Εικόνες σελίδας
PDF
Ηλεκτρ. έκδοση

it to the first example given above. Here, taking the first four

LESSONS IN ENGLISH GRAMMAR.-No. IV. numbers and finding their sum, and the last four numbers and finding their sum, they stand as follows :

NOUNS (continued).-NUMBER.
First four lines.

Second four lines. NUMBER is the distinction of one object from many. We have 56374

98989 already said that nouns have two numbers, the singular, which 89768

76876 expresses only one object, as a book ; the plural, which expresses 37845

79888 two or more objects, as books. For this and some other particu97683

12346

lars as to number, we refer to our last lesson, only adding that 1st partial Sum 281670 2nd partial Sum 268098

some nouns are always expressed in the plural-such, for example,

as snuffers, scissors, bellows, tongs, pincers, and many other things Now taking these partial sums, and adding them together as formed of two or more parts, and which cannot be separated with. follows, we have the true sum of all the numbers; thus:- out making the thing imperfect. Such words as wages, thanks, 1st partial Sum 281670

riches, respects, are also included in this class. 2nd partial Sum 268098

The ways in which the plural number is formed are so various,

that your close attention will be necessary. Total Sum 549768

The most common and simple mode of forming the plural is that As this result agrees with the former, the proof is considered of adding the letter s to the singular, which is the root, or the complete. The best proof in general, however, is repeating radical form of the word, thus :the operation of addition several times both ways; that is, Singular. Plural.

Singular. Plural. first computing the sum from the bottom of the columns to

Apple Apples

House Houses the top, and then from the top to the bottom, until the com- Book Books

Sofa Sofas puter is perfectly satisfied that he cannot be mistaken.

Cloud Clouds

Table Tables
QUESTIONS ON THE PRECEDING LEssox.

Ch, sounded hard, like k, admits only of 8 to form the plural, as,

monarch in the singular, is written monarchs in the plural. But 1. Find the sum of all the numbers from 1 to 100.

when a singular noun ends with ch soft, sh, 8,88, or 3, the plural 2. 142857 +428571 +285714 +857142 +571428+714285- is formed by adding es, thus :142857.

Singular. Plural.

Singular. Plural. 3. 9034781+57+-4897+309+587896 +369875625+1876+ Beech Beeches

Page Pages 398+79+8.

Bolus Boluses

Prince Princes 4. Arrange the nine digits in the form of a square, that is, in Lass

Lasses

Tax

Taxes three rows of three figures each, so that when the columns are Lash Lashes

Breeze Breezes added vertically (up and down), horizontally (from side to side),

This rule applies also to some nouns which end in 0, preceded or diagonally (from corner to corner), they will still produce th:

by a consonant. Thus hero, singular, makes heroes, plural. same sum. 5. As another exercise of the same kind, but on a larger scale, in such words as grotto, portico, halo, canto, solo, two, folio,

Exception to this rule will, however, be found in all modern books, we extract the following square from Profe-sor De Morgan's Elements of Arithmetic,” in which the columns also added quarto, octayo, duodecimo, &c. To these words s only is now vertically, horizontally, or diagonally, will all produce the same added, by mcst writers, to form the plural. sum, ihus affording twenty-three different exercises in addition :- Singular nouns ending in y, preceded by a consonant, form the

plural by changing y into ies, as in the words following :2016 4212 1656 38521296 3492 936 3132, 576 2772 216

Singular. Plural,

Singular. Plural.

Company Companies 252 2052 4248 1692|3888|1332 3528 972 3168 612 2412)

Fairy Fairies
City
Cities

Lady

Ladies

Cherry Cherries 2445 288 2288 2281 1728 3924 1368 3564 1008 2808 648

Beauty Beauties Spy Spies

Vanity Vanities 684 2484 324 2124 43201764 3960, 1404 3204 1044 2814 But nouns ending in ey in the singular are formed in the plural

by adding s only, as 2880 720 2520 360/21604356 1800 3600 1440 3240 1080

Singular. Plural.

