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Rameses, appointed nurses to take care of them, and had them treated like his own child; being persuaded that they who should be the constant companions of his youth, would prove the most faithful ministers and soldiers in his riper years. As they grew up, they were inured to laborious exercises, and in particular, were never permitted to taste food till they had performed a journey of upwards of twenty-two of our miles. When the old king imagined they were sufficiently trained in martial exercises, he sent them, under the command of Rameses, against the Arabians. The young prince and his companions were completely successful; the Arabians, who had never been conquered before, were subdued. He was then sent westward, where he conquered a large part of Africa, and was only stopped in his career of victory by the Atlantic Ocean. Whilst he was absent on this expedition, his father died; and Rameses then resolved to fulfil the prediction of the god Ptha, and become the conqueror of the world. With this view he divided the kingdom into thirty-six provinces, and endeavoured to insure the loyalty of the people by gifts, both of money and land. He forgave all who had been guilty of offences, and discharged the debts of the soldiers. He then appointed his brother Armais regent during his absence, forbidding him, however, to use the kingly diadem, and com

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RUINS OF THE MEMNONIUM, NEAR THEBES.

were nowhere to be seen. These pillars generally bore the following or a similar inscription: "Sesostris, King of Kings, and Lord of Lords, subdued this country by the power of his arms." Besides these, in some places he also left statues of himself, armed after the Ethiopian and Egyptian manner, with a javelin in one hand and a bow in the other; whilst across the breast a line was drawn from shoulder to shoulder, with this inscription: "This regio I obtained by these my shoulders." The abandonment of his project of universal conquest, was caused by the news of his brother's having assumed the diadem and violated his queen. Hearing this, Rameses hastened from Thrace, and nine years after he had set out on his expedition, reached Pelusium in Egypt, attended by vast multitudes of captives, and laden with the spoils of Asia. H brother met him at this city, where, as is very improbably reported, Rameses accepted an invitation to an entertainment given by the traitorous regent. On this occasion, he drank freely, the queen and the other members of the royal family joining in the festivities. During the course of the entertainment, the treacherous Armais caused a quantity of dried reeds to be laid round the apartment where they were to sleep; and as soon as the party, filled with wine and wassail, had retired to rest. he set fire to the reeds. Rameses was the first to per

manding him to abstain from all injury to or undue familiarity | with the queen and the royal concubines. His army consisted of 600,000 infantry, 24,000 cavalry, and 27,000 chariots. Besides these land forces, he built one fleet on the Mediterranean, for conquests in the West, and another on the Red Sea for operations in the East. The former of these conquered Cyprus, in the Levant, the coast of Phoenicia, and several of the islands, called Cyclades, which lie to the south of the island of Delos; and the latter fleet subdued all the coasts of the Red Sea; but shoals and other nautical difficulties stopped its further progress. With the land forces, Rameses marched against the Troglodytes (an ancient people of Ethiopia), whom he conquered, obliging them to pay him a tribute of gold, ebony, and ivory. He then proceeded as far as the promontory of Dira, which lay near the straits of Babelmandeb, where he set up a pillar, with an hieroglyphic inscription. Pursuing his conquest on the continent of Asia, he crossed the Ganges, and erected pillars likewise on its banks; then marching northward he ascended the plateau of central Asia, subdued the Assyrians and Medes, after which he directed his course towards the Caspian, and the Black Sea, and invaded Scythia and Thrace. This latter country seems to have been the utmost limit of his conquests, for beyond it his pillars

ceive the danger, and finding that his guards, from the effect of their carousals, were incapable of aiding him, he rushed through the flames, and was followed by his queen and the royal children. Armais was eventually driven out of Egypt, and withdrew into Greece, where, under the new name of Danaus, he acquired great renown.

The illustrious hero of these romantic details is generally supposed to have been one of the best of princes, as well as the bravest of warriors. During his reign the star of the Pharaohs reached its zenith. He founded new cities, dus new canals, and erected many of those magnificent structures whose remains even yet afford material for the increasing wonder and admiration of the Egyptian traveller. In his reign were reared the monuments of Ibsambul, Derri, Guircheh-Hassan, and Wady-Essebouah, in Nubia; and in Egypt those of Kournah, of El Medineh near Kournah, a portion of the palace of Luxor, and the great hall with columns in the palace of Carnae, which had been begun by his father, Meneptha I. The latter is the most magnificent structure ever reared by the hand of man. Nor were these his most impor ant achievements. Not content with adorning his kingdom with sumptuous edifices, being desirous to promote the real welfare of his people, he published a body of new laws, the most important of which was tha

