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Rameses, appointed nurses to take care of them, and had them treated like his own child; being persuaded that they who should be the constant companions of his youth, would prove the most faithful ministers and soldiers in his riper years. As they grew up, they were inured to laborious exercises, and in particular, were never permitted to taste food till they had performed a journey of upwards of twenty-two of our miles. When the old king imagined they were sufficiently trained in martial exercises, he sent them, under the command of Rameses, against the Arabians. The young prince and his companions were completely successful; the Arabians, who had never been conquered before, were subdued. He was then sent westward, where he conquered a large part of Africa, and was only stopped in his career of victory by the Atlantic Ocean. Whilst he was absent on this expedition, his father died; and Rameses then resolved to fulfil the prediction of the god Ptha, and become the conqueror of the world. With this view he divided the kingdom into thirty-six provinces, and endeavoured to insure the loyalty of the people by gifts, both of money and land. He forgave all who had been guilty of offences, and discharged the debts of the soldiers. He then appointed his brother Armais regent during his absence, forbidding him, however, to use the kingly diadem, and com

were nowhere to be seen. These pillars generally bore the following or a similar inscription: “Sesostris, King of Kings, and Lord of Lords, subdued this country by the power of his arms." Besides these, in some places he also ieft statues of himself, armed after the Ethiopian and Egyptian manner, with a javelin in one hand and a bow in the other; whilst across the breast a line was drawn from shoulder to shoulder, with this inscription: “This regio. I obtained by these my shoulders.” The abandonment of his project of universal conquest, was caused o the news of his brother's having assumed the diadem and violated his queen. Hearing this, Rameses hastened from Thrace, and nine years after he had set out on his expedition, reached Pelusium in Egypt, attended by vast multitudes of captives, and laden with the spoils of Asia. H& brother met him at this city, where, as is very improbably reported, Rameses accepted an invitation to an entertainment given by the traitorous regent. On this occasion, he drank freely, the queen and the other members of the royal family joining in the festivities. During the course of the entertainment, the treacherous Armais caused a quantity of dried reeds to be laid round the apartment where they were to sleep; and as soon as the party, filled with wine and wassail, had retired to rest. he set fire to the reeds. Rameses was the first to per


manding him to abstain from all injury to or undue familiarity with the queen and the royal concubines. His army consisted of 600,000 infantry, 24,000 cavalry, and 27,000 chariots. Besides these land forces, he built one fleet on the Mediterranean, for conquests in the West, and another on the Red Sea for operations in the East. The former of these conquered Cyprus, in the Levant, the coast of Phoenicia, and several of the islands, called Cyclades, which lie to the south of the island of Delos ; and the latter fleet subdued all the coasts of the Red Sea; but shoals and other nautical difficulties stopped its further of. With the land forces, Rameses marched against the Troglodytes (an ancient people of Ethiopia), whom he conquered, obliging them to pay him a tribute of gold, ebony, and ivory. He then proceeded as far as the promontory of Dira, which lay near the straits of Babelmandeb, where he set up a pillar, with an hieroglyphic inscription. Pursuing his conquest on the continent of Asia, he crossed the Ganges, and erected pillars likewise on its banks; then marching northward he ascended the plateau of central Asia, subdued the Assyrians and Medes, after which he directed his course towards the Caspian, and the Black Sea, and inyaded Scythia and Thrace. This latter country seems to have been the utmost limit of his conquests, for beyond it his pillars

ceive the danger, and finding that his guards, from the effect of their carousals, were incapable of aiding him, he rushed through the flames, and was followed by his queen and the royal children. Armais was eventually driven out of Egypt, and withdrew into Greece, where, under the new name of Danaus, he acquired great renown. The illustrious hero of these romantic details is generally supposed to have been one of the best of princes, as well as the bravest of warriors. During his reign the star of the Phara hs reached its zenith. He founded new cities, due new canals, and erected many of those magnificent structures, whose remains even yet afford material for the increasing wonder and admiration of the Egyptian traveller. In his reign were reared the monuments of Ibsambul, Derri, Guircheh-Hassan, and Wady-Essebouah, in Nubia; and in Egypt those of Kournah, of El Medineh near Kournah, a portion of the palace of Luxor, and the great hall with columns in the palace of Carnas, which had been begun by his father, Meneptha I. The latter is time most magnificent structure ever reared by the hand of man. Nor were these his most important achievements. Not content with adorning his kingdom with sumptuous edifices, ...i desirous to promote the real welfare of his people, he publish a body of new laws, the most important of which was thawhich gave to all classes of his subjects the right of property in its fullest extent. By this, he divested himself of that absolute and unlimited power which his ancestors had preserved after the overthrow of the Shepherd kings, and immortalised his name. Under him, it was, that Egypt arrived at its highest pitch of internal splendour and political power. His sway, either as sovereign or receiver of tribute, extended over Egypt, Nubia, Abyssinia, Sennaar, several countries of the south of Africa, all the wandering tribes of the desert, east and west of the Nile, Syria, Arabia, the kingdoms of Babylon and Nineveh, a great part of Asia Minor, the island of Cyprus, some islands of the Archipelago, and a large part of Persia. Besides intercourse with these countries, regular commercial communications were carried on with India. The discoveries of Indian ‘stuffs and other materials, which have been made in the tombs cf Thebes, prove the existence of such a commerce between the two countries at a time when the European tribes and a


