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The plants flourish; the storm injures the plant; plants are
injured by the storm; frogs are swallowed by the stork; the earth Nom.
produces plants : plants are produced by the earth; o planta ! Nom. Mensa, a table
Mensae, tables Gen.
how beautifully are you produced by the earth; I praise abun. Mensce, of a table Gen. Mensarum, of tables
dance of water; the storm moves the watels; the waters are moved Dat. Mensce, to a table Dat. Mensis, to tables
by the storm. Mensam, a table
Acc. Mensas, tables Voc. Mensa, 0 table !
Voc. Mensae, O tables ! After having learnt each vocabulary, you will do well to try Abl. Mensd, by a table
Abl. Mensis, by tables to ascertain what words in it have representatives in English. Mensa is thus seen to consist of two parts. These two These English representatives (denoted by the initials E. R.)
are words in English derived more or less directly from the parts are the stem mens, and the case-endings. To the stem mens add the several case-endings, and you form the several corresponding Latin words. Thus, from aqua we have B. R. cases. Thus, if to mens you subjoin am, you obtain the accu. E. R. herb; from praeda we have E. K. prey; from terra we
aquatio ; from copia, we have E. R. copious ; from herba we have sative singular; if to mens you add arum, you obtain the have E. R. terrene, &c. You will soon acquire skill in disgenitive plural; and so on with the rest. Before you proceed further, you should make yourself per gain an aid to memory, as well as an insight into the exact
covering the E. R. in all cases, and in the discovery you will fectly master of the case-endings and the example. Exercise original meaning of many English words. Indeed, you should yourself in giving from memory any case-ending you may never allow a Latin word to pass you without endeavouring please to require ; also in giving the corresponding English to ascertain whether it has any E. K., and if any, whether one sign.
Observe that in the erample, after the word mensa, ae, stand or more, what they are, and what their signification. 1 and fem. Here 1 with a noun denotes the first declension, as
Adjectives in the feminine gender are declined like mensa, afterwards 2 with a noun will denote the second declension, 3This you will see exemplified in the following example: with a noun the third declension, and so on; f.or fem. denotes the DECLENSION OF SUBSTANTIVE AND ADJECTIVE. feminine gender, and intimates that mensa is a noun of the femi. nine gender. It may appear strange to you that a thing which in
First DECLENSION, FEMININE GENDER. English is of the neuter “gender," as being without sex, should Cases. Singular.
Cases. Plural. in Latin be of the feminine gender. So, however, it is. In Latin, Nom. Bona puella, a good girl N. Bonde puellae, good girls one way of determining gender is by the termination. Thus Gen. Bonae puellae, of a good girl G. Bonarum puellarum, l good girls all nouns ending in a (with an exception which will be
Bonae puellae, to a good girl D. Bonis pueilis, to good girls
Bonam puellam, a gond gert Ac Bonas puellas, good girls pointed out by-and-by), are of the feminine gender. And as all nouns ending in a are of the first declension, so all nouns Abl. Boud puella, by a good girl
Voc. Bona puella, O good girl T. Bubae puellae, () goort girls
Ab. Bonis puellis, by good girls of the first declension are of the feminine gender. EXERCISES : Like mensa, a table, decline aquila, an eagle ;
Exercises. After the same manner write out and learn puella, a girl ; columba, a dove ; alauda, a lark; and insula, by heart, pulchra columba, a beautiful pigeon ; quadrata mensa, an island. I mean that you should write theee out like the a square table ; magna praeda, great bouty. example mensa, from memory, distinguishing the case-endings
VocartLARY. and subjoining the English to each case of each noun.
Magna, great; arcilla, a maid-servant ; augusta, sacred; mihi, VOCABULARY.
to me ; est mihi, I have; tibi, to thee; est tibi, thou hurst, the Aqua, water ; ciconia, a stork; copia abundance ; herba, an kerb: Latin word ne is employed in asking a question, and is placed'aster planta, a plant ; praeda, prey; proceila, a storm'; rana, a frog; A word; the Latin word an is employed in asking a question, and terra, the earth; coaxo, 1, 1 croak ; devoro, 1, 1 devour; turbo, i) is placed before a word or sentence; non ne asks a question with I disturb; noceo, 2, I injure; gigno, 3, I produce ; pulchre, adv. not included, as non ne vituperas ? dost thou not blame i mea means (adverb), beautifully; saepe, adv., oftın; quam, adv., how! a, pre.
my; tua, thy. preposition), by; note that a becomes ab, for the sake of sound,
EXERCISES. -LATIN-ENGLI88. Jefore a vowel or a silent h.