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which gave to all classes of his subjects the right of property fourth page; and the ruins of the Hall of Kings, is represented
in its fullest extent. By this, he divested himself of that abso- in our eighth page. Adjacent to the great palace, are many
lute and unlimited power which his ancestors had preserved other extensive buildings connected with it by avenues á
after the overthrow of the Shepherd kings, and inmortalised his sphinxes, lions, and rams, some of the avenues extending to-
name. Under him, it was, that Egypt arrived at its highest wards Luxor. The effect of these ruins on the mind of the
pitch of internal splendour and political power. His sway, spectator is that of awe and sublimity. He seems to be
either as sovereign or receiver of tribute, extended over Egypt, entering a city of departed giants-to be alone in the midst
Nubia, Abyssinia, Sennaar, several countries of the south of of all that is sacred in the world.
Africa, all the wandering tribes of the desert, east and west of The entrance to the palace of Luxor is composed of two
the Nile, Syria, Arabia, the kingdoms of Babylon and Nineveh, obelisks, which are about 70 feet above the surface of the
a great part of Asia Minor, the island of Cyprus, some islands ground, and are understood to be about 30 feet below it; two
of the Archipelago, and a large part of Persia. Besides inter- colossal statues of black granite, each 38 feet high, and two
course with these countries, regular commercial communica- great masses of building of an oblong plan and tapering sides,
tions were carried on with India. The discoveries of Indian 65 feet high, and covered with hieroglyphics. On the Libyan
stuffs and other materials, which have been made in the tombs side of Thebes, is the site of the Mennonium, represented in
of Thebes, prove the existence of such a commerce between our fiflh page, and the immense statue of red granite, 64 feet
the two countries at a time when the European tribes and a in height, thrown down by Cambyses. The ruins of this
great portion of the Asiatics existed in a state of barbarism. edifice, which is by some called the tomb of Osymandyas, or
Thebes and Memphis were the first central depots of Sesostris, consist of three colossal statues—the one just men-
this commerce, ages before Babylon, Tyre, Sidon, Alexandria, tioned is within the edifius, and the other two are in the
Palmyra (Tadmor), or Bagdad were founded. Egypt was adjoining plain. The former is entirely broken into frag-
at this period divided into thirty-six provincial govern- ments, and cover a space sixty feet square, making it resemble
ments, presided over by officers of different ranks, who a quarry. It was composed of a single block, which must
administered justice according to a complete code of written have weighed two millions of pounds. The two statues on
laws. Of the population, which amounted in all to about the plain, called by the country people Iama and Chama, still
six millions, a part specially devoted to the study of the remain in their original position, but so mutilated as to render
sciences, and the advancement of the arts, was charged, it impossible to judge of the sculpture. One of them, from
besides the ceremonies of religion, with the administration of the numerous inscriptions on it, appears to have been the
justice, the assessment and collection of the taxes, and with vocal statue of Memnon, celebrated by the ancients as emit-
all the branches of the civil government. This was called the ting a musical sound at sunrise, or when struck at particular
Sacerdotal (or priestly) Caste. The chief duties of this class times of the day. No modern visitor has been able to elicit
were exercised or directed by the members of the royal family. these sounds ; and there can be no doubt that they were pro-
A second portion of the people formed the Military Caste, out duced by some contrivance of the Egyptian priests. Karnac,
of which soldiers were exclusively drawn for the standing Luxor, and the Memnonium, from the nature of the sculptures
army, which averaged about 180,000 men. The third portion of and distribution of the apartments, are supposed to have been
the population constituted the Ayricultural Caste, which had the the palaces of kings. At all other places, the ancient buildings
sole cultivation of the soil, the product of which belonged to are considered to have been temples of the gods. From the
them alone, subject only to the deduction of a portion for the accounts which have reached us of the nature of the authority
king, and another for the support of the sacerdotal and mili- exercised by the Egyptian priesthood, it is highly probable
tary castes. The fourth, and last, was the Industrial Caste, that at ancient Thebes, the palace and the temple were united.
which included artisans of all kinds, and merchants. It was How degrading to think that Karnac, with all its magnificence
the productions of this class which raised the country to its and glory, was dedicated to the impure god Priapus !
highest pitch of prosperity.