reat portion of the Asiatics existed in a state of barbarism, #. and Memphis were the first central depots of this commerce, ages before Babylon, Tyre, Sidon, Alexandria, Palmyra (Tadmor), or Bagdad were founded. Egypt was at this period divided into thirty-six provincial governments, presided over by officers of different ranks, who administered justice according to a complete code of written laws. Of the population, which amounted in all to about six millions, a do." specially devoted to the study of the sciences, and the advancement of the arts, was charged, besides the ceremonies of religion, with the administration of justice, the assessment and collection of the taxes, and with all the branches of the civil government. This was called the Sacerdotal (or priestly) Caste. The chief duties of this class were exercised or directed by the members of the royal family. A second portion of the people formed the Military Caste, out of which soldiers were exclusively drawn for the standing army, which averaged about 180,000 men. The third portion of the population constituted the Ayricultural Caste, which had the sole cultivation of the soil, the product of which belonged to them alone, subject only to the deduction of a portion for the king, and another for the support of the sacerdotal and military castes. The fourth, and last, was the Industrial Caste, which included artisans of all kinds, and merchants. It was the productions of this class which raised the country to its highest pitch of prosperity.

Antiquities of Egypt.

Several allusions having been made in the preceding lesson on Ancient History, to the remarkable antiquities which have been found in the Thebaid, or Upper Egypt, we have taken the opportunity to introduce, for the benefit of our young readers, several illustrations of these antiquities, which will serve to convey an idea of their magnitude and their magnificence, and which will, in the absence of authentic historical documents, relate even to a certain extent their own extraordinary tale. In the vicinity of Thebes, the ancient o of Egypt, and on its eastern side, distant from each other about two miles, stand the wonderful ruins of the ancient palaces of Carnac or Karnac and Luxor; and on the western side, Medinet Abou, the Memnonium, and the tombs cut in the mountain behind. Carnac surpasses in grandeur every other structure in Thebes, and in the world. On the north-east entrance to Karnac, the ancient Egyptians appear to have lavished all their magnificence. The approach is by a long avenue of sphinxes, the largest in Egypt, leading to a succession of portals with colossal statues in front. ese are distinguished even by the variety of the materials in which they are cut. A calcareous stone, compact like marble, and varie

ted siliceous lime-stone, and beautiful rose-coloured and

lack marbles of Syene, have all been used in their structure. There are two obelisks; one of 91 feet high, the loftiest in Egypt, adorned with sculptures of perfect execution. The principal hall, represented in our first page, is 318 feet long, and 159 broad, having the roof supported by 136 columns; the two middle ranges of these are about 70 feet high, and 11 feet in diameter; the others are 7 feet in diameter. This immense hall or vestibule leads into a court where there are four obelisks and twelve colossal figures. Two other courts conduct to what is supposed to be the apartments of the kings. One of these, §§ the Grand Court is represented in our

fourth page; and the ruins of the Hall of Kings, is represented in our eighth page. Adjacent to the great palace, are many other extensive buildings connected with it by avenues o sphinxes, lions, and rams, some of the avenues extending towards Luxor. The effect of these ruins on the mind of the spectator is that of awe and sublimity. He seems to be entering a city of departed giants—to § alone in the midst of all that is sacred in the world. The entrance to the palace of Luxor is composed of two obelisks, which are about 70 feet above the surface of the ground, and are understood to be about 30 feet below it; two colossal statues of black granite, each 38 feet high, and two great masses of building of an oblong plan and tapering sides, 55 feet high, and covered with hieroglyphics. Gn the Libyan side of Thebes, is the site of the Memnonium, represented in our sifth page, and the immense statue of red granite, 64 feet in height, thrown down by Cambyses. The ruins of this edifice, which is by some called the tomb of Osymandyas, or Sesostris, consist of three colossal statues—the one just mentioned is within the edifies, and she other two are in the adjoining F. The former is entirely broken into fragments, and cover a space sixty feet square, making it resemble a quarry. . It was composed of a single block, which must have weighed two millions of pounds. The two statues on the plain, called by the country people Iama and Chama, still remain in their original position, but so mutilated as to render it impossible to judge of the sculpture. One of them, from the numerous inscriptions on it, appears to have been the vocal statue of Memnon, celebrated by the ancients as emitting a musical sound at sunrise, or when struck at particular times of the day. No modern visitor has been able to elicit these sounds; and there can be no doubt that they were produced by some contrivance of the Egyptian priests. Karmac, Luxor, and the Memnonium, from the nature of the sculptures and distribution of the apartments, ale supposed to have been the palaces of .. At all other places, the ancient buildings are considered to have been temples of the gods. From the accounts which have reached us of the nature of the authority exercised by the Egyptian priesthood, it is highly probable that at ancient Thebes, the palace and the temple were united. How degrading to think that Karnac, with all its magnificence and glory, was dedicated to the impure god Priapus! With regard to the history of Rameses the Great, or Sesostris, king of Egypt, we may believe that he gained many victories and subdued many regions, although we cannot fix the date of his reign or the limits of his empire, nor tell what humbled nations bowed before his throne, or what captive kings were yoked to his triumphal car. He is represented in the engraving on our seventh as in the act of beheading a number of his vanquished enemies. The sculpture from which it was taken was most probably intended only to indicate their complete subjugation, Could the hieroglyphics, literally sacred engravings, on the stone from which it was taken be #. read, the : "... the :* might be learned, itherto, this ancient k is sealed. Many attempts have been made in vain to discover a key to this mystic mode of writing on monuments, practised by the Egyptian priests.


What is history in the various senses in which this term is employed? What are the advantages to be gained by the * What sciences are called the joint handmaids o what is their object 2 What are the limits assigned to the period of ancient history? What are the most authentic sources of information on ancient history 7 What three nations claim to be the most ancient, in the history of the world P What was the original state of the earliest tribes that peopled Egypt * §. were these people governed and what was the form of government called 2 - State the nature of the different eastes into which the Egyptians were divided. Who was the first king of Egypt? and how many years did he live before Solomon? State some of his mighty acts; and the names of the early and later capitals of the kingdom. , Who was the last of the dynasty which he founded, and what befel him?

of history history, and

Name the invaders who overran Egypt, and state who drove Who was Sesostris, and what various epochs have been assigned
them out. for his reign :
What does Manetho relate concerning them, and who was he Give some account of the story of this king, and state what ex-
Who founded the eighteenth dynasty of Egyptain kings traordinary titles he assumed.
Who were his three successors, and how did they benefit the Mention some of the wonderful monuments that were erected in
kingdom? - his reign.

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What countries or kingdoms did Amenoph II. render tributary : What changes did he introduce into the government and how

What magnificent palaces were built by Amenoph III. far did his sway extend ? - -

State some of the monuments which they constructed, and great What commercial relations did he establish and how was their works in which they engaged. existence proved :


Name and describe the different castes which existed in Egypt What effect does the sight of these ruins produce on the mind of

at this period. the spectator 2 Give some account of the ruins of the palace of Carnac, Give some account of the Memnonium, and of the vocal statue? especially the pillared hall, the grand court, and the hall of State the supposed nature of the wonderful ruins, and the uses kings? for which they were erected P What is the nature of the buildings adjacent to this palace Describe the nature of the sculptured hieroglyphic stone which and connected with it 2 represents the Conqueror of Nations?



In entering upon a new work, the leading features of which are so novel, it may be well to state clearly what we expect of the reader, and what he is to expect of us, so that there may be no disappointment or misunderstanding on either side. The success of the French Lessons, published in the Working Man's Friend, places it beyond doubt that it is possible to make a periodical the medium of conveying a large amount of information on all subjects, coming within the limits of what may be called an ordinary education. It is a well known fact that the acquisition of learning must be in every case the work of the pupil himself. In schools and colleges the master or professor does little else than direct, control, or stimulate. Where a difficulty occurs he may explain, or remove it, but it must be remembered that this may be done so frequently as to become positively injurious. Whatever he can do with the living voice may be done by us with the pen. But the materials on which we work differ widely. We can exercise no restraint, no oversight, and no coercion. Those who propose to accompany us through the columns of the Popular Educator mustlove knowledge for knowledge' sake, and be content to acquire it through labour and perseverance. Doubts we can remove, difficulties we can explain, but it must be upon demand. Much as must be done by ourselves, still more must be done by the reader. Eagerness in learning has done infinitely more for the world than ardour in teaching. But singularly enough the very profusion with which the stores of knowledge are laid around, is tending every day to embarrass and perplex those who can devote but little time to their selection and appropriation. The great mass of the people know not where to begin and what to choose. “What book shall I read on such a subject?” is a question which is every day asked by boys and men. “Why there are so many good ones that I hardly know which to recommend you,” is the answer in nine cases out of ten. And even if it were more satisfactory, how many are there amongst the young and the working classes whose spare money is not a tenth part of what would be sufficient to procure even a scanty supply of those works which would be necessary to supply the amount of knowledge which any man laying a claim to be considered educated must possess.

There are numerous instances in every hamlet in England, of

dwarfed intellects and disappointed aspirations, in consequence of the want of means to procure even clementary works on common subjects in this age of cheap literature; and there are thousands of youths throughout the land whom a simple and concise digest of the facts and bearings of leading subjects would have converted into diligent and earnest votaries of knowledge, but whom confused plenty has disgusted and sent away empty. What we propose to do, is to present from week to week, a concise but ample statement of all that is known, and all that must be learned in the various departments of Botany, Natural History, Astronomy, Latin and English Grammar and Composition, History, Jurisprudence, Political Economy, &c., commencing with the simplest elements, and progressing step by step, until we leave the reader at such a point that he will no longer need our assistance. We do not pretend that we shall exhaust each subject. It would be impossible to expect this within the limits of a small and cheap periodical; but we may safely promise to supply every man with the means of exhausting it himself, if time, inclination, and circumstances allow him. But, of course, in this, as in other things, a great deal depends upon the co-operation we shall receive. It is •omparatively easy to supply the materials of education, but

no one can supply brains, perseverance, and energy to use them. If, in the course of our articles, anything should appear doubtful or obscure—if anything should seem to have been passed over lightly, or left altogether untouched, we shall oe happy to afford the desired explanation upon application by letter. But it must be strictly understood, that we can give no direct answers to individuals. Everything must be in general terms for the benefit of all, and we must, of course, reserve to ourselves the right of deciding as to the pertinency of the queries which may be addressed to us. As we proceed, readers and authors will doubtless acquire more confidence in one another, and it must always be remembered that every obstacle overcome is a help in all after progress. In a few weeks we shall commence a series of “Lessons in German," upon the same plan as those in French and Latin, and shall continue them until the pupil is enabled to read with ease the works of standard authors. In the interval, however, we shall go on with the latter. Upon the im. portance of attention to these three languages it is scarcely necessary to say one word. To have mastered them, is to have obtained the key to new fields of literature of the highest order, full of the soundest instruction, and possessing all the charm of novelty for the English reader. Now that travelling is becoming so cheap, and intercourse with foreign nations so close and frequent, many of our readers may some day find the use of our lessons in visits to France or Germany; but putting this out of the question, we hope, at all events, to enable them to enjoy one of the richest treats which any ardent and enthusiastic self-educator can recrive—the power of reading the great works of Rome, of Germany, and ot France, in the original tongues. The best translation can give but a faint idea of any one of them; and it must be remembered, also, that the more familiar we become with foreign languages, the greater skill do we acquire in the use of our own. In learning languages, as in everything else, strength comes from striving, and every difficulty overcome is an aid in the achievement of still greater victories.


INTRODUCTION. The English Language is made up of several extinct tongues or dialects, but the Anglo-Saxon enters more largely into its composition than any other. The earliest inhabitants of Great Britain were the Ancient Britons, who spoke the old Celtic, which is now nowhere to be found except in Wales and Cornwall, and in a different form in Ireland and the Highlands of Scotland. When the Romans invaded the country, Latin ot of course became the language of law, literature, and fashion, and continued to be so during the four hundred years of their occupation. But, singularly enough, upon their departure not a trace of it remained behind, except a few names of places such as Lancaster, Chester, Manchester, all of them compounds of the Latin castra, meaning a camp. It is now a well established fact that there are not five words of Latin origin in our language which can be traced so far back as the period of Roman domination. After the invasion of the Saxons, the Britons were driven into the north-western and western corner of the island, and there as we have already said, have preserved their ancient dialect. The Saxons ...} Angles took complete possession of the rest of the country, and their language became that in common use. A few words of British origin are, however, roved to have “rept into it at this period, such as basket, eather (meaning smooth in the Welsh), bride (meaning something won), and about twenty others. When the Normans conquered England, the Norman-French superseded the Saxon amongst the higher and educated classes. The latter being entirely abandoned to the common people, lost most of its force, flexibility, and precision

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