Singular. Plural. 11162916 750 2556 39621563996 1836 3636 1476 3276)

Alley Alleys

Delay Delays Attorney Attorneys

Galley Galleys 3312 1152 2952 792 2592 301223214032 1872 3672 1512

Boy
Boys

Key Keys
Covey Coveys

Valley Valleys 11545 3348 1188 2988 4322629 72 2268 4068.1908 3708

These exceptions are formed in consequence of a vowel having 3714 1584 3384 828 3024 468 2664 108 2304,4104 1944 been used before in the same syllable. There are also some nouns

ending in ey in the singular, in which the plural is formed by 1930/3780 1224 3420 864 360 501 2700' 144 2340 4140 adding ies; thus money in the singular is spelt monies in the plural;

journey in the singular, journies in the plural ; chimney in the 1176 1620 3816'1260 3456 909 3096 549 2736 180 2376

singular, chimnies in the plural.

Nouns which end in f or fe in the singular number, are formed in 6. We all arother example of the same kind, which will afford the plural by changing the f or fe into ves, as 15 exercises on larger numbers than those in the preceding

Singular. Flural.

Singular. Plural. square :

Calf
Calses

Life

Lives 2177956 4652.506 1583968 4058918 989980 3464930 395992

Half
Halves

Self

Selves
Knife
Knives

Shelf

Shelves

Leaf 494990 | 2276954 4751904 1682966 | 41579161088978 2870942

Leaves

Thief

Thieves
Loaf
Loares

Wise

Wires 2969940 593988 2375952 4850902 1781964 3563928 1187976 There are, however, exceptions to this rule; the following nouns

in the singular number become plural by the addition of : only, 1286974 | 3068938 692986 2474950 4256914) 1980962 3662926 3761924 1 1385972 3167936 98998 2573948 4355912 1979960

Brief
Dwarf

Hoof

Puff
Chief
Grief
Muff

Roof 2078958 3860922 791984 3266934 1979962672916 4454910

Cliff
Gulf

Mischier Ruff
Cuff
Handkerchief Proof

Scarf 539081484970 39599201 890982 3366932 296994 2771944

And other nouns with similar endings. Also such nouns as fife,

18

as

Cherubim

[ocr errors]

Genus

Genera

strife, safe, &c. But staff and wolf in the singular are made staves begin with a capital letter. In cases where a noun is used both as and wolves in the plural.

a common and a proper noun, the capital letter should be employed The noun man and all its compounds, form the plural by chang- when it is used in the latter way. Thus we say, Many dukes were ing the a into e; as man, men ; woman, women ; foolman, foot- present, but those most noticed were the Duke of Wellington, and men ; statesman, statesmen. Other pouns take en, or ren, to form the Duke of Richmond. Or, In the Exhibition were the portraits their plural ; thus, child, brother, ox, in the singular, become of three queens, the Queen of England, the Queen of Spain, and the children, brethren, oxen, in the plural.

Queen of Portugal. In books printed during the last century, the The plural of some nouns is irregularly formed; as for example: first letter of every noun was made a capital ; capital letters are Singular. Plural.

Singular. Plural.

now used but sparingly.
Foot
Feet

Tooth
Teeth

QUESTIONS ON THE FOREGOING LESSON.
Goose
Geese

Penny
Pence

What is meant by number?
Mouse Mice

Die
Dies

Have all nouns the plural number?

What is the most common mode of forming the plural ? A die, the stamp used in coining, embossing, &c. takes the regular

In what cases are the plurals formed by adding ee! plural, and becomes dies. Dice, the small square piece of ivory How is the plural formed when the noun ends with y precedea used by gamesters, is generally spelt only in the plural.

by a consonant ? Some nouns have two forms of the plural, and two different When a noun ends in ey, how is the plural formed ? meanings. The noun brother has two plurals in use, namely, Into what form must for fe be changed to make the plural? brothers, and brethren. Brothers is applied to natural relations, as Mention some exceptions to this rule. when we speak of brothers and sisters; or when we say James and

Give some instances of irregularly-formed plurals. Charles are brothers : the word brethren is used in a more figurative

Have not some nouns two forms of the plural ? sense; as men and brethren ; or, all men are brethren ; or brethren

Are the names of herbs used in the singular or plural ?