With regard to the history of Rameses the Great, or

Sesostris, king of Egypt, we may believe that he gained many
ANTIQUITIES OF EGYPT.

victories and subdued many regions, although we cannot fix
Several allusions having been made in the preceding lesson the date of his reign or the limits of his empire, nor tell what
on Ancient History, to the remarkable antiquities which have humbled nations bowed before his throne, or what captive
been found in the Thebaid, or Upper Egypt, we have taken the kings were yoked to his triumphal car. He is represented in
opportunity to introduce, for the benefit of our young readers, the engraving on our seventh page as in the act of beheading a
several illustrations of these antiquities, which will serve to number of his vanquished enemies. The sculpture from which
convey an idea of their magnitude and their magnificence, it was taken was most probably intended only to indicate their
and which will, in the absence of authentic historical docu- complete subjugation. Could the hieroglyphics, literally
ments, relate even to a certain extent their own extraordinary sacred engravings, on the stone from which it was taken be
tale. In the vicinity of Thebes, the ancient capital of Egypt, properly read, the story of the conquest might be learned,
and on its eastern side, distant from each other about two Hitherto, this ancient book is sealed. Many attempts have
miles, stand the wonderful ruins of the ancient palaces of been made in vain to discover a key to this mystic mode of
Carnac or Karnac and Luxor; and on the western side, writing on monuments, practised by the Egyptian priests.
Medinet Abon, the Memnonium, and the tombs cut in the
mountain behind. Carnac surpasses in grandeur every other

QUESTIONS ON THE PRECEDING LESSON. structure in Thebes, and in the world. On the north-east entrance to Karnac, the ancient Egyptians appear to have

What is history in the various senses in which this term is layished all their magnificence. 'lhe approach is by a long

employed? avenue of sphinxes, the largest in Egypt, leading to a succes.

What are the advantages to be gained by the

study of history? sion of portals with colossal statues in front. These are dis- what is their object?

What sciences are called the joint handmaids of history, and tinguished even by the variety of the materials in which they What are the limits assigned to the period of ancient history

A calcareous stone, compact like marble, and varie- What are the most authentio sources of information on ancient
gated siliceous lime-stone, and beautiful rose-coloured and history?
black marbles of Syene, have all been used in their structure.

What three nations claim to be the most ancient, in the history of
There are two obelisks; one of 91 feet high, the loftiest in the world ?
Egypt, adorned with sculptures of perfect execution. The

What was the original state of the earliest tribes that peopled
principal hall, represented in our first page, is 318 feet long, Egypt?
and 159 broad, having the roof supported by 136 columns; the

How were these people governed ? and what was the form of two middle ranges of these are about 70 feet high, and li'feet government called?

State the nature of the different castes into which the Egyptians in diameter; the others are 7 feet in diameter. This immense

were divided. hall or vestibule leads into a court where there are four

Who was the first king of Egypt ? and how many years did he obelisks and twelve colossal figures. Two other courts con- live before Solomon ? State some of his mighty acis ; and the duct to what is supposed to be the apartments of the kings. names of the early and later capitals of the kingdom. Who was One of these, called the Grand Court is represented in our the last of the dynasty which he founded, and what befel him}

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As we pro•

no one can supply brains, perseverance, and energy to use TO THE READER.

