the diction of Latin grammarby passing from the singular into the plural, thus :
the word gooernment; thus we should say that patris was SINGULAR.
governed in the genitive case by the word liber. Here again
arises a general statement or rule ; namely, thatgood boy
"One noun governs another in the genitive case." but in the
This rule simply means that of two nouns which are conPLURAL.
nected with each other by a relation of dependence, the noun boni pueri
which is dependent on the other noun must be put in the good boys
genitive (or possessive) case.
In Latin there are six cases: 1, the nominative; 2, the where, observe, has become i, and r has become ri. You possessive ; 3, the dative ; 4, the accusative; 5, the vocative ; 6, thus see that there are two ways of forming the plural in Latin; the ablative. These six cases are different forms of the noun, tirst by changing the termination, as, us is changed into i; whereby are indicated differences of meaning. The nominative or by adding to the termination, as, r becomes ri, by the corresponds to the su’rject, the accusative corresponds to the addition of i. If, instead of operating on us, you operate on object, of a proposition. You may find the nominative by asking the stem bon, then the plural in both cases is formed by the question who ? or what? You may find the accusative by addition, and in both by the addition of i. Instead of s, some- I asking the question rohum? or what? You may ascertain the times es, and sometimes us is added to form the plural. But genitive by asking the question whose! You may ascertain that which I now particularly wish you to mark is, that while the dative by asking the question for whom? or for what? You in English adjectives undergo no change in standing before may ascertain the ablative by asking the question by whom i or nouns in the plural, in the Latin they do undergo a change ; 1 by what? The vocative is preceded by the interjection 0! as and that change is at the end of the adjective, as it is at 0! father, and is employed in addresses or in vocations. In the end of the noun. A change for another purpose takes place' strictness of speech the nominative can hardly be termed a case, at the end of nouns and adjectives in Latin. By such changes because as the nouns are commonly given in dictionaries, it gender or sex is denoted. In English, you know, we say, seems to have no fall or case. The nominative, however, is good bride, good bridegroom ; that is, good is the same whether case, for it is not the primitive state of the noun. it qualify a feminine or a masculire noun. Not so in Latin., tive state of the noun, as the primitive state of the verh, in
foundin the stem. Thus the stem or form on which the cases of pater are formed is patr; by inserting e, the stem patrobecomes pater, the nominative case.
...; you to call these changes in the terminations of nouns and adjectives case-endings, I add that these case-endings are to be termed the Latin signs of the cases. For these Latin signs there are corresponding English signs; the English signs
ive (in part) the meaning of the Latin signs. Thus, of is the
nglish sign and meaning of the Latin genitive is to or for is the English sign and meaning of the Latin dative of by, with or from, is the English sign and meaning of the ablative or Now as in Latin the o of the dative is not inform distinguished from the o of the ablative case, some difficulty arises in reading Latin. This difficulty grows less by practice, and eventually disappears, for the sense points out in each instance whether the dative or the ablative case is the case intended by the author. Something similar exists in English ; for, since, as I have shownyou previously, thenominative and the objective, or the subject and the object, are in our nouns the same in form, we learn only by the sense which of the two is meant. With us, however, there is no difficulty, because the sense is determined by the position, for in English, in general, the subject precedes, the object follows, the verb. Inasmuch, however, as the subject in English undergoes no change in becoming the object, and inasmuch as no preposition goes before either_subject or object, so have we no natural English sign for the Latin nominative or the Latin accusative, and consequently are forced to indicate the former by the word subject, and the latter by the word object. Finally, the English sign of the vocative is 0; the corresponding Latin sign is in some nouns e, in others the form in the vocative is the same as the form in the nominative. Having given these explanations, I place under your eye at once the case-endings of a noun in Latin, with the corresponding English signs.—
SINGULAR. PLURAL. Latin ENGLISH LATIN ENGLISH CASE-ENDINGs. SIGNs. CASE-ENDINGS. SiGNS.