Est mihi pulchra alauda; est ne tibi pulchra alauda ? mea EXERCISES.-LATIN-ENGLISH.
alauda est pulchra; est ne mea alauda pulchra ? non ne est tua
alauda pulchra? tua columba valde est pulchra ; est mihi bona Rana coaxat; rana saepe est praeda ciconiae ; ciconia nocet ancilla ; mea ancilla est pulchra; Julia est Augusta; Julia Augusta ranae ; cicopia devðrat ranam; Orana, coaxas; aqua turbatur aest pulchra; est ne Julia Augusta pulchra ? alauda meae ancillæ est ranâ: plantae forent; terra vestitur copiâ plantarum; procellae pulchra; tua mensa non est quadrata; magna est insula. nocent plantis; terra gignit plantas; O plantae, quam pulchre urnatis terram! terra vesítur plantis.
ENGLISH-Larix On this exercise, I must give a few words of explanation.
I have a pigeon ; thou hast a good girl; hast thou a good gir)? In the sentence ciconia nocet ranae, you have the object in the I have not a good girl; thy lark is beautiful; is not the island dative case. Generally the object is in the accusative case, I have not a good maid-servant; the lark of the girl (the girl's lark)
great? the island is not great; hast thou a good maid-servant? I but noceo is one of the verbs which govern their object in the
is beautiful dative instead of the accusative case, as will be more fully set forth hereafter.
In dea, a goddess, and filia, a daughter, the dative and the After the passive verb turbatur, you have the instrument ablative end in abres, instead of is ; thus, deabus, to or by the ranâ with the preposition a, whereas after the passive verb goddesses ; filiabus, to or by the daughters. This change is sestítur, you have copiâ without the preposition. The reason made in order to distinguish the dative and ablative cases of is that in Latin when the instrument is a person or living these feminine nouns from the same cases of the corresponding creature, the preposition a is usual; but it is not used when, masculine nouns, viz., deus, a god; which has dois or diis, in in the second case, the instrument is a thing, that is, some the dative and ablative; and filius, a son, which has filiis. thing without life.
Nouns of the first declension which denote male beings are V'estitur is not given in the vocabulary to this declension, of the masculine gender (denoted by m). This fact remains a because it has been given before. Here, as in other instances, fact though the termination of those nouns should happen to words, the English of which has been previously stated, are be feminine. Thus nauta, a sailor, is masculine, though its repeated without the English, in order to secure attention and termination is the same as that of mensa, a table, and puella, to assist the memory by repetition.
a girl. Masculine nouns of the first declension are declined As the English sign of the dative is to or for, so you must like feminine nouns of the first declension. Observe, howuse the one or the other as the sense requires. And as the ever, that they take their adjectives in the masculine ; that is English sign of the ablative is by, with, or from, so must you the adjectives agree not in form but in sense with these mascua luse either hy, or with, or from, according as the English idiom line nouns of the first declension, as in the following requires.