What is the modern custom as to the use of capital letters in the should love one another. The noun index has two plurals, indexes and indices; indexes mean tables of contents; indices, 'signs in spelling of nouns ? algebra. The noun penny has two plurals; pennies, meaning & ! number of separate coins; pence expressing the value in reckoning :

LESSONS IN ANCIENT HISTORY.--No. II. up; as, I have six pennies, or, It cost me sixpence,

By Dr. R. FERGUSON. Many nouns taken from foreign languages retain their origina! You will remember that our first lesson carried us as far down plurals. A few examples may be given :

as the reign and the conquests of Sesostris or Rameses the The French Beau makes Beaur in the plural.

Great. This prince was the most celebrated of the Egyptian The Hebrew Cherub

monarchs, while the victories ascribed to him are so mighty Seraph Seraphim

and so remarkable that it has been a question whether such a The Greek Phenomenon

Phenomena

personage ever lived. Not only did he subdue the mountainous The Latin Erratum

Erruta

districts east of Egypt, and part of the Arabian peninsula, but Marus Mari

his fleet scoured the Indian seas, and his expeditions extended

as far as the western coast of Hindostan. Ethiopia also beRadius Radii

came subject to his arms, and was compelled to pay a tribute of And such words as addendum, arcanum, datum, desideratur, dictum, ebony, gold, and elephants' teeth. His campaigns in Asia and medium, memorandum, stratum, &c. change the um into a in order Europe were equally successful, while his exploits in the to form the plural; as addenda, &c. ; us in the singular becomes neighbourhood of Assyria and the Euphrates are represented i in the plural. Where the singular ends in er or ix, the plural in the sculptures of the tomb of Osymandyas, which are thus ends in ices ; where words end in a in the singular, they take e in described by a modern writer :the plural. To give all the examples would occupy very consider- "On the north face of the eastern pyramidal-tower is repre

Those who stud our Latin and other lessons will sented the capture of several towns from an Asiatic enemy, obtain a key to the whole.

whose chiefs are led in bonds by the victorious Egyptians The names of many herbs are used only in the singular ; as, towards the camp of their army. In the scene, an insolent asparagus, grass, mint, spinach, balm, marjoram, parsley, eage. soldier pulls the beard of his helpless captive, while others Among the exceptions, are :-

wantonly beat the suppliant, or satiate their fury with the Singular. Plural.

sword. "Beyond these is a corps of infantry in close array,

Singular. Plural. A nettle

flanked by a strong body of chariots; and a camp, indicated by Nettles

A poppy

Poppies A ling Lilie,

A cabbage Cabbagis

a rampart of Exyptian shields, with a wicker gateway, guarded

by four companies of sentries, who are on duty on the other The names of several sorts of corn, pulse, and other articles of food side, forms the most interesting object in the picture. Here are said to have no plurals, though many of them denote things the booty taken from the enemy is collected : oxen, chariots, which consist of two or more parts, and are therefore, strictly wagons, horses, asses, sacks of gold, represent the confusion speaking, plural. Barley, wheat, rye, honey, milk, butter, &c. incident after a battle; and the richness of the spoil is expressed cannot be rendered in the plural, though the words are ofien used by the weight of a bag of money under which an ass is about to describe large quantities; bui ale, veer, óread, soup, stew, &c. to fall. One chief is receiving the salutation of a foot soldier ; may be rendered in the plural, and are often so rendered by having another, seated amidst the spoil, strings his bow, and a sutler an s added to the singular, as ale, ales ; &c.

suspends a water-skin on a pole which he has fixed in the Two or more nouns united and forming one complex name, or a ground. Below this, a body of infantry marches homewards ; name and a title, or two names, have the plural termination annexed and beyond them, the king, attended by his fan-bearers, to the last only, as the Miss Smiths, or, the three Dr. Clarkes, or, holds forth his hand to receive the homage of the priests and the two Mr. Thomsons ; or, queen consorts, lord chancellors, lord principal persons who approach his throne to congratulate his lieutenants, colonel majors, &c. These terminations may not be return. His charioteer is also in attendance; and the highcritically correct, but general usage has decided in their favour. spirited horses of his car are with difficulty restrained by three

The words spoonful, mouthful, &c. are compound noans which grooms who hold them. The captives, below this, are doomed cannot be divided ; their plurals are spoonfuls, mouthfuls, &c. to be beaten, probably to death, by four Egyptian soldiers;

The words means, news, and pains, are used both as singular and while in vain, and with outstretched hands, they implore the plaral noans.