Nominative us (subject) i (subject) Genitive t of orum of Dative o to or for is to or for Accusative um (object) os (object) Vocative e o i o Ablative o by, with, or from is by, with, or from
You thus see that in Latin the case-endings of the singular are different from the case-endings of the plural. You also see that the English signs are the same in both singular and plural. For the sake of comparison, we commonly use a contraction for the names of the cases; thus, N. or Nom. for nominative; G. or Gen. for genitive, and so on with the rest. The case-endings which I have just set before you are not the case-endings of all the Latin nouns. I have given these because they are the most distinct. Others, however, must not be omitted. I will exhibit them to you first in succession, and then the whole combined in one view. In order to do so, I must set before you what are called the declensions. The declensions, or methods in which the falls of the cases take place, are in number five. To express the same thing differently, in order to assist you in understanding what I mean, I add that all the Latin nouns have by grammarians been arranged into five classes. In this classification regard has been had to the termination of the genitive case singuiar. Thus in the first declension the genitive case of the singular number ends in ae diphthong, pronounced like our ee; in the second declension the genitive ends in i: in the third, in is ; in the fourth, in us;, in the fifth, in et. These endings are termed the signs of the declensions, and may be thus presented :— Declensions 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th Signs coe i is tis ei
The sign of the fourth declension has a circumflex accent a over it, in order to distinguish it from other cases, namely, the nominative us, and the accusative us. In the same way over the ablative case of the first declension, we put a circumflex accent thus, d, as in femind-by, with, or from a female, in order to distinguish the ablative case or form from the nominative femina, a female. You may here be informed that adjectives are for the most part declined, that is, form
their cases in the same manner as the nouns which correspond with them in form; for instance, bonus, ending in us, is declined like dominus, which also ends in us ; and bona ending in a, is declined like femina, which also ends in a. A preliminary remark must be made respecting the article. The Latin language is without an article. Neither the definite article the nor the indefinite article a is found in Latin. Consequently, we cannot from the form, tell whether feming should be translated female, a female, or the female. In this particular there is, in construing or translating from the Latin, no other guide than the sense as it may be gathered from the general import of the sentence or the narrative; and you will also now be aware that female, a female, and the female, are equally to be put into Latin by femina.
Questions Fort ExAMINATIox.
What do you mean by a proposition? By what other terms may it be designated? what is the copula? the subject? the object? the attribute? Give an instance of a simple proposition. Give an instance of a compler proposition. What two parts of speech must the simplest proposition contain? How do English adjectives differ in form from Latin adjectives? what do you mean by concord? How many concords are there? repeat the general rule. What is meant by case? by declension? how many cases are there in Latin; how many declensions? give the Latin sign of the fifth declension; of the first; of the fourth; of the second; of the third. When does one noun require another to be in the genitive case? By what question may you find the dative case? the ablative case? the nominative case? how do you know the vocatire case? Is the nominative really a case? what are case-endings? what are the English signs? Are the case-endings of all the Latin nouns the same how is the ablative case singular of the first declension distinguished from the nominative case singularr what is the stem of bonus? when bonus is connected with a feminine noun, what does it become? What does “ ” mean in Latin Grammar 2 what is the Latin sign of the English by? of the English for? what is the English sign of the Latin arum?
THIsrule, although called Simple Addition, is confessedly one of the hardest rules in Arithmetic; not so much on account of its actual difficulty, as on account of its irksomeness, and the liability of the computer to forget at every step the sum which he has gained. We shall endeavour to obviate this by a piece of practical advice as we proceed; in the meantime, we state the general principle on which the rule is formed, viz. –Like things can only be added to like; or, in other words, if things are not alike they cannot be added together. For example, if any one were to ask the question, what is the sum of 5 apples and 6 pears? The answer would simply be, we cannot tell; or, in other words, there is no answer to this question. We know that the sum of the numbers 5 and 6 is 11; but we cannot say that 11 is the answer to the question; because 5 apples and 6 pears, do not make either 11 apples, or ll pears. In like manner, we cannot add units to tens, tens to hundreds, or hundreds to thousands, and preserve their individuality; but we can reduce the numbers of higher name into their equivalents of the lower name, and thus combine them by addition, when required. Hence arises, the following rule for the addition of large numbers, that is, when they consist of several ranks and periods. Rule. Arrange the numbers to be added together, in such a manner that the units' figure of each may standallin one vertical or upright column; the tens' figure of each, in another to the left of the units' column; the hundred's figure of each, in another to the left of the tens' column; and soon, till all the figures of each number be arranged in their own proper columns. Then draw a line under all the columns, and beginning at the unit's column, find the sum of all the figures it contains; if this sum does not exceed 9, place it under the line in its proper column or place of units; and proceed to do the same with the figures in the column of tens. But, if the sum of the figures in the units' column reaches the number 10, then put a cipher in the units' place under the line, and increase the column of tens by 1. This is called, in the language of the schools, carrying one to the next column. Again, if the sum of the