them. If, in the course of our articles, anything should appear In entering upon a new work, the leading features of which doubtful or obscure—if anything should seem to have been are so novel, it may be well to state clearly what we expect of passed over lightly, or left altogether untouched, we shall be the reader, and what he is to expect of us, so that there may happy to afford the desired explanation upon application by be no disappointment or misunderstanding on either side. letter. But it must be strictly understood, that we can give The success of the French Lessons, published in the Working no direct answers to individuals. Everything must be in Man's Friend, places it beyond doubt that it is possible to make general terms for the benefit of all, and we must, of course, a periodical the medium of conveying a large amount of infor- reserve to ourselves the right of deciding as to the pertinency mation on all subjects, coming within the limits of what may of the queries which may be addressed to us. be called an ordinary education. It is a well known fact that ceed, readers and authors will doubtless acquire more confithe acquisition of learning must be in every case the work of dence in one another, and it must always be remembered that the pupil himself. In schools and colleges the master or pro- every obstacle overcome is a help in all after progress. fessor does little else than direct, control, or stimulate. Where In a few weeks we shall commence a series of “Lessons in a difficulty occurs he may explain, or remove it, but it must German," upon the same plan'as those in French and Latin, be remembered that this may be done so frequently as to be and shall continue them until the pupil is enabled to read come positively injurious. Whatever he can do with the living with ease the works of standard authors. In the interval, voice may be done by us with the pen. But the materials on however, we shall go on with the latter. Upon the im. which we work differ widely. We can exercise po restraint, no portance of attention to these three languages it is scarcely oversight, and no coercion. Those who propose to accompany necessary to say one word. To have mastered them, is to have us through the columns of the Popular Educator must love know- obtained the key to new fields of literature of the highest ledge for knowledge' sake, and be content to acquire it through order, full of the soundest instruction, and possessing all the labour and perseverance. Doubts we can remove, difficulties charm of novelty for the English reader. Now that travelling we can explain, but it must be upon demand. Much as must is becoming so cheap, and intercourse with foreign nations be done by ourselves, still more must be done by the reader. so close and frequent, many of our readers may some Eagerness in learning has done infinitely more for the day find the use of our lessons in visits to France or Gerworld than ardour in teaching. But singularly enough the many; but putting this out of the question, we hope, at all very profusion with which the stores of knowledge are laid events, to enable them to enjoy one of the richest treats which around, is tending every day to embarrass and perplex those any ardent and enthusiastic self-educator can recrive—the who can devote but little time to their selection and appro- power of reading the great works of Rome, of Germany, and of priation. The great mass of the people know not where to begin France, in the original tongues. The best translation can give and what to choose. " What book shall I read on such a sub- but a faint idea of any one of them; and it must be rememject?" is a question which is every day asked by boys and bered, also, that the more familiar we become with foreign men, “Why there are so many good ones that I hardly know languages, the greater skill do we acquire in the use of our which to recommend you," is the answer in nine cases out of own. In learning languages, as in everything else, strength ten, And even if it were more satisfactory, how many are

comes from striving, and every difficulty overcome is an aid in there amongst the young and the working classes whose spare the achievement of still greater victories. money is not a tenth part of what would be sufficient to procure even a scanty supply of those works which would be

LESSONS IN ENGLISH GRAMMAR.-No. 1. necessary to supply the amount of knowledge which any man laying a claim to be considered educated must possess.

INTRODUCTION. There are numerous instances in every hamlet in England, of The Englisu LANGUAGE is made up of several extinct dwarfed intellects and disappointed aspirations,

in consequence into its composition than any other. The earliest inhabitants

tongues or dialects, but the Anglo-Saxon enters more largely of the want of means to procure even elementary works on of Great Britain were the Ancient Britons, who spoke the old common subjects in this age of cheap literature ; and there are Celtic, which is now nowhere to be found except in Wales and thousands of youths throughout the land whom a simple and Cornwall

, and in a different form in Ireland and the Highlands concise digest of the facts and bearings of leading subjects of Scotland. When the Romans invaded the country, Latin or would have converted into diligent and earnest votaries of and continued to be so during the four hundred years of their

of course became the language of law, literature, and fashion, knowledge, but whom confused plenty has disgusted and sent occupation. But, singularly enough, upon their departure away empty.

not a trace of it remained behind, except a few dames of What we propose to do, is to present from week to week, a places such as Lancaster, Chester, Manchester, all of them concise but ample statement of all that is known, and all that compounds of the Latin castra, meaning a camp. It is now a must be learned in the various departments of Botany, Natural well established fact that there are not five words of Latin History, Astronomy, Latin and English Grammar and Com-origin in our language which can be traced so far back as the

period of Roman domination. position, History, Jurisprudence, Political Economy, &c., After the invasion of the Saxons, the Britons were driven commencing with the simplest elements, and progressing step into the north-western and western corner of the island, and by step, until we leave the reader at such a point that he will there as we have already said, have preserved their ancient no longer need our assistance. We do not pretend that we the rest of the country, and their language became that in

dialect. The Saxons and Angles took complete possession of shall exhaust each subject. It would be impossible to expect common use. A few words of British origin are, however, this within the limits of & small and cheap periodical; but we proved to have «rept into it at this period, such as basket, may safely promise to supply every man with the means of ex- leather (meaning smooth in the Welsh), bride (meaning somehausting it himself, if time, inclination, and circumstances thing won), and about twenty others. allow him. But, of course, in this, as in other things, a great superseded the Saxon amongst the higher ard educated

When the Normans conquered England, the Norman-French deal depends upon the co-operation we shall receive. It is classes. The latter being entirely abandoned to the common comparatively easy to supply the materials of education, but people, lost most of its force, flexibility, and precision

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