clemency of their heedless conqueror. There are cases in which no change is made to denote plurality, “ Upon the west tower is represented a battle in which the as in stone, meaning weight; sail, signifying ships: stand, when king discharges his arrows upon the broken lines and flying applied to arms ; head, referring to cattle; foot, infantry; horse, chariots of the enemy.... In a single compartment beyond cavalry ; brace, lsash, dozen, hundred, thousand, &c. The neglect of these, he stands, armed with a battle-axe, about to slay the the plural termination in such cases may not be strictly grammatical, captives he holds beneath him. but, as we have said above, common usage may justify the veglect

i On the west face of the south-east wall, the king is repreand preserve us from the charge of vulgarity.

sented pursuing an enemy, whose numerous chariots, flying As to the use of capital letters. A proper noun ought always to over the plain, endeavour to regain the river, and seek shelter

able space.

were

а

under the fortified walls of their city. In order to check the great earnestness, he asked what made him look so attentively approach of the Egyptains, the enemy had crossed the river, at them! The unhappy prince replied, "O king ! the going whose stream, divided into a double fosse, surrounded the round of the wheel puts me in mind of the vicissitudes of fortowered walls of their fortified city, and opposed their advance tune; for as every part of the wheel is uppermost and lower. by a considerable body of chariots; while a large reserve of most by turns, so it is with men, who one day sit on a throne, infantry, having crossed the bridge, was posted on the other and on the next are reduced tɔ the vilest degree of slavery. bank, to cover their retreat, or second their advance; but, This answer was like an arrow in the conscience, and brought routed by the Egyptian invaders, they are forced to throw the haughty conqueror to his senses. It is said that from that themselves back upon the town; and many, in re-crossing day he gave over the practice of yoking princes together, the river, are either carried away by the stream, or fall under and ever after treated his captives with greater humanity. Ii the arrows of the advancing conqueror. Those who have suc- we may believe tradition, this mighty monarch lost his sight, ceeded in reaching the opposite bank are rescued by their and afterwards put an end to his life by laying violent hands friends, who, drawn up in their phalanxes, witness the defeat on himself. of thcir eomrades, and the flight of the remainder of their Great as were the exploits and the victories of Sesostris, you chariots. Some carry to the sea the lifeless corpse of their must not suppose that Egypt was ever a conquering power, chief, who was drowned in the river, and in vain endeavour to or the Egyptians a warlike people. Their conquests were restore life by holding the head downwards to expel the water; / never of a solid and permanent nature. As often as they un. and others implore the

furled the banner and clemency of the victor,

took the field, SO and acknowledge him

often

they their conqueror and

doomed to experience lord.

the most vigorous re“On the south wall

sistance, and the very of the great hall is a

nations which they small but interesting

conquered did, in battle, in which the

some instances, sucuse of the ladder and

cessfully carry their testudo throws consi.

arms against them, derable light on the

and subject Egypt to mode of warfare at

their power. this early period. The

If the Egyptians town, secluded on

were not a warlike lofty rock, is obsti

people, what, then, was nately defended; and

the ruling element of many are hurled head.

the Egyptian mind? long from its walls by

The intellectual emi. the spears, arrows,

nence of that people and stones of the be

lay in their love of sieged. They, how

science-such a love ever, on the nearer

of science as penetrated approach of the Egyp

or sought to penetrate tian king, are obliged

by magic into all the to sue for peace, and

depths and mysteries send heralds, with

of nature, even into presents, to deprecale

their most hidden rehis fury; while his in

cesses. In all the na. fantry, commanded by

tural sciences—in mahis sons, are putting

thematics, in astroto the sword the

nomy, and even in routed enemy they

medicine — they were have overtaken bez

the masters of all neath the walls, where

other nations. All they had in vain

their architecture had looked for refuge, the

a hidden and interior gates being already

meaning. The very beset by the Egyptian

manner in which they troops.

treated and preserved If this great con

their dead had in it queror subdued the VIEW OF ANCIENT RUINS ON THE BANKS OF THE NILZ.