figures in the units' column exceed 10, then put the units' figure of the sum under the line in the units' place, and carry the number of tens to the next column; that is, if the sum of the units' column be among the teens, carry one, as before; and if it be among the tys, carry the number of the tys or tens to the next column. Having found the sum of all the figures in the tens' column, including the number of tens carried from the units' column, if this sum does not exceed 9, place it under the line in its own proper column or place of tens, and proceed to do the same with the figures in the column of hundreds. But if the sum of the figures in the tens' column reaches the number 10, it is then ten tens, or a hundred; †. therefore put a cipher in the tens' place under the line, and increase the column of hundreds by 1 ; that is, carry one to the next column. Again, if the sum of the figures in the tens' column exceeds 10, then put the units' figure of the sum (which is so many tens) under, the line in the tens' place, and carry the number of hundreds (which is so many tens of tens) to the next column; that is, if the sum of the tens' column be among the teens, carry one, as before; and if it be among the tys, carry the number of the ty or tens to the next column. Proceed in the same manner with the successive columns of hundreds, thousands, tens of thousands, &c., whatever be their number; and under the last column, to the left, of course, place the sum of all the figures in that column, so that the units' figure of the sum may be under the line in the proper place of the column to which it belongs, and the tens' figure of the sum (if it contain any) in the place of the column which would have been to the left of that column had there been one more column of figures to be added. In the preceding rule we have supposed that the sum of any column of figures may not exceed 99; if this, however, should be the case with any sum, the rule still is to put down the units’ figure of the sum under the column to which it belongs, and to carry the number of tens, which may be so great as to reach a hundred and upwards. In these cases the simplest rule is to put down the right hand or units' figure of the sum, and carry the rest of the figures, as they stand, at once to the next column; thus, if the sum of any column was 175, the rule requires that the units' figure 5 should be put down under the line in its proper column, and that 17 should be carried to the next column, and added along with the figures of that column. In order to make the learner familiar with the mode of operation to be followed in this rule, we shall give some examples. ExAMPLE 1.-Add together the following numbers:— 56374, 89768, 37845, 97683, 98989, 76876, 79888, and 12345.
Modz or OPERATIox.
Here, beginning with the column of units at the bottom, and just above the line there drawn, you say, if you follow the ordinary manner, 5 and 8 make 13; 13 and 6 make 19; 19 and 9 make 28; 28 and 3 make 31; 31 and 5 make 36 ; 36 and 8 make 44; 44 and 4 make 48; then 48 is the sum of the figures in the first or units' column. Now, here we shall give the piece of advice we promised; and it is this:–In order to avoid the repetition of the names of the successive sums arising from the addition of each figure as it comes in order, you should iust look at each figure without naming it, perform the opera
tion mentally, and utter the names of the successive sums only once, as they come in order, till you come to the last; thus, 5, 13, 19, 28, 31, 36, 44, 48. You now put 8 under the line, in the place or column of units, and carry 4 (as tens) to the next column, which is the column of tens. Then, proceeding as before, beginning with the figure or number you have to carry (that is to add to the next column), you say, 4, 8, 16, 23, 31, 39, 43,49, 56. Now, put 6 under the line, in the place or column of tens, and carry 5 (as hundreds) to the next column, which is the column of hundreds; and for this reason, that 56 tens, make 5 hundreds and 6 tens. Again, ou say, 5, 8, 16, 24, 33, 39, 47, 54, 57; and put 7 under the ine, in the place or column of hundreds, and carry 5 (as thousands) to the next column, which is the column of thousands; and for this reason, that 57 hundreds make 5 thousands and 7 hundreds. Proceed in this manner until you reach the sum of the last column on the left, which is 54; and then put 4 under the line, in its own proper column, which is tens of thousands, and 5 under the line in the next column, which is hundreds of thousands; and for this reason, that 54 tens of thousands make 5 hundreds of thousands, and 4 tens of thousands. In this way you find the sum of the numbers proposed in the question—viz., 549,768 ; or, five hundred and forty-nine thousand, seven hundred and sixty-eight. ExAMPLE 2.-Find the sum of the numbers: 56, 4008, 973, 48973, 101, 497856, 3001, 999, and 50.103.
