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Rameses, appointed nurses to take care of them, and had them treated like his own child; being persuaded that they who should be the constant companions of his youth, would prove the most faithful ministers and soldiers in his riper years. As they grew up, they were inured to laborious exercises, and in particular, were never permitted to taste food till they had performed a journey of upwards of twenty-two of our miles. When the old king imagined they were sufficiently trained in martial exercises, he sent them, under the command of Rameses, against the Arabians. The young prince and his companions were completely successful; the Arabians, who had never been conquered before, were subdued. He was then sent westward, where he conquered a large part of Africa, and was only stopped in his career of victory by the Atlantic Ocean. Whilst he was absent on this expedition, his father died; and Rameses then resolved to fulfil the prediction of the god Ptha, and become the conqueror of the world. With this view he divided the kingdom into thirty-six provinces, and endeavoured to insure the loyalty of the people by gifts, both of money and land. He forgave all who had been guilty of offences, and discharged the debts of the soldiers. He then appointed his brother Armais regent during his absence, forbidding him, however, to use the kingly diadem, and com
were nowhere to be seen. These pillars generally bore the following or a similar inscription: "Sesostris, King of Kings, and Lord of Lords, subdued this country by the power of his arms." Besides these, in some places he also left statues of himself, armed after the Ethiopian and Egyptian manner, with a javelin in one hand and a bow in the other; whilst across the breast a line was drawn from shoulder to shoulder, with this inscription: "This regio I obtained by these my shoulders." The abandonment of his project of universal conquest, was caused by the news of his brother's having assumed the diadem and violated his queen. Hearing this, Rameses hastened from Thrace, and nine years after he had set out on his expedition, reached Pelusium in Egypt, attended by vast multitudes of captives, and laden with the spoils of Asia. H brother met him at this city, where, as is very improbably reported, Rameses accepted an invitation to an entertainment given by the traitorous regent. On this occasion, he drank freely, the queen and the other members of the royal family joining in the festivities. During the course of the entertainment, the treacherous Armais caused a quantity of dried reeds to be laid round the apartment where they were to sleep; and as soon as the party, filled with wine and wassail, had retired to rest. he set fire to the reeds. Rameses was the first to per
manding him to abstain from all injury to or undue familiarity | with the queen and the royal concubines. His army consisted of 600,000 infantry, 24,000 cavalry, and 27,000 chariots. Besides these land forces, he built one fleet on the Mediterranean, for conquests in the West, and another on the Red Sea for operations in the East. The former of these conquered Cyprus, in the Levant, the coast of Phoenicia, and several of the islands, called Cyclades, which lie to the south of the island of Delos; and the latter fleet subdued all the coasts of the Red Sea; but shoals and other nautical difficulties stopped its further progress. With the land forces, Rameses marched against the Troglodytes (an ancient people of Ethiopia), whom he conquered, obliging them to pay him a tribute of gold, ebony, and ivory. He then proceeded as far as the promontory of Dira, which lay near the straits of Babelmandeb, where he set up a pillar, with an hieroglyphic inscription. Pursuing his conquest on the continent of Asia, he crossed the Ganges, and erected pillars likewise on its banks; then marching northward he ascended the plateau of central Asia, subdued the Assyrians and Medes, after which he directed his course towards the Caspian, and the Black Sea, and invaded Scythia and Thrace. This latter country seems to have been the utmost limit of his conquests, for beyond it his pillars
ceive the danger, and finding that his guards, from the effect of their carousals, were incapable of aiding him, he rushed through the flames, and was followed by his queen and the royal children. Armais was eventually driven out of Egypt, and withdrew into Greece, where, under the new name of Danaus, he acquired great renown.