DECLENSION OF SUBSTANTIVE AND ADJECTIVE,
N. horti, gardens pueri, boys viri, men bella, wars First DECLENSION-MASCULINE GENDER.
G. hortorum, of gar- puerorum, of virorum, of bellorum, of Cases. Singular. Cases.
boys N. Bonus nauta, a good sailor N. Boni nautae. good sailors
D. hortis, to gardens pueris, to boys viris, to men bellis, to wars G. Boni nautae, of a good sailor G. Bonorum nautarum, of good sailors Ac. hortos, gardens
piros, men bella, wars D. Bono nautae, to a good sailor D. Bonis nautis, to good sailors V. horti, O gardens pueri, O boys viri, O men bella, 0 wars Ac. Bonum nautam, a good sailor Ac. Bonos nautas, good sailors Ab. hortis, by gardens pueris, by boys viris, by men bellis, by wars V. Bone nauta, O good sailor V. Boni nautae, good sailors
In ager, a field, and some other nouns, the e is rejected in all Ab. Bono nauta, by a good sailor Ab. Bonis nautis, by good sailors
the cases except the nominative and vocative singular. Thus EXERCISES.-Thus form malus pirata, a bad pirate; magnus ager makes in the genitive singular agri. I give the cases of Nerva, great Nerva ; bonus agricola, a good husbandanan. ager in full, thus :
Nom. agri, fields,
agrorum, of fields Dat. agro, to a field
Dat. agris, to fields equito, 1, I ride; magnopere, greatly; equa, -ae, a mare ; tristitia,
agros, fields, -ae, sadness; poeta, -ae, m., a poet ; umbra, -ae, a shade; silva,
ager, O field -ne, a wood; perfūza, -ae, m., a desorter; Jugurtha, Jugurtha, an
agri, O, fields
Abl. agris, by fields
Adjectives have terminations similar to the nouns of the
first and second declension. Thus bonus, good, is declined like EXERCISES. -LATIN-ENGLISH.
hortus, a garden, in the following manner :Pérfuga Jugurthae est mihi; malus pérfuga est tibi ; poetam Cases. Singular.
Cases. Plural, bonum laudo ; bonus poeta laudatur; equa laudatur ab auriga: N. bonus hortus, a good garden N. boni horti, gooil gardens nautae ad insulam navigant; boni nautae patriam laudant; aquila G. boni horti, of a good garden G. bonorum hortorum, of good gardens a poetis saepe laudatur; agricolae magnopere delectantur plantis; D. bono horto, to a good garden D. bonis hortis, to good gardens erras, 0 Dauta! non ne erratis, aurigae? tristitia poetarum A. bonum hortum, a good garden A. bonos hortos, good gardens bonorum est mihi; umbras silvarum magnopere amo; agricolae v. bone horte, O good garden V. boni horti, O good gardens per silvam equitant.
A. bono horto, by a good garden A. bonis hortis, by good gardens ENGLISH-LATIN.
EZJRCISES.-According to these models, form indoctus puer ; Hast thou a deserter? is the deserter bad? good poets are magnus hortus ; doctus vir ; malum bellum ; and bonus ager.
VOCABULARY. praised; I praise good poets; good husbandmen praise (their) native country; the native country of good poets is praised ; the Schola, -ae, P., school; ludus, i, m., play; magister, magistri, pirate rides through the wood; the sailors sail to the island; the m., a master; ripa, -ae, f., a river's bank ; peregrinus, i, m., a mare of the good charioteer is good.
stranger; amicus, i, m., a friend ; amica, -ae, f., a female friend;
discipulus, i, m., a scholar; epistola, -ae, f., a letter ; aper, apri, The second declension is known by the ending of the genitive m., a boar i caper, capri, m., a goat; regnum, i, n., a kingdom; singular in . The terminations of the nominative are us, er, ir, funestum, i, n., deadly; in (with the ablative case), in or on · and um; of these terminations us, er, ir, are masculine, and um (with the accusative) into; multi, many; Britannia, Britain. is neuter; that is, nouns ending in us, er, ir, are of the mascu
EXERCISES. -LATIN-ENGLISH. line gender, and nouns ending in um are of the neuter gen ler.
Boni viri bonos pueros amant; boni pueri amantur a bonis viris ; SECOND DECLENSION.
bonus puer scholam amat; boni magistri bonorum pueror!mu
amantur; est ne tibi bonus magister? funestum est bellun: Sign I in the Genitive singular,
est mibi bona amica; pueri sunt in scholá; non ne sunt peri CASE-ENDINGS.
in schola? peregrini multi in Britanniam navigant; aper ainici
mei est magnus; est ludus in ripâ; discipuli epistolas amant; Cases. Singular. Cases. Plural.
ranae sunt in ripis; caper est magnus; bella lunesta sunt in iasulê. LATIN. ENGLISH. LATIN. ENGLISH,
ENGLISH-LATIN. Nom. ås, er, ir, ům, (subject) Nom. i, ă, (subject) Gen. i, of Gen. örum,
I love good scholars; good scholars are loved by good men;
dost thou love a friend ? I have a boar; thou hast a goat; the goats o, to or for Dat.
to or for Acc. üm,
are on the river's bank; a great and deadly war is in the island; (object) Acc. à, (object)
do Voc. ě, er, ir, úm, 0! Voo.