Here, the method of performing the operation of addition is the same as before. The numbers both of this and the preceding example, are placed in lined columns to enable the learner to follow the process with accuracy and clearness. After he has acquired some practice in addition, of course it will be advisable to omit the lines between the columns, and to place the numbers so carefully under each other, that no mistake may arise in computation, from going out of one column into another while finding the sum of any particular column. The sum of the figures in the first column in this example is 40; therefore a cipher is put in the place of units, and 4 is carried to the next column. The sum of the figures in the second column, with this 4, is 37; therefore, 7 is put in the place of tens, and 3 is carried to the next column. The sum of the figures in the third column, with this 3, is 40; therefore, a cipher is put in the place of hundreds, and 4 is carried to the next column. Proceeding in this manner we reach the last column to the left, and the sum of the whole of the given numbers is 606070, which is the answer required.
PRoof of ADDITION.
There are various ways of proving addition, that is of testing or trying the accuracy of the operation, by performing it in another manner. One of these is to perform the addition by beginning to find the sum of the figures in each column at the top, instead of at the bottom, and proceeding downwards until the whole of them are added together. This method proceeds on the very obvious principle, that if numbers are to be added together, it is of no importance, as regards the final result, in what order they are taken; for, if correctly added, they are sure to give the same sum, namely, the collection of all the units of which they are composed.
Another method is to divide the numbers into two, three, or more sets, as may be found convenient; add each of these sets separately; then, collect all these partial sums into one olim, and it will be the complete sum of all the given numbers. This method is founded on the obvious principle, that the whose to equal to the sum of all its parts, in whatsoever coy the sum of these parts may be found. To make this method plain, we shall apply it to the first example given above. Here, taking the first four numbers and finding their sum, and the last four numbers and finding their sum, they stand as follows:—
First four lines. Second four lines. 56374 98989 897.68 76876 37845 79888 97.683 12345
1st partial Sum 281670 2nd partial Sum 268098 Now taking these partial sums, and adding them together as follows, we have the true sum of all the numbers; thus:–
1st partial Sum 281670 2nd partial Sum 268098
Total Sum 549768
As this result agrees with the former, the proof is considered complete. The best proof in general, however, is repeating the operation of addition several times both ways; that is, first computing the sum from the bottom of the columns to the top, and then from the top to the bottom, until the computer is perfectly satisfied that he cannot be mistaken.
QUESTIons on THE PRRCEDING LEssox.
1. Find the sum of all the numbers from 1 to 100. 2. 142857+428571 +2857.14+857142-1-571428--714285-r 142857. 3. 90.34781–H57+4897–H309-1-587896-1-369875625+1876-1398-1-79–H3. 4. Arrange the nine digits in the form of a square, that is, in three rows of three figures each, so that when the columns are added vertically (up and down), horizontally (from side to side), or diagonally (from corner to corner), they will still produce th: sarone surn. 5. As another exercise of the same kind, but on a larger scale, we extract the following square from Professor De Morgan's “Elements of Arithmetic,” in which the columns also added vertically, horizontally, or diagonally, will all produce the same sum, thus affording twenty-three different exercises in addition:—
395992 2870942 1187976 3662926 1979960 4454910 2771944
593.988 3068938 1335972 386092 1484970
LESSONS IN ENGLISH GRAMMAR.—No.IV. NOUNS (continued).-NUMBER.
NUMBER is the distinction of one object from many. We have already said that nouns have two numbers—the singular, which expresses only one object, as a book; the plural, which expresses two or more objects, as books. For this and some other particulars as to number, we refer to our last lesson, only adding that some nouns are always expressed in the plural--such, for example, as snuffers, scissors, bellows, tongs, pincers, and many other things formed of two or more parts, and which cannot be separated without making the tuing imperfect. Such words as wages, thanks, riches, respects, are also included in this class. The ways in which the plural number is formed are so various, that your close attention will be necessary. o The most common and simple mode of forming the plural is that of adding the letter s to the singular, which is the root, or the radical form of the word, thus:
Singular. Plural. Singular. Plural. Apple Apples House Houses Book Books Sofa Sofas Cloud Clouds Table Tables
Ch, sounded hard, like k, admits only of stoform the plural, as, monarch in the singular, is written monarchs in the plural. But when a singular noun ends with ch soft, sh, s, ss, or r, the plural is formed by adding es, thus:
Singular. Plural. Singular. Plural. Beech Beeches Page Pages Bolus Boluses Prince Princes Lass Lasses Tax Taxes Lash Lashes Breeze Breezes
This rule applies also to some nouns which end in o, preceded by a consonant. Thus hero, . makes heroes, plural. Exception to this rule will, however, be found in all modern books, in such words as grotto, portico, halo, canto, solo, two, folio, quarto, octavo, duodecimo, &c. To these words s only is now added, by mcst writers, to form the plural.