a deep and mysterious land of Canaan and

signification. Their Syria, as some say, how is it that we find no mention of him land was the birth-place of HIEROGLYPHICS, or the sacred in the Sacred Book? In answer to this question, it has been engravings, which had in them, “besides the bare literal very ingeniously said that the conquests of Sesostris took place meaning, a high symbolical inspiration-like a soul of while the Israelites were wandering in the desert, and that this life-like the breathing of a high in-dwelling spirit-a providential arrangement was intended to render more easy and deeply felt significancy – a lofty and beautiful design, more certain the taking of the promised land. Whether he con apparent through the dead character denoting any parquered the holy land or not, nothing detracts so much from the ticular name or fact." There, too, was the chief seat of glory of his victories as the cruelty with which he treated the the MYSTERIES—those mysteries which exerted such an infiuunhappy captives whom he had taken in war. His conduct was ence on public opinion, on science, and on the whole system marked by the greatest barbarity aad hardheartedness. Even of thinking, nay on life itself; for those who held them protowards the conquered princes who waited on him with their fessed to dispose of all those great questions which relate to tribute, he behaved with superlative insolence, and is said on the soul, its capacity and original dignity, as well as to the certain occasions to have unharnessed his horses, and, yoking hidden powers of nature end the whole invisible world. kings together, made them draw his chariot like so many Brought up in the midst of these mysteries, not only do we beasts of burden. In connexion with this fact, we have the find that Nosea has introduced them into his writings, but following little anecdote :-Having once observed one of the that to his writings inust we look for their true explanation. kings who drew his chariot look back upon the wheels with These secrets of nature, are, indeed, " to be found there, like

[graphic]

carry

his

60 many golden grains of science in full weight; but, scat- and in the year B.c. 713, arrived before Pelusium with a tered and dispersed, they serve at once to adorn and point out powerful force. Deserted by his soldiers, Sethos now appealed the path that leads to the holy ark of the covenant of divine to them in vain. They refused to march beneath his Lanner. mysteries and promises." Like a true philosopher, Moses He had recourse to the gods. While in the temple of Vulcan, made the mysteries of nature, whether hidden or revealed, he fell into a deep sleep, in which, it is said, he saw that god subordinate to religion. He never separated nature from God, standing at his side, exhorting him to take courage, and pronor God from nature.

mising him a victory over the Assyrians. Animated by this It does not appear that Sesostris used any means to keep assurance, he armed a body of artificers and labourers, and with in subjection the countries which he had once conquered; this undisciplined body advanced to meet the enemy. He was and, hence, no sooner had he withdrawn his arms from saved an engagement; for a pestilence in the Assyrian camp the field than his vast empire disappeared. Nor can we gave him such an advantage, that he committed the most fearfree our minds from the impression, that his successors ful havoc in their ranks. After his death, a statue was erected must have sunk into all the sloth and apathy of an eastern to his memory in the temple of Vulcan. The kingdom was lite. Of these successors we know nothing. There is then shared among twelvo princes or chiefs of the nobility. a mighty break in the history, which it is now impossible But this new form of government did not last long. These to fill up. Coming down to the time of the Trojan war, the chiefs began to quarrel as to the limits of their respective terrireigning prince in Egypt was CETEs, or, as he is named by the tories. This was followed by war; and one of their number, Greek writers, ProTEUS, of whom it is reported that he was a Psammeticus, prince of Sais, having been driven into exile, magician, and that he could assume any shape he pleased, levied an army of Greek and Carian dependants and pirates, even that of tire. Of this fabled personage we are left in total and having overcome all his rivals, once more, and only fifteen ignorance, as also of his successors, till we come to SES HOUK, years after its division into twelve principalities, united all or Sesouchis—the SHISHAK of Holy Scripture—who was the Egypt into a single monarchy, of which Memphis was the first monarch of the twenty-second dynasty. He flourished capital, though Sais was usually the seat of government. about nine hundred and seventy years before Christ. In the fifth year of Rehoboam, the son and successor of Solomon in

QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION. the throne of Israel, this Shishak, king of Egypt, came up

Who was the mightiest prince of Egypt; and wbither did be against Jerusalem with twelve hundred chariots and three.

conquests? score thousand horsemen, and people out of Egypt in numbers On whose tomb are his exploits recorded ? without number, besides Lybians and Ethiopians and Troglo- What proof is there that the Egyptians were not a warlike diytes, or dwellers in caves. With this inighty army he people ? advanced, took the fenced cities of Judah, and continued his What gave them their high intellectual eminence ? progress to Jerusalem itself, made vassals of all the people, What do you mean by hieroglyphics and mysteries ? from the highest to the lowest, reduced them to comparative

Describe the character of the princes who succeeded Sesostris. slavery, entered the temple, took away the treasures of the

What victory did Sesouchis achieve; and in what did it consist? house of the Lord, and the treasures of the king's house-he

With what king mentioned in Scripture does he agree? took all. He carried away also the shields of gold which Solo

What led Sabaco to attempt the invasion of Egypt?