many fields are in Britain ; boars are often deadly; O men, š, i, 0!
you Abl. o, by, &c. Abl.
love the boys? my friends do not love strangers; boys love play; is, by, with or from
do boys live play? have you a female friend? I have not a large A few remarks will make the meaning of the above table boar; the letter of my female friend is in the garden. clear. First let us speak of the singular. In the nominative We are now in a condition to decline and study adjectives, there are four terminations. The arrangement meant to of what are called their termination, as amplus, ampla, amplum, show that of all these four i is the genitive-ending, and o the large or spacious. Amplus, you see, is like hortus; ampla is dative-ending. In the nominative plural, there are two ter- like mensa; and amplum is like bellum. In fact amplus is of minations. The arrangement is meant to show that of both the masculine gender, and is declined like a noun masculine these orun is the genitive-ending, and is the dative-ending. of the second declension; ampla is of the feminine gender, The lative-ending and the ablative-ending is the same, being and is declined like a noun feminine of the first declension ; in the singular o, and in the plural is. In both the singular and amplum is of the neuter gender, and is declined like a and the plural, three cases are alike in nouns ending in um. noun neuter of the second declension. I subjoin the full de
These three cases are the nominative, the accusative, and the clension of amplus, a, um. Like it are declined all adjectives vocative, which in the singular end in un and in the plural ending in us, a, um, which are said to have three terminations
from the fact that such three terminations, us a, vin, &c., they I subjoin an instance of each of the four terminations, thus : really have. hortus, a garden, has the first termination; puer, a boy, the ADJECTIVES OF THRFE TERMINATIONS OF THE FIRST AND second; vir, a man, the third ; bellum, war, the fourth.
EXAMPLE :--Amplus, m.; ampla, 1. ; amplum, n, ; large
Singular. N. ortus, a garden
vir, a man bellum, war N. amplus ampla amplum ampli emplae ampla G. horti, of a garden pueri, of a boy viri, of a man belli, of war G. ampli amplae ainpli amplorum amplarum amplorum D. horto, to a garden puero, to a boy viro. to a man bello, to uxor D. amplo ampla ainplo amplis amples
puer, a boy
ampiis Ac. hortum, a garden puerum a boy virum, a man bellum, war Ac. amplum amplam ampiwn amplos amplas
ampla y. Lorte, O garden
puer, O boy,
vir, Oman bellum, o war V. ample ampla emplum ampli Amplae ampla Ab. horto, by a gancien puero, by a boy yiro, by a mnn bello, by war Ab. amplo amplo amplo
amplis amples amplis
Taisform and other similar forms I advise you to learn by *eart in three ways; first vertically, that is from top to women... you will thus see the identity in form of the adjecove with the corresponding noun. Then learn it from the left *c w the right; thus amplus, ampla, amplum; learning the sangular first and then the plural. o o * *: - . G. D. Ac. W. eadings in the same two ways; thus. i, o, um, e, of -ox--, *, *, &c. You cannot bestow too much pains in king yourself perfectly familiar with each declension, each example, each form, as you go forward. There is a good Latin -in which says “festina lente,” literally hasten slowly, or -theonglish proverb says “slow but sure.” In grammati-a-studies the observance of the proverb is very serviceable. oe adjective liber, free, is oft. like the noun puer. The adjective o: for or beautiful, is declined like the noun Lover in the feminine gender is libera, and libera is deo loe-ense. In the neuter gender, it is liberum, and live-a-doned like bellum. I will give you the forms in out of ooo-oor, libers, liberum, and pulcher, pulchra, pulAwkwroves or Tanzo Toominations.
flies are (there are flies) in the beautiful garden; thou intrustest the horse to the field; good scholars are honoured. O my son. temples are intrusted to the gods and goddesses; O, Antony, the gods and goddesses are worshipped in temples; 6 good God! thou art worshipped in the fruitful fields; good men are honoured by their sons and their daughters.
QUESTIons For ExAMINATION.
What English words are formed from the Latin words emP. in this lesson? For what Latin words, employed in this esson, are the following English words?—namely, cultivate; agriculture; variety; liberal; amplisy; scholar; master; amicable; epi horticulture; puerile; laud; nautical; error; poetical; ; vituperation; copiousness; exemplary. Ascertain by the aid of the Latin the exact meaning of each of these English words. What is the gender of the nouns of the first declension ? State the exceptions. What is the gender of nouns ending in us,” and nouns ending in um? When is the instrument after a passive verb accompanied by the preposition a 2 and when does it stand without that preposition ? Why do you find in this lesson such forms as boni nautae, and bono nauté? What is the meaning of estmihi What is the vocative singular of filius and of deusz
LESSONS IN BOTANY.-No. II. FLOWERS.
Flowers are among the most exquisite objects of the vegetable world. How various their forms, how beautiful their tints, how delightful their perfumes. No two are exactly alike, even when they are of the same species, and grow on the same stalk. Then flowers do not all unfold at once, but appear in a wisely-ordered succession; and thus, short-lived as they are, we have them almost all the year round. First comes the snow-drop, which presents its modest milk-white flower to our notice early in February; next the crocus appears, but in its timidity, keeps close to the earth; then rises the violet, arrayed in beauty and breathing fragrance, with the polyanthus and auricula as her courtly attendants; afterwards rainbow-headed tulips spring forth richly, and anemonies follow in their train; while the ranunculus, the lily, the carnation, and the queen-like rose, with others too numerous to be told, close the gay and lovely procession.
Flowers are not only the last, but the most elaborated organs of the vegetable system. Whether we contemplate the beauty of their forms, the splendour of their colours, or the delicious fragrance they everywhere breathe around us; or whether, penetrating beneath the surface, we survey the delicacy of their structure, and investigate the peculiar functions they perform, we cannot but feel the greatest admiration of the skill with which, in a compass so small, and by means apparently so simple, such a series of actions, terminating in results so varied and important, can at once be combined and regulated.
§. alone, of all sentient beings, appears peculiarly formed to derive pleasure from a sense of the graceful and beautiful, and from inhaling a delicious perfume. Flowers, therefore, seem to be almost exclusively formed for his benefit, considering them as a mere source of innocent gratification. It is true that the eyes of other creatures are often more acute than those of the human species in distinguishing between what is beautiful or nutritious in their food; while to the same objects their olfactory nerves are remarkably alive. But, whatever enjoyment flowers may yield them, there are delicate sensations connected with the mental faculties, and heightened by agreeable associations, arising from the brilliancy and harmony of colours, from elegance of form, and from sweetness of odour, to which they must be insensible.
In addition, however, to the pleasures thus yielded by flowers to the human faculty, these lovely and curious pro
• There are a few exceptions to the rule as given in the text; but in this eneral outline they are not given, in order that the student's mind may not confused. Those who wish to enter more minutely into the subject may find the information in Zumpt's Latin Grammar, translated by Schmitz. See also the author’s “Latin'Made Easy,"fourth edition (just ready), price 3s.6d. The work contains copious examples, with a Latin-English and an English-Latin vocabulary of all the words, as well as a general index of subjects, forming a complete introduction to the reading and Fo of Latin prose. It is published by Simpkint Marshall, and Co., of London and may be proof through any o bookseller.
ductions are made to subserve some highly-important functions as respects the economy of the plants themselves, as well as in reference to the animal world. And, in this point of view, they are now, more particularly, to receive our attention.
The calya, or flower cup, forms a covering to shelter and defend the bud oefore it expands. It consists of several parts which resemble small leaves both in form and colour, and probably act in the same manner. This part varies, so that in the hemlock it is a fence; in the hazel, a catkin; in the daffodil, a sheath; in the oat and the grasses, a husk; in mosses, a veil; in mushrooms, a curtain; and in the polyanthus a cup.
Above the calyxrises the corolla, or blossom, the coloured part of the flower. It consists of several petals, distinct or separate, or else forming a corolla of one single piece, in which case the flower is called monopetalous. When the petals first expand, they serve to protect the delicate organs in the centre, and also to reflect the sun's rays on them, thus aiding that orb in its genial influence. When they are full-grown, this heat is no longer necessary; and as light and air are now beneficial, the petals expand, leaving these delicate parts to enjoy their full power. #. fig. 1, a portion of the calyx and petals is 1emoved, showing the stamens and pistil.
The stamens are little bodies, having yellow heads mounted on long stalks, which are seen around, but not in the centre of the flower. These stalks are called filaments; whilst the heads are called the anthers (fig. 2). In the flower of the almond (fig. 3), the petals and the stamens are united to the calyx, while the pistil is free.
alae or wings; two partially or completely covered by the alae, and often united slightly by their lower margins, so as to form a single piece, b, called the keel, which embraces the essential organs. Such apparent irregularities result from the unequal development of the different parts of the same shoot, and from the adhesion of these parts to each other in various ways; so that the whole form of the flower sometimes appears completely changed, and there is only one direction in which it can be divided into halves. Among these irregular corollas may be marked the labiate, or lipped (fig. 6), having two divisions of the part in the form of lips, from a fancied resemblance to a mouth; the upper cine composed usually of two pieces, and the lower of three, separated by a hiatus or gap. . When the lower lip is pressed against the upper, so as to leave only a chink between them, the corolla is said to be masked, as in Snapdragon, Frogsmouth (fig. 7), and some other plants. The pistil (fig. 8.) occupies the centre, or axis of the flower, and is surrounded by the stamens and floral envelopes when these are present. It is composed of three parts: the germen, the style, and the stigma. . The germen, varying in form in different plants, is always placed below the style, and contains the embryo seeds. The style is placed on the germen, and, like the stigma, has a variety of forms. In many plants the pistil and stamens are in the same flower, as here described; but in other plants one flower contains the pistil, and another the stamens, while in a third class, the pistils are in one plant and the stamens in another, as in the nettle, the male and female plants growing in adjoining patches. Like the other organs, the pistil consists of one or more modified leaves, which, in this instance, are called carpels, from the Greek word for fruit. There are many points of resemblance between them and leaves. When a pistil consists of a single carpel, it is simple; when it is composed of several carpels, it is called compound. In the double flowering cherry no
fruit is produced, and the pistil consists usually of several leaves. . But when the single flowering cherry is examined, it is found that, in place of folded leaves, there appears a single body, called the ovary, and containing a single ovule (fig. 9); which shows also the section of a pistil. Compound, or more properly, aggregate flowers, invite our attention, and may be easily observed. Each blossom of the daisy, for example, is composed of between two and three hundred other flowers, or florets, all of them perfect, each having all the parts that constitute a flower, and, therefore, as complete as a lily or a hyacinth. Each of the flower leaves, usually white above and crimson underneath, forming a kind of circular coronet around the flower, though they appear to be no more than little petals, are in reality complete flowers, as well as each of the small yellow things within this coronal circle, which a young botanist might mistake for stamens. When, however, a little experience has been acquired, with the aid of a good microscope the truth of this statement may easily be verified. For example, if he pull out one of the white coronal flowers from the circumference of the circle, he ! will at first think it is flat from one end to the other, though, on looking carefully at the end by which it was fastened into the rim of the disk, he may perceive that it is not flat, but round and hollow, in the form of a tube, while a little thread, ending in a curved fork, like two horns, arises out of the tube. This is the pistil of the floret, which is only flat at its outer extremity, and the same holds true of each of the white flower leaves all round the coronal circle.
If now the young botanist examines the central or yellow part of the disk, which rises in a sort of cone within the circle of whitefiorets, if the blossom be sufficiently advanced, he will see each of the yellow florets open in the middle, and cut into several parts; this, when examined by means of a microscope, or a smallpocket magnifying-glass, will exhibit a istil surrounded with anthers, not .#. in form to the f: flowers. When the yellow florets of the centre are closed at top with around, smooth bulging, they are not yet expanded, and may be considered as similar to flower-buds. They begin to expand successively from the circumference towards the centre.
We may now look, in concluding this lesson, at the ends which the various parts of the flower are designed to answer in the perpetuation of the plant. The anther, as seen surmounting the filament (fig. 2), is a kind of box or bag, containing a yellow dust, which is called farina or poller. The grains, or particles of pollen, are very numerous. Hassall says that a single head of dandelion produces upwards of 240,000, each stamen of a peony 21,000, a bulrush 144 grains by weight. Other instances are still more remarkable. A single plant of Wistoria sinensis is stated to have produced 6,750,000 stamens, and these, if perfect, would have contained 27,000,000,000 pollen grains. In evergreens, such as firs, the quantity of pollen is enormous. When, therefore, the anther is ripe it opens, and scattering the pollen grains, they are absorbed by the pistil, and reaching the germens, they fructity the seed, which, without this process, would be imperfect and barren. The stamens, pistil, and corolla having thus performed their respective offices, decline and wither, mak.org room for the seed-bud, which daily increases until it attains its perfect state.
LESSONS IN ENGLISH GRAMMAR.—No. v. NOUNS (continues.-GENDER GENDER is another property of nouns. By gender is meant the istinction of ser, or the absence of sex. Genders are usually divided into three classes, the masculine, the feminine, and the neuter, or neither sex. Nouns of the Mascuuse genderare those which signify maios, as, man, father, son, brothers king, prince, duke; lies, tiger, horse. Nouns of the FsMININs gender are those which signify females; as, troman, mother, de-ghter, sister; gues, princes duchess; oness, tigress, mare. Nouns of the Netres sender are those which signify things without life; as, book, stone, money, ocuse, free, &e. Many nouns are said to be of the roman gender, when they are used to derote persons who may be either male or foale; as reiro, parent, choi, causia...friend, neighjour, &c. Gender is distinguished invarious ways 1. By plains another roun before or after the word, ur by prefixing toe proacur is or she s as,
3. By a different ending of the word, as widower, masculine, rendered widow in the feminine. Many nouns masculine form the feminine by the addition of ess; as,
Author Authoress Mayor Mayoress Baron Baroness Patron Patroness Count Countess Peer Peeress Dauphin Dauphiness Poet Poetess Deacon Deaconess Priest Priestess
---- Giantess Prophet Prophetess Heir Heiress Shepherd Shepherdess Host Hostess Tutor Tutoress Jew Jewess Wiscount Wiscountess Lion Lioness
The feminine of some nouns is formed by changing the masculine, ot, or, or er, into ess, or ress; as,
Masculine. Foinine. --e. Foias. Abbot Abbess Enchanter Eachantress Actor Actress Governor Governess Adulterer Adulteress Hunter Huttress Ambassador Ambassadress Idolater Idolatress Benefactor Benefactress Marquis Marchioness Chanter Chantress Protector Protectress Conductor Conductress Sorcerer Sorceress Director Directress Tiger Tigress Elector Electress Traitor Trastress Emperor Empress
It will be observed that in a few of the above words, the Ending of the masculine is slightly altered in forming the feminine
In the following words the difference is more marked:—
Masahae. F-minine. M- Foe. Czar Czarina Margrave Margravine Duke Duchess Lad Lass Hero Heroine Master Mistress Seamer Seamster Landgrave La-dgravine Singer Songster Sultan Solt-aa
| Some of the masculine nouns change the termination into ir to form the feminine; as, masculine, administrator; feminine. administratrir; masculine, testator; feminine, testairii; masculine, erecutor; feminine, ereeutrir. These of Latia words. which retain their original form. | Nouns in which certain things or attributes are spoken of as if they were persons, are considered as feminine; the following are of this class:–
Virtue - - The soul risbertia
| Vice Faith The church ----
Wisdom Hope The earts Ship
Folly harity The moon Wessel
i Nature Temperance Britannia Gun Fortune Patience
Many instances, however, occur in which themester gender is employed in speaking of these thurgsFor masculine nouns, we substitute the pronouns he his, or his; for feminine nouns, she, hers, or her; for neuter nouns, the pronouns it or its. In the plural number the pronoun, they, theirs, them, has no distinction tom-rk gender. In ing figuratively, as ageneral rule, weattribute the masenline gender to objects where power, force, or activity is exhibited; the feminine gender to those where beauty, delicacy, goodness, fruitfulness, or any object.cfaffectionis described: a-d the neuter gender to those where small=ess, feeble-ess, or helplessness are meant to be expressed. The following remarks may be borne in titä as to the use cf the masculine and feminine senders. The mascaise terra eas a general mearing. =g both male and female; it -- always employed when the ofce occupation, profession, &c- and not the sex of the individual is cliefly to be :: s-d to:for term is used on those cases only in worhitis necessary :: *t → • F-to-lar sex so coli be expressly rared. To liestrate t-s:--- we say. - Tre of this age are disors sisted –ore by correct-ess ct taste than grandeur cf co-ce: ura:" we