Singular nouns ending in y, preceded by a consonant, form the plural by changing y into ies, as in the words following:—
Singular. Plural. Singular. Plural. Company Companies Fairy Fairies City Cities Lady Ladies Cherry Cherries Beauty Beauties Spy Spies Vanity Vanities
But nouns ending in ey in the singular are formed in the plural by adding s only, as
Singular. Plural. Singular. Plural. Alley Alleys Delay Delays Attorney Attorneys Galley Galleys Boy Boys Key Keys Covey Coveys Valley Valleys
These exceptions are formed in consequence of a vowel having been used before in the same syllable. There are also some nouns ending in ey in the singular, in which the plural is formed by adding ies; thus money in the singularis spelt monies in the plural; journey in the singular, journies in the plural; chimney in the singular, chimnies in the plural.
Nouns which end in forfe in the singular number, are formed in the plural by changing the for fe into ves, as
Singular. Plural. Singular. Plural. Calf Calves Life Lives Half Halves Self Selves Knife Knives Shelf Shelves Leaf Leaves Thief Thieves Loaf Loaves Wife Wives
There are, however, exceptions to this rule; the following nouns in the singular number become plural by the addition of s only,
Brief Dwarf Honf Puff Chief Grief Muff Roof Cliff Gulf Mischief Ruff Cuff Handkerchief Proof Scarf
And other neums with similar endings. Also such nouns as fife, strife, safe, &c. But staff and wolfin the singular are made staves and wolves in the plural. The noun man and all its compounds, form the plural by changing the a into e, as man, men; woman, women ; footman, footmen; statesman, statesmen. Other nouns take em, or ren, to form their plural; thus, child, brother, or, in the singular, become children, brethren, ozen, in the plural. The plural of some nounsis irregularly formed; as for example:—
Singular. Plural. Singular. Plural. Foot Feet Tooth Teeth Goose Geese Penny Pence Mouse Mice Die Dies
A die, the stamp used in coining, embossing, &c. takes the regular plural, and becomes dies. Dice, the small square piece of ivory used by gamesters, is generally spelt only in the plural. Some nouns have two forms of the plural, and two different meanings. The noun brother has two plurals in use, namely, brothers, and brethren. Brothers is applied to natural relations, as when we speak of brothers and sisters; or when we say James and Charles are brothers: the word brethren is used in a more figurative sense; as men and brethren; or, all men are brethren, or brethren should love one another. The noun inder has two plurals, indeares and indices; inderes mean tables of contents; indices, signs in
algebra. The noun penny has two plurals; pennies, meaning a number of separate coins; pence expressing the value in reckoning
up; as, I have six pennies, or, It cost me airpence.
Many nouns taken from foreign languages retain their original
plurals. A few examples may be given :—
The French Beau makes Beaur in the plural.
-- Magus -> Magi -
-- Genus -- Genera -
-- Radius -- Radii ->
And such words as addendum, areanum, datum, desideratum, dietum, medium, memorandum, stratum, &c. change the um into a in order to form the plural; as addenda, &c.; us in the singular becomes # in the plural. Where the singular ends in er or ir, the plural ends in ices; where words end in a in the singular, they take e in the plural. To give all the examples would occupy very considerable space. Those who study our Latin and other lessons will obtain a key to the whole.
The names of many herbs are used only in the singular; as, asparagus, grass, mint, spinach, balm, marjoram, parsley, sage, Among the exceptions, are:—
Singular. Plural. Singular. Plural. A nettle Nettles A poppy Poppies A lily Lilies A cabbage Cabbages
The names of several sorts of corn, pulse, and other articles of food are said to have no plurals, though many of them denote things which consist of two or more parts, and are therefore, strictly speaking, plural. Barley, wheat, rye, honey, milk, butter, &c. cannot be rendered in the plural, though the words are often used to describe large quantities; but ale, beer, bread, soup, stew, &c. may be rendered in the plural, and are often so rendered by having an s added to the singular, as ale, ales; &c. Two or more nouns united and forming one complex name, or a name and a title, or two names, have the plural termination annexed to the last only, as the Miss Smiths, or, the three Dr. Clarkes, or, the two Mr. Thomsons; or, queen consorts, lord chancellors, lord lieutenants, colonel majors, &c. These terminations may not be critically correct, but general usage has decided in their favour. The words spoonful, mouthful, &c. are compound nouns which cannot be divided; their plurals are spoonfuls, mouthfuls, &c. The words means, news, and pains, are used both assingular and plural nouns. There are cases in which no change is made to denote plurality, as in stone, meaning weight; sail, signifying ships, stand, when applied to arms; head, referring to cattle; foot, infantry; horse, cavalry; brace, leash, dozen, hundred, thousand, &c. The neglect of the plural termination in such cases may not be strictly grammatical, but, as we have said above, common usage may justify the neglect and preserve us from the charge of vulgarity. As to the use of capital letters. A proper noun ought always to
begin with a capital letter. In cases where a noun is used both as a common and a proper noun, the capital letter should be employed when it is used in the latter way. Thus we say, Many dukes were present, but those most noticed were the Duke of Wellington, and the Duke of Richmond. Or, In the Exhibition were the portraits of three queens, the Queen of England, the Queen of Spain, and the Queen of Portugal. In books printed during the last century, the first letter of every noun was made a capital; capital letters are now used but sparingly. Questions on THE FoREGoING LEsson. What is meant by number 2 Have all nouns the plural number 2 What is the most common mode of forming the plural? In what cases are the plurals formed by adding es? How is the plural formed when the noun ends with y preceded by a consonant When a noun ends in ey, how is the plural formed 2 Into what form must for se be changed to make the plural : Mention some exceptions to this rule. Give some instances of irregularly-formed plurals. Have not some nouns two forms of the plural 2 Are the names of herbs used in the singular or plural 2 What is the modern custom as to the use of capital letters in the spelling of nouns f
LESSONS IN ANCIENT HISTORY..—No. II.
You will remember that our first lesson carried us as far down as the reign and the conquests of Sesostris or Rameses the This prince was the most celebrated of the Egyptian monarchs, while the victories ascribed to him are so mighty and so remarkable that it has been a question whether such a personage ever lived. Not only did he subdue the mountainous districts east of Egypt, and part of the Arabian peninsula, but his fleet scoured the Indian seas, and his expeditions extended as far as the western coast of Hindostan. Ethiopia also beeame subject to his arms, and was compelled to pay a tribute of ebony, gold, and elephants' teeth. His campaigns in Asia and Europe were equally successful, while his exploits in the o of Assyria and the Euphrates are represented in the sculptures of the tomb of Osymandyas, which are thus described by a modern writer:—
“On the north face of the eastern pyramidal-tower is represented the capture of several towns from an Asiatic enemy, whose chiefs are led in bonds by the victorious Egyptians towards the camp of their army. In the scene, an insolent soldier pulls the beard of his helpless captive, while others wantonly beat the suppliant, or satiate their fury with the sword. Beyond these is a corps of infantry in close array, flanked by astrong body of chariots; and a camp, indicated by a rampart of Egyptian shields, with a wicker gateway, guarded by four companies of sentries, who are on duty on the other side, forms the most interesting object in the picture. Here the booty taken from the enemy is collected: oxen, chariots, wagons, horses, asses, sacks of gold, represent the confusion incident after a battle; and the richness of the spoilis expressed by the weight of a bag of money under which an ass is about to fall. One chief is receiving the salutation of a footsoldier; another, seated amidst the spoil, strings his bow, and a sutler suspends a water-skin on a pole which he has fixed in the ground. Below this, a body of infantry marches homewards; and beyond them, the king, attended by his fan-bearers, holds forth his hand to receive the homage of the priests and principal persons who approach his throne to congratulate his return. His charioteer is also in attendance; and the highspirited horses of his car are with difficulty restrained by three grooms who hold them. The captives, below this, are doomed to be beaten, probably to death, by four Egyptian soldiers; while in vain, and with outstretched hands, they implore the clemency of their heedless conqueror.
“Upon the west tower is represented a battle in which the king discharges his arrows upon the broken lines and flying chariots of the enemy. . . . In a single compartment beyond these, he stands, armed with a battle-axe, about to slay the captives he holds beneath him. -
“On the west face of the south-east wall, the king is represented pursuing an enemy, whose numerous chariots, flying over the plain, endeavour to regain the river, and seek shelter