The illustrious hero of these romantic details is generally supposed to have been one of the best of princes, as well as the bravest of warriors. During his reign the star of the Pharaohs reached its zenith. He founded new cities, dus new canals, and erected many of those magnificent structures whose remains even yet afford material for the increasing wonder and admiration of the Egyptian traveller. In his reign were reared the monuments of Ibsambul, Derri, Guircheh-Hassan, and Wady-Essebouah, in Nubia; and in Egypt those of Kournah, of El Medineh near Kournah, a portion of the palace of Luxor, and the great hall with columns in the palace of Carnae, which had been begun by his father, Meneptha I. The latter is the most magnificent structure ever reared by the hand of man. Nor were these his most impor ant achievements. Not content with adorning his kingdom with sumptuous edifices, being desirous to promote the real welfare of his people, he published a body of new laws, the most important of which was tha
which gave to all classes of his subjects the right of property fourth page; and the ruins of the Hall of Kings, is represented
With regard to the history of Rameses the Great, or
Sesostris, king of Egypt, we may believe that he gained many
victories and subdued many regions, although we cannot fix
QUESTIONS ON THE PRECEDING LESSON. structure in Thebes, and in the world. On the north-east entrance to Karnac, the ancient Egyptians appear to have
What is history in the various senses in which this term is layished all their magnificence. 'lhe approach is by a long
employed? avenue of sphinxes, the largest in Egypt, leading to a succes.
What are the advantages to be gained by the
study of history? sion of portals with colossal statues in front. These are dis- what is their object?
What sciences are called the joint handmaids of history, and tinguished even by the variety of the materials in which they What are the limits assigned to the period of ancient history
A calcareous stone, compact like marble, and varie- What are the most authentio sources of information on ancient
What three nations claim to be the most ancient, in the history of
What was the original state of the earliest tribes that peopled
How were these people governed ? and what was the form of two middle ranges of these are about 70 feet high, and li'feet government called?
State the nature of the different castes into which the Egyptians in diameter; the others are 7 feet in diameter. This immense
were divided. hall or vestibule leads into a court where there are four
Who was the first king of Egypt ? and how many years did he obelisks and twelve colossal figures. Two other courts con- live before Solomon ? State some of his mighty acis ; and the duct to what is supposed to be the apartments of the kings. names of the early and later capitals of the kingdom. Who was One of these, called the Grand Court is represented in our the last of the dynasty which he founded, and what befel him}
As we pro•
no one can supply brains, perseverance, and energy to use TO THE READER.
them. If, in the course of our articles, anything should appear In entering upon a new work, the leading features of which doubtful or obscure—if anything should seem to have been are so novel, it may be well to state clearly what we expect of passed over lightly, or left altogether untouched, we shall be the reader, and what he is to expect of us, so that there may happy to afford the desired explanation upon application by be no disappointment or misunderstanding on either side. letter. But it must be strictly understood, that we can give The success of the French Lessons, published in the Working no direct answers to individuals. Everything must be in Man's Friend, places it beyond doubt that it is possible to make general terms for the benefit of all, and we must, of course, a periodical the medium of conveying a large amount of infor- reserve to ourselves the right of deciding as to the pertinency mation on all subjects, coming within the limits of what may of the queries which may be addressed to us. be called an ordinary education. It is a well known fact that ceed, readers and authors will doubtless acquire more confithe acquisition of learning must be in every case the work of dence in one another, and it must always be remembered that the pupil himself. In schools and colleges the master or pro- every obstacle overcome is a help in all after progress. fessor does little else than direct, control, or stimulate. Where In a few weeks we shall commence a series of “Lessons in a difficulty occurs he may explain, or remove it, but it must German," upon the same plan'as those in French and Latin, be remembered that this may be done so frequently as to be and shall continue them until the pupil is enabled to read come positively injurious. Whatever he can do with the living with ease the works of standard authors. In the interval, voice may be done by us with the pen. But the materials on however, we shall go on with the latter. Upon the im. which we work differ widely. We can exercise po restraint, no portance of attention to these three languages it is scarcely oversight, and no coercion. Those who propose to accompany necessary to say one word. To have mastered them, is to have us through the columns