To what country did he belong ? and why did he leave Egypt? mon had made, and whose place Rehoboam supplied with

Uuder what name is he mentioned in Scripture ? those of brass.

Why was Sethos deserted by his nobles and his soldiers ? Though Shishak thus extended his dominion beyond the How did he supply their place? bounds of Egypt, and included a large portion of southern and What was the form of government after the death of Sethos i western Africa within his empire, that empire soon afterwards How was Egypt again united in one single monarchy ? shrunk to its former limits, and in the following century the Egyp; tian monarchy rapidly declined, and the kingdom was conquered hy an Ethiopian invader. The name of the conqueror was SABACO, who commenced his reign with the more than brutal

LESSONS IN FRENCH.--No. IV. act of committing to the flames the prince whom he had vanquished. It is thought that he did this cruel deed merely to

By Professor Louis FASQUELLE, LL.D. establish himself more firmly on the throne; and that when he once found himself secure in the seat of supreme power, it is

SECTION VIII. said that he changed his policy, and became distinguished for his wisdom and moderation and mercy. Tradition informs us

1. The demonstrative adjectives ce, m. cette, f. this or that, that he was led to attempt the invasion of Egypt in conse

are always placed before nouns; they agree in gender with quence of a dream or vision, in which he was assured that he these nouns (20, (1)]. should hold the kingdom for fifty years. He succeeded in Avez vous ce parapluie ? m. Have you this or that umbrella ! subduing the country, and in establishing his reign ; but at the Voas n'avez pas cette bouteille, f. Have you not this or that bottle ? close of the fifty years he had another dream, in which the tutelar or presiding divinity of Thebes informed him that he

2. Before a word masculine singular, commencing with a could no longer hold the sceptre with safety and happiness, vowel, or an h mute, cet takes the place of ce [$ 20, (1)]. unless he put to death the whole body of the priesthood as he N'avez vous pas cet argent ? Have you not this or that money! passed through thein with his guard. Distressed and per. Vous avez eu cet honneur. You have had this or that honour. plexed by the nature of the vision, and abhorring to hold the kingdom on such terms, he sent for the priests, and told them

3. When it is deemed necessary to express in French, the what he understood to be the will of the gods. The priests, difference existing in English between the words this and however, concluded, more wisely, that it was the pleasure of that, the adverbs ci and la may be placed after the nouns the gods that Sabaco should remain no longer in Egypt, and, ($ 20, (2)]. satisfied with their interpretation of the oracle, he immediately Je n'ai pas ce parasol-ci, j'ai ce pa- I have nct this parasol, I have that quitted the kingdon, and returned to Ethiopia. He is thought rasol-là.

arasol. to have been the same with King So mentioned in Scripturc, and who entered into a league with Hoshea, king of Israel,

4. The demonstrative pronouns, celui, m. celle, f. this or against Shalmaneser, king of Assyria.

that, are used to represent nouns, but are never joined with Of ANYSIUS, who was the immediate

of them like adjectives [$ 36, § 37, (1)]. Sabaco, there is no authentic record. After him, a priest of J'ai mon parapluie et celui de votre I have my umbrella and your brother's, Vulcan, named Setuos or SetHON, assumed the government. frère.

i.e., that of your brother. It is said that he gave himself up to religious contemplation; Vous avez ma robe et celle de ma You have my dress and my sister's, and not only neglected the military caste or nobles of the

i.e., that of my sister. country, but deprived them of their lands; which so incensed them that they refused to bear arins in his service. At this 5. The pronouns celui, celle, with the addition of the words crisis, Sennacherib, king of Assyria, prepared to invade Egyp:, ci and , are used in the sense of this one, that one, the latter,

successor

suur.

the former [\37, (4)). They agree in gender with the word | 32. Is your brother right or wrong? 33. My brother is right, which they represent.

and yours is wrong. 31. Your sister has neither her satin hat Vous avez celui-ci, mais vous n'avez You have this one (the latter), Bret you nor her velvet hai, pas celui-là. hare not that one (the former ).