of the Popular Educator must love know- obtained the key to new fields of literature of the highest ledge for knowledge' sake, and be content to acquire it through order, full of the soundest instruction, and possessing all the labour and perseverance. Doubts we can remove, difficulties charm of novelty for the English reader. Now that travelling we can explain, but it must be upon demand. Much as must is becoming so cheap, and intercourse with foreign nations be done by ourselves, still more must be done by the reader. so close and frequent, many of our readers may some Eagerness in learning has done infinitely more for the day find the use of our lessons in visits to France or Gerworld than ardour in teaching. But singularly enough the many; but putting this out of the question, we hope, at all very profusion with which the stores of knowledge are laid events, to enable them to enjoy one of the richest treats which around, is tending every day to embarrass and perplex those any ardent and enthusiastic self-educator can recrive—the who can devote but little time to their selection and appro- power of reading the great works of Rome, of Germany, and of priation. The great mass of the people know not where to begin France, in the original tongues. The best translation can give and what to choose. " What book shall I read on such a sub- but a faint idea of any one of them; and it must be rememject?" is a question which is every day asked by boys and bered, also, that the more familiar we become with foreign men, “Why there are so many good ones that I hardly know languages, the greater skill do we acquire in the use of our which to recommend you," is the answer in nine cases out of own. In learning languages, as in everything else, strength ten, And even if it were more satisfactory, how many are
comes from striving, and every difficulty overcome is an aid in there amongst the young and the working classes whose spare the achievement of still greater victories. money is not a tenth part of what would be sufficient to procure even a scanty supply of those works which would be
LESSONS IN ENGLISH GRAMMAR.-No. 1. necessary to supply the amount of knowledge which any man laying a claim to be considered educated must possess.
INTRODUCTION. There are numerous instances in every hamlet in England, of The Englisu LANGUAGE is made up of several extinct dwarfed intellects and disappointed aspirations,
in consequence into its composition than any other. The earliest inhabitants
tongues or dialects, but the Anglo-Saxon enters more largely of the want of means to procure even elementary works on of Great Britain were the Ancient Britons, who spoke the old common subjects in this age of cheap literature ; and there are Celtic, which is now nowhere to be found except in Wales and thousands of youths throughout the land whom a simple and Cornwall
, and in a different form in Ireland and the Highlands concise digest of the facts and bearings of leading subjects of Scotland. When the Romans invaded the country, Latin or would have converted into diligent and earnest votaries of and continued to be so during the four hundred years of their
of course became the language of law, literature, and fashion, knowledge, but whom confused plenty has disgusted and sent occupation. But, singularly enough, upon their departure away empty.
not a trace of it remained behind, except a few dames of What we propose to do, is to present from week to week, a places such as Lancaster, Chester, Manchester, all of them concise but ample statement of all that is known, and all that compounds of the Latin castra, meaning a camp. It is now a must be learned in the various departments of Botany, Natural well established fact that there are not five words of Latin History, Astronomy, Latin and English Grammar and Com-origin in our language which can be traced so far back as the
period of Roman domination. position, History, Jurisprudence, Political Economy, &c., After the invasion of the Saxons, the Britons were driven commencing with the simplest elements, and progressing step into the north-western and western corner of the island, and by step, until we leave the reader at such a point that he will there as we have already said, have preserved their ancient no longer need our assistance. We do not pretend that we the rest of the country, and their language became that in
dialect. The Saxons and Angles took complete possession of shall exhaust each subject. It would be impossible to expect common use. A few words of British origin are, however, this within the limits of & small and cheap periodical; but we proved to have «rept into it at this period, such as basket, may safely promise to supply every man with the means of ex- leather (meaning smooth in the Welsh), bride (meaning somehausting it himself, if time, inclination, and circumstances thing won), and about twenty others. allow him. But, of course, in this, as in other things, a great superseded the Saxon amongst the higher ard educated
When the Normans conquered England, the Norman-French deal depends upon the co-operation we shall receive. It is classes. The latter being entirely abandoned to the common comparatively easy to supply the materials of education, but people, lost most of its force, flexibility, and precision