SECTION IX. 6. The pronouns ceci and cela are used absolutely, that is,

PLURAL OF NOUNS ($ 8). without a noun, in pointing out objects.

1. The plural in French is generally formed, as in English, Nous n'avons pas ceci, nous avons We have not this, we have that. hy the addition of s to the singular. cela.

Un homme, une femme.
Ceci ou cela.
This or that.

A mam, a rroman.

Deux hommes, deux femmes. Two men, treo women.
RESUMÉ Op EXAMPLES.

The form le of the article becomes plural by the addition of

s, and may be placed before plural nouns of either gender. Avez vous le livre de cet homme ? Have you that man's book? Je n'ai pas son livre, j'ai le mien. I hare not his book, I hare mine.

Les hommes, les femmes.

The men, the women. Le cuisinier a-t-il ce parapluie ? Has the cook that wanbrella!

2. Ist EXCEPTION TO Rule 1. Nouns ending in s, 1, 2, Il n'a pas ce parapluie-ci

, il a ce He has not this wnbreila, he has that remain unchanged for the plural. parapluie-là (R. 3).

tumbrella. Avez vous ce ui de votre frère ? Have you your brother's! i.e., that of

Le bas, les bas,

The stocking, the stockings. your brother.

La voix, les voix

The voice, the roices. Je n'ai pas celui de mon frère, j'ai I hare not my brother's, I hare my Le nez, les nez.

The nose, the noses. celui de ina sour (R. 4).

sister's; i.e., that of my brother, 3. 2nd Exception. Nouns ending with au and eu, take a that of my sister.

for the plural. Avez vous celui-ci ou celui-là ? Har gou this one or that one ! Je n'ai ni celui ci ni celui-là. I have neither the latter nor the former.

Le bateau, les bâteaux.

The bat, the boats.
Quelle robe avez vous ? f.
Which Tress hare you?

Le lieu, les lieux,

The place, the places.
J'ai celle-ci.
I hare this (one)

4. 3rd Exception. The following nouns ending in ou, take Avez vous ceci ou cela (R. 6). Have y ru this or that!

r for the plural, bijou, jewel; caillou, pebble ; chou, cabbage;

genou, knee; hibou, owl ; joujou, plaything. EXERCISE 17.

Les bijoux, les eailloux, les choux. The jewels, the pebbles, the cabbages. Ardoise, f. slate. Lettre, f. letter. Encrier, m. inkstand. Les hiboux, les genoux, les joujoux. The owls, the knees, the playthings. Balai, m. broom. Malle, f. trunk. Etranger, m. stranger,

5. 4th Exception. The following nouns ending in ail change Bois, in, wood.

Para-o1, m. parasol. foreigner. Bouteille, 1. bottle. Poulet, m. chicken, Lait, m. milk.

that termination into aux for the plural : bail, lease ; corail. Dame, f. lady.

Plomb, m, lend. Parapluie, m. umbrella, coral; émail, enamel; soupirail, air-hole ; sous-bail, under-iease; Fromage, m. cheese. Plus, no longer. Volaille, f. poultry.

travail, labour. Jardinier, m. gardener. Salière, f. salt stand.

Les baux, les coraux, les émaux. The leases, the corals, the enamele 1. Votre frère a-t-il son encrier d'argent ? 2. Il ne l'a plus, Les soupiraux, les travaux, les The air-holes

, the labcurs, the under. il a un encrier de plomb. 3. Avons nous la lettre de l'étran.

sous-baux.

lenses. ger? 4. Oui, Monsieur, nous avons celle de l'étranger (R. 4]. 6. 5th Exception. Nouns ending in al form their plural 5. Votre soeur n'a pas son ardoise, mais elle a son chapeau de in aux. satin. 6. Le menuisier a-t-il votre bois ou le sien. 7. Il n'a

Le cheval, les chevaux.

The horse, the horses. ni le mien ni le sien, il a celui du jardinier. 8. Avez vous

Le général, les généraux.

The general, the generals. mon bon parapluie de soie ? 9. J'ai votre parapluie de soie et

Bal, ball; carnaval, carnival; chacal, jackal; régal, treat; follow the votre parasol de satin. 10. Avez vous ma bouteille? 11. Je

general rule. n'ai pas votre bouteille, j'ai la malle de votre sour. 12. Le domestique a-t-il cette salière ? 13. Il n'a pas cette salière-ci,

7. 6th Exception. Ciel, heaven ; oil, eye; and aïeul, ancesil a celle-là. 14. Avez vous le bon ou le mauvais poulet? tor, form their plural irregularly. 15. Je n'ai ni celui-ci ni celui-là. 16. Quel poulet avez vous ?

Les cieux, les yeux, les aïeux. The hearens, the eyes, the ancestors. 17. J'ai celui du cuisinier. 18. Le boulanger a-t-il de la volaille ? (Sect. 4, R. 1.) 19. Le boulanger n'a pas de volaille,

For further rules see 8, § 9, and § 10 of the Second Part. il a du lait (Sect. 5, R. 5). 20. Avez vous votre fromage ou le mien: 21. Je n'ai ni le vôtre ni le mien, j'ai celui du

RESUME OF EXAMPLES. matelot. 22. Quelqu'un a-t-il faim? 23. Personne n'a faim. Les Anglais ont ils les chevaux Hare the English the general's horses? 24. Avez vous quelque chose ? 25. Non, Monsieur, je n'ai du général ? rien.

Les généraux n'ont pas les bijoux. The generals hare not the jewels.
EXERCISE 18.

Les enfants ont ils les cailloux ? Hare the children the pebbles ?
Les yeux de l'enfant.

The child's eyes. 1. Has your brother that lady's umbrella? 2. My brother Les tableaux de cette église. The pictures of that church. has that lady's umbrella! 3. Have you this parasol or that Avez vous les oiseaux de ce bois ? Have you the birds of that wood ? one?, 4. I have neither this (one) nor that (one). 5. Have Avez vous les encriers d'argent de Hære you my sister's silrer inkstands you the stranger's gold watch? 6. No, Sir, I have the baker's. J'ai les bijoux d'argent et d'or de 7. Who has my slate? 8. I have your slate and your brother's.

I have the cold and silver jewels 0) 9. Has the cook a silver salt stand : 10. The cook has a silver Les rois n'ont ils pas les palais de 1 Hare not the kings the marble pa

l'étranger.

the foreigner. salt stand, and a silver dish. 11. Has the cook this poultry marbre ?

laces ! or that: 12. He has neither this nor that. 13. Has he this bread or that? 14. He has neither this nor that, he has the

EXERCISE 19. baker's good bread. 15. Have you my cotton parasol ? 16. I have not your cotton parasol, I have your silk parasol. 17.

Baril, m. barrel. Général, m. general. Meunier, m. miller. Has the gardener a leather trunk : 18. The gardener has a Chocolat, m. chocolate. Grand, adj. large, great.

Bas, m. stocking. Gilet, m. waistcoat. Morceau, m. piece. leather trunk. 19. Who has my good cheese? 20. Nobody Bijou, m. jewel.

Oiseau, m. bird.

Jardin, m. garden. Petit, adj. small. has your cheese, but some one has your brother's. 21. Have Chou, m. cabbage. Joujou, m. plaything. Paire, f. pair. you mine or his ? 22. I have neither yours nor his, I have Dans, in.

Légume, m. vegetable. Poivre, m. pepper. the stranger's. 23. Has the cook this bottle or that broom? Enfant, m. child. Marchand, m. merchant. Qu', que, what. 24. He has this bottle? 25. Have you a lead inkstand? 26. Fer, m. iron.

Maréchal, m blacksmith. Rien, nothing. No, Sir, I have a china inkstand. 27. Has the stranger Fils, m, son.

Mauvais, e, baud. poultry? 28. The stranger has no poultry, but he has money. 1. Avez vous les marteaux du charpentier ? 2. Nous avons 29. Your brother is hungry and thirsty, afraid and sleepy. les marteaux da maréchal? 3. Les maréchaux ont ils deux 30. Is any one ashamedi 31. No, Sir, nobody is ashamed., marteaux de bois? 4. Ils ont deux marteaux de fer. 6. Les

« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »