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INDEX.

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LESSONS IN ALGEBRA.

PAGB
PAGE

XXXI. Latin Stems: Explanations ; Conversations on
I. Section 1., Introduction : Illustrations, Definitions,

English Grammar, No. IV..

228
Exercises, Positive and Affirmative Quantities,

XXXII. to XXXV. Latin Stems: Explanations and Ex-
Axioms

354

ercises ; Conversations on English Grammar,

No. V..
LESSONS IN ARCHITECTURE.

248, 263, 281, 287

XXXVI. to XXXVIII. Latin Stems: Explanations and
VII. Architraves, Arches, and Vaulted Roofs

13
Exercises

....303, 323, 335
VIII. Aqueducts, Roman and French

29 XXXIX. French Stems : English words from the French;
IX. Arcades, Cupolas, Domes, Churches, Basilicas, Ro-

French words in the English

351
manesque-style, Arabic Arch, &c.

45

XL. Diverse Stems; the Lord's Prayer in Ten Dif.
X. Gothic Architecture; with Illustrations

105

ferent Languages; English words from the
XI. Private Houses; with Illustrations

121
Italian and Spanish..

368
LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC.

XLI. The Celtic Element

378
XVII. Properties of Numbers; Different Scales of Notation 16

LESSONS IN FRENCH.
XVIII. Analysis of Composité Numbers : Least Common

XXVI. The Past Anterior and the Piuperfect; Inter-
Multiple

55
rogative Construction ...

3
XIX. Vulgar Fractions: Definitions and Principles

132 XXVII. Idioms relating to the Verb, with particular in-
XX. Problems in Vulgar Fractions: Prob. I. To reduce

stances

15
a Fraction to its Lowest Terms

230 XXVIII, Plural of Compound Nouns; the two Futures,
XXI. Problems in Vulgar Fractions : Brob. II. To reduce

Simple and Anterior

30
Fractions to a Common Denominator..

267

XXIX. Irregularities of the Future; the two Con.
XXII. Problems Vulgar Fractions: Prob. III. To find

ditionals; Idioms....

47
the value of an, Improper Fraction. Prob. IV.

XXX. XXXI. Frequent Idioms; Dimension, Weight, 64, 78
To reduce a whole or mixed number to an Im.

XXXII. The Imperative Mood of the Regular Verbs ;
proper Fraction. Prob. V. To reduce Compound

the Subjunctive.......

98
Fractions. Prob. VI. Addition of Fractions .... 328 XXXIII. The Subjunctive continued; the Imperfect and
XXIII. Problems in Vulgar Fractions : Prob. VII. Subtrac-

Pluperfect of the Subjunctive

106
tion of Fractions: Prob. VIII. Multiplication of XXXIV. Regimen or Government of Verbs....

139
Fractions

357 XXXV. Regimen of Adjectives, Government of Pre-
LESSONS IN BIOGRAPHY.

positions ...

138
VIII. Samuel Budgett, the Successful Merchant

XXXVI. The Demonstrativo Pronoun, ce; other Idioms, 161
192

XXXVII. 'Idioms relating to Conjunctions, Verbs, and
IX. Rev. Samuel Lee, D D., Professor of Hebrew, &c. 290

Articles

178
LESSONS IN BOTANY.

XXXVIII. Idioms relating to Pronouns, Verbs, &c...... 190

XXXIX., XL. Idioms relating to Verbs....
XV. Classes : 18. Polydelphia, Dodecandria, Icosandria,

..201, 218
Polyandria; 19. Syngenesia, Polygamia Aqualis,

XLI.'Idioms relating to Nouns, Pronouns, &c. The
Superflua, Frustanea, Necessaria, and Segretata;

Present Participle, the Verbal Adjective.... 236
21). Gynandria, Monandria, Diandria, Hexandria;

XLII. Practical Résumé of the Rules on the Past
Participle

246
21. Monacia, Monandria, Triandria, Tetrandria,
Polyandria ; 22. Diæcia, Diandria, Tetrandria ;

XLIII. Examples illustrating the uses of the principal
23. Polygamia, Monæcia, Diwcia

41

Conjunctions; Abbreviations employed in
French

268
XVI. Class 24. Cryptogamia, Lichens, Fungi, Mossea,
Ferns, &c.

77
XLIV. SECOND PART.-Parts of Speech; Nouns, Cases
and Gender

282
LESSONS IN DRAWING.

XLV. Gender and Plural of Nouns...
I. Introductory Chapter : Perspective, Form, Light and

XLVI. Nouns, Plural and no Plural; Proper Names;
Shade, &c.

149

the Article; the Adjective....
11. Angles and Geometrical Figures,

181 XLVII. Qualifying Adjectives; Formation of the Femi-
II. Elementary Forms and Linear Drawing

225
nine of Adjectives

325
IV. Linear Drawing continued ; Architectural Mould.

XLVIII. Formation of the Plural of Adjectives ; Deter-
ings, Vases, Quatrefoil, Compasses, Apollo Belve-

mining Adjectives; Demonstrative and Pus-
dere, &c.

257
sessive

341
V., VI. Outline Drawing from Simple Forms; Principle

XLIX. Numeral Adjectives ; Cardinal and Ordinal
of Copying Drawings; the Pantograph ........285, 317

Numbers ; Variations of the Cardinals ; Ob-
VII., VIII. Perspective: Section I., II. Definitions, &c., 345, 377

servations and Rules Cardinals and
LESSONS IN ENGLISH,

Ordinals

349

L. Numeral Nouns; Fractional Numerals ; Inde-
XVII. Prefixes from the Greek, the Latin, and the

finite Adjectives; the Pronoun....... 372
Saxon; Origin of Numerals and some Com-

LI. The Personal Pronouns........

384
mon Nouns, &c.

7
XVIII., XIX., XX., XXI. Suffixes: List of English

FRENCH EXTRACTS.
Suffixes, Able to Ly: Conversations on English Pensées Morales et Maximes: Doute-Hauteur ... 314, 359

Grammar and Composition, No. I., 26, 33, 59, 74
XXII. Suffixes continued; Ment to Y; Summary of

LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.
Suffixes

85

MAPS OF EUROPE, ASIA, AFRICA, N.and S. AMERICA,
XXIII. Uncombined Suffixes: Adverbs, Prepositions 102

and AUSTRALABIA: Boundaries, Divisions, Seas,
XXIV. Words that are both Prefixes and Suffixes ;

Straits, Gulfs, Islands, Peninsulas, Isthmuses,
Conversations on English Grammar, No. II. 116

Capes, &c., to be prefixed to the volume....
XXV. to XXVII. The Greek Element: Greek Stems,

XI. Astronomical Principles : Orbits of the Planets ;
&c., Conversations on English Grammar. No.

Attraction, Tangential Impulse, Inclination of
..... ..127, 144, 152
Axis, Circle of Illumination, &c.

1
XXVIII. Greek Stems continued, &c.

170 XII. Astronomical Principles : Law of Attraction, Num-
XXIX. Greck Stems concluded, &c. ..................

186

ber of the Planets, Table of the Solar System 31
XXX, The Larin Element: Examples

212 XIIJ. Bride's Law, Titius Law, Telescopic Planets, llie

...

289

305

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PAGE

PAGE
New Planets, Additional Table of the Solar XXXIV. Idioms relating to Nouns, Verbs, Pronouns, &c. 278
System, Satellites of Jupiter

61 XXXV. Idioms relating to Verbs; Passive Verbs in the
XIV. The Seasons; the great Circles of the Globe; the

Indicative and Subjunctive

293
Meridian; the Equator; Latitude, &c.

89 XXXVI. to XL. Idioms relating to Prepositions, Verbe,
XV. Explanation of Latitude and Longitude by Rectan-

Particles, Adverbs, Nouns, &c.,309,321, 339, 352, 369
gular Axes; First Meridiin; East Longitude,

XLI. Idioms of various kinds

380
West Longitude, &c. ...

146
XVI. Latitudes and L ngitudes; to make a Circle pass

LESSONS IN LATIN.
through any three points; Construction of the

XXV. to XXVIII. Deponent Verbs: First, Second,
Map of the World; small Circles of the Globe;

Third, and Fourth Conjugation; Exercises;
the Arctic and Antarctic Circles; the Tropics of

Ablilire Absolute

..8, 22, 37, 54
Cancer and Capricorn; the Five Zones of the

XXIX. to XXXVII. Deviations from the Model Cen.
Earth, its surface and solid content

220

jugations; Deviations in the First, Second,
XVII. Explanation of the Map of the World; Natural

and Third Conjugation, 70, 82, 91, 108, 123, 140, 158,
Divisions on the Earth's Surface
253

168, 183
XVIII. Explanaiion of the Map of Europe: 'Table of the XXXVIII. Deviational Verbs; Inchoatives; Deviations in
Countries, Kingdoms, Empires, and Sates of

the Fourth Conjugation ; Construction, &c... 199
Europe

295 XXXIX., XL. Irregular Verbs; Exercices, &c. .....243, 260
XIX. Explanation of the Map of Europe ; Table of

XLI. The Defective Verbs, &c.
European Lakes; Statistical Table of Europe ;

XLII. Impersonal Verbs, &C.....

306
British Empire in Europe

311 XLIII. Various kinds of Verbs; Simple, Derivative,
XX. Explanation of the Map of Asia ; Table of Countries,

Desiderative, Diminutive, lochoative, and
Kingdoms, Empires and States of Asia

370

Compound; verbal stems; verbs transitive
XXI. Explanation of the diap of Asia; Statistical Table 385

and intransitive

319
LESSONS IN GEOLOGY.

XLIV. t. XLVI. Syntax: Definitions ; Agreements;
Examples

347, 363, 382
XV. On the Action of Volcanoes on the Earth's
Crust; Volcanic Dykes

4
KEY TO THE LATIN ESERCISTS.

11
XVI. Extinct Volcanoes

40 Lessons X. to XIII.
XVII. On the Action of Rain upon Rocks

65
Lessons XIII, to XIX.

222
XVIII. On the Origin of Springs of Water..
SO

238
Lessons XX. to XXIII.
XIX. On the Phenomena of Artesian Wells
100 Lessons XXIII. to XXVI.

298
XX. On the Chemical Action of Water; Calcareous,
Lessons XXVII, to XXVIII.

342
Siliceous, Carboniferous, Saliferous, and
Lessons XXIX. to XXXI.

375
Ferruginous Springs

124

LESSONS IN MUSIC.
XXI. On the Excavating Power of Running Water

159
upon Sirface Soils

X. Revision, and Answers to Inquirers; Exercises, The
Welcome Back, The Happy Miod

18
XXII. On the Agency of Water in abrading Rocks 165

XI. Mental effect of the Notes of the Scale

49
XXIII. On the Disintegrating Power of Falling Water,
with illustrations

XII. Mental effect of Notes; Exercises, The Norwich

187
XXIV. On the Transporting Power of Rivers and Floods 232

Chant, White Sand and Grey Sand, If Happiness 114
XXV. On the Reproductive Agency of Rivers

XIII. Rules for performing the Exercises; Exercises, Old
261

128
XXVI. On the Formation of Deltas ...

308

England, Crosscombe...
XXVII. On the Destructive Agency of the Ocean

XIV. Requirements of the Tonic Sol-fa Association; Use
XXVIII. On the Reconstructive Agency of the Ocean.... 365

of the Black Board; Dictation; Exercises, Full
Many a Shaft, The Irish Air ..

174
LESSONS IN GEOMETRY.

XV. The scale of all Nations; Explanation of Notes;
XII. Lectures on Euclid : Definitions ; Quadrature and

Exercises, The Man's the Gold for all that,
Area of a Circle

71

Nare's Chaunt, Delightful Sounds, The Merry
XIII. Postulates and Axioms; Geometry without

Homes of England

283
Axioms,” Nomenclature, Propositions, &c. 201 XVI. Exercises : The Spanish Chant, Cyprus, and Clifton
XIV. Intercalary Book : Book I. Prop. I. Scholia

245
Grove

337
XV. Book I. Props. II. and III.; Scholia

297

LESSONS IN NATURAL HISTORY.
XVI. Book I. Prop. IV. Solution of Exercises .......... 327
XVII. Book I. Corollary to Prop. IV.; Scholium; Prop.

X., XI. The Bat

35, 92
V., Three new Proofs and Corollary

373
XII. The Common Hedgehog

143
LESSONS IN GERMAN.
XIII. The Jackal; the Foxes of Scripture

177
XIV. The Walrus or Morse

209
XVI. Adverbs, Idioms

XV. The Civet Cat

251
XVII. Comparison of Adjectives ; Inflection of the XVI. The Weasel

292
Anjective, Old and New Declension

25
XVIII. Inseparable Particles ...

39

LESSONS IN PENMANSHIP.
XIX., XX. Idioms; Verbs Active in form with Passive

I. Position of the Body, the Hand, and the Pen ...... 31
Signification, &c.....

..58, 72 II. The Writing Alphabets ; Lessons in Text, Half-Text,
XXI, Impersonal Verbs; Reflexive Verbs, &c.... 83

and Current-hand, from A to D

50
XXII. XXIII. Idioms; Subjunctive Mood

III. Remarks on Letters and Style ; Lessons in Text,
XXIV. Idioms; Conditional Mood

134

Hall-Text, and Current-Hand, from E to H .. 67
XXV. Idioms; Verbs governing the Genitive ; Adjec-

IV., V., VI.,

VII. Lessons in Text, Half-Text, and Cur-
tives requiring the Genitive

141
rent-Hand, from I to Z

67,95, 111, 155, 171
XXVI. Adjectives requiring the Dative; Verbs requir-

LESSONS IN PHYSIOLOGY,
ing the Dative

154
XXVII. Verbs requiring an Accusative of a Person, and

XI. Concluding Lesson : Glossary of Physiological Terms 29
a Genitive of a Thing; Verbs requiring the

LESSONS IN PHONETIC SHORTHAND.
Dative or Accusative

169 1. The Alphabet, Breath Letters, Voice Letters, Nasals,
XXVIII. Verbs requiring two Accusatives ; also those

Aspirations, Natural Scheme of the whole System
governing the Accusative with the Dative;

of Spelling without Vowel-marks

197
Prepositions requiring the Dative

II. Variable and Compound Articulations; Double
XXIX. Prepositions requiring the Accusative, and the

Letter, Repeater, Examples and Exercises

210
Dative or Accusative; Examples of the use
II. Vowel-marks, Abbreviations, &c.

241
of Prepositions..

202 IV. Affixes or Terminations; Recapitulation of Prefixes
XXX. Examples of the use of Prepositions; Idioms

and Affixes; Key to Exercises

279
relating to Verbs, Nouns, &c....

216 V. Abbreriations of various kinds, List of Subordinate
XXXI. Idioms relating to Conjunctions; Words relating

Words, Articles and Conjunctions

301
to Number, Quantity, Weight, and Measure 231 VI. List of Subordinate Words represented by a Simplifia
XXXII., XXXIII. Idioms relating to Adverbs, Verbs,

cation of their Alphabetic form ; Il'usiration with
Particles, fixes, &c...

..250, 261
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361

333

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..94, 110

193

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LESSONS

ASTRONOMICAL PRINCIPLES OF GEOGRAPHY.

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SUPPOSE that you were elevated in the heavens, or in the vast space in which roll all the stars, to a point millions of miles above the sun; and that you were furnished with a telescopic eye so powerful, that from that point you could observe the magnitudes, motions, and distances of all the bodies in the Solar System; that is, the bodies or planets which revolve round the sun in consequence of the laws of attraction and tangential impulse; you would perceive among them a highly-favoured planet called the Earth, accompanied by a satellite (an attendant) in its course, called the Moon. This Earth and her satellite, like all the other planets and their satellites which you would behold in this bird's-eye view, receive both their light and their heat from the sun; and the influences of these imponderable bodies are distributed to all the planets in the same ratio as the power of attraction which keeps them revolving in their orbits (tracks or paths); that is, in the inverse ratio of the squares of their distances; or, to express it more clearly, the power of the attraction, the light and the heat of the sun on one planet, is to that on another planet, as the square of the distance of the latter, is to the square of the distance of the former. In your elevated position, you would next perceive that the planets in their various revolutions, would at some times be nearer to the sun than at other times; and that if the orbit of each were traced by a white line in space, it would appear to your eye, if rightly placed, to have the form of an oval nearly, being in fact, what is called in the language of mathematics, an ellipse. In order that you may understand the nature of this curve, we shall explain it by means of a diagram. Thus, in fig. 1, if you fix two pins on a board, Fig. 1. We think we hear some of our readers exclaiming, notwithstandat the points F and r', and fasten a string ing the elevated position in which we have supposed them to be F MF, of any convenient length, but greater placed, What! will you tell us that the sun is the cause of light and than the distance between the two points, by heat on the earth's surface, and yet you assert that the earth is its extremities, at these points; and if you nearer to the sun in winter than in summer? How can this be? take a crayon or chalk pencil, and press it on Paradoxical as this may seem, it is nevertheless true; and the the string horizontally at M, so as to keep it reason we shall now give. As you are supposed to be looking always tense (i. e. stretched), and parallel to from a great distance, and to be able to discern all the motions of the board, moving the pencil round and round the planets, if you look narrowly at the earth, you will perceive at the same time, from one side to the other; you will describe the that besides its orbitual motion round the sun, it has a revolving curve A C BD, which is called the ellipse. It is evident that the or journal motion on its own axis. By axis here is meant that limits of the form of this curve are the circle and the straight line. imaginary straight line passing through the globe of the earth, on If the two points F and F are brought close together, the curve which its rotation is supposed to take place, and which is aptly will be a circle; if they be separated as much as the string will represented in artificial globes by the strong wire passing from one allow, the curve will become a straight line. The two points F side to the other, at the points called the poles (that is, pivots), and are called the foci (the plural of focus) of the curve; the which are the extremities of the axis. This motion may be straight line AB drawn through them, and terminated both ways likened to the spinning of a top, a motion which continues while by the curve, is called the major axis; and the straight line C D the top is driven forward in any direction from one place to another. drawn at right angles to this axis from its middle point o, and In fact, the analogy would be so far complete, independently of the terminated both ways by the curve, is called its minor axis. If a causes of the motion, if the top, while it is spinning or revolving as straight line be drawn from F' to c, it will be equal to the straight it were on its own axis, were made to run regularly round in an line A o, or half the major axis. The point o is called the centre oval ring on the ground, under the lash of the whip. Thus, the of the ellipse, and the ratio of Fo to A o, that is, of the distance earth has two motions; one on its own axis, performed once every between the centre and the focus to half the major axis, is called twenty-four hours; and one in its orbit, performed once every 365 the eccentricity of the ellipse. The distance from the focus F to days 6 hours; we have stated these periods in round numbers, in any point м in the curve is called the radius vector of the ellipse; order that they may be easily remembered; but the exact period of it is least at A, and greatest at B. With these explanations, while the earth's daily revolution on its axis, is 23 hours, 56 minutes, you are supposed to be looking at the orbit of a planet from 4 seconds, and 9 hundredth parts of a second; and the exact your elevated position in space, you will now be able to compre-period of the earth's annual revolution in its orbit is 365 days, 5 hend the fundamental principles of Astronomy,-viz. Kepler's hours, 48 minutes, 49 seconds. The analogy of the motions of Laws. the top, however, to the motions of the earth, as thus described, The eminent German astronomer just mentioned, who flourished is incomplete in respect of the position of their axes. The axis of at the close of the 16th century and the beginning of the 17th, the spinning top is in general upright or perpendicular to the discovered, by laborious observations and calculations, the follow-ground, which may be called the plane of its orbit, that is, of the ing remarkable laws, which were afterwards mathematically de- oval ring in which it is supposed to move; but the axis of the monstrated by Sir Isaac Newton:-1. That the planets all revolve earth in its daily motion is not perpendicular to the plane of its in elliptic orbits, situated in planes passing through the centre of orbit, or the ellipse in which its annual motion is performed. In the sun; the sun itself being placed in one of the foci of the ellipse. speaking of the plane of the earth's orbit our analogy fails, for 2. That the radius vector or straight line drawn from the centre of there is nothing to represent the ground on which the motion of the VOL. II. 27

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I N GEOGRAPHY.-No. XI.

the sun to the centre of the planet passes over equal areas in equal times in every part of the orbit; that is, whether the planet be in its aphelion, or farthest from the sun, in its perihelion, or nearest to the sun, or at its mean distance from the sun. And 3. That the squares of the periodic times of the planets, that is, of the times of a complete revolution in their orbits, are proportional to the cubes of their mean distances from the sun; in other words, that the square of the periodic time of one planet is to the square of the periodic time of another planet, as the cube of the mean distance of the former from the sun is to the cube of the mean distance of the latter from it. Into the full explanation of these laws we cannot enter until we treat of astronomy; in the meantime it is necessary to give some explanation of the law which we have marked first, though it is generally accounted the second, in order to clear up some points connected with phenomena relating to the earth, and the circles drawn on the globe, which is the only true representation of the earth's surface. Supposing then the ellipse in fig. 1 to represent the earth's annual orbit round the sun, and the focus r' the place of the sun's centre; then the point A will represent the position of the earth's centre at mid-winter, when it is nearest the sun, or in its perihelion; B will represent its position at mid-summer when it is farthest from the sun, or in its aphelion ; c will represent its position at the spring or vernal equinox, when it is at its mean distance from the sun; and D its position at the harvest or autumnal equinox, when it is also at its mean distance from the sun.

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succession, and would be sure period the whole year www of the earth were coincident to manelelism, this would happen can would at opposite periods eave the variations between In the à “the same, that is, there would mi the rear round; in the latter Jer vond de mumerable, that is, Here, then, creative wisdom man of the earth's axis is nons in a remarkable manner, and tharing her fruits to perfor a period that she may renew the earth is supposed to be at

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southern or antarctic regions. While son. the rays of the sun fall more eremisphere than they do upon the ne have more power to produce heat Lecording to the illustration given above.

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LESSONS IN FRENCH.-No. XXVI.
By Professor LOUIS FASQUELLE, LL.D.
SECTION LIV.

THE PAST ANTERIOR AND THE PLUPERFECT (§ 122, 123). 1. THE past anterior is formed from the past definite of the auxiliary and the past participle of the verb: J'eus parlé, had spoken; je fus venu, I had come.

I

2. The past anterior expresses generally a momentary action, which took place before another action. The latter immediately follows the former, and often depends upon it. The action expressed by this tense is not a customary one. The past anterior is often preceded by à peine, scarcely; dês que, aussitôt que, as soon as; quand, lorsque, when [§ 122. § 123 (3)]. Dès que j'eus fini ma tâche je m'en As soon as I had finished my task I allai. went away.

SECTION LV.

3. This tense partakes of the nature of the past definite. 4. The pluperfect is composed of the imperfect of the auxiliary, and the past participle of the verb : j'avais parlé, I had spoken; j'étais venu, I had come.

5. To this tense might be applied nearly all the rules on the use of the imperfect. The action which it expresses, or the situation which it depicts, is frequently a customary one, or one often repeated :

1. We have given [Sect. 4, R. 4, and § 76 (4)] a rule for the place of the noun, subject or nominative of an interrogative sentence. To avoid confusing the student, we have hitherto refrained from introducing another construction which is often used by the French instead of that given in the rule. When a sentence commences with où, where; que, what ; quél, which; combien, how much, how many; and quand, when; the noun may be placed immediately after the verb. This construction is similar to that of the English interrogative sentence when Dès que j'avais fini ma tâche je As soon as my task was finished I the verb has no auxiliary [§ 76 (5)] :used to go away.

:

Were you told that your sister was-sick? 6. I was told that
she had been dangerously sick. 7. Did you know what you
had done with your pen? 8. I knew that I had mislaid it.
9. How many of your books have you mislaid? 10. I had
mislaid five, but my brother has found them. 11. Where had
13. Was
you left them? 12. I had left them in the garden.
was it stopped? 16. He had forgotten to wind it up. 17.
your brother's watch stopped? 14. It was stopped. 15. Why
Had he not lost his key (clef, f.) 18. He had not lost it.
19. Was the dyer gone? 20. He was not yet gone, he in-
tended to leave at five. 21. Had you spoken to him when I
came yesterday? 22. I had spoken to him. 23. Had you told
him that my sister is here? 24. I had told him. 25. Is he
still here? 26. No, Sir, he is gone, he went this morning at

six.

RESUME OF Aviez-vous eu soin de vos effets ? J'en avais eu soin. N'aviez-vous pas eu besoin de moi? J'avais eu besoin de vous et de votre frère. N'aviez-vous pas eu l'intention de me parler ? Dès que vous eûtes fini votre lettre, ne la portâtes-vous pas à la poste? Dès que vous aviez fini vos lettres, neles portiez-vous pas à la posto?

m'en allais.

Dès que vous fûtes arrivé, ne com-
mençâtes-vous pas à écrire?
Dès que vous étiez arrivé, ne com-
mençiez-vous pas à écrire?

Arrêt-er, 1. to stop.
Bal, m. ball.

Bourse, f. purse.
Se coucher, 1. ref. to go
to bed.
Dangereusement, dan-
gerously.
Diner, m. dinner.

EXAMPLES.
Had
taken care of your things?
you
I had taken care of them.
Had not wanted me?
you
1 had wanted you and your brother.

Had you not intended to speak to me?

As soon as you had finished your letter
did you not carry it to the post-office
As soon as your letters were finished,
did you not take them to the post-
office 1
As soon as you had arrived, did you
not commence writing?
As soon as you used to arrive, did
you not commence writing?

EXERCISE 107.
Egar-er, 1. to mislay.
Invit-er, 1. to invite.
Se lev-er, ref. to rise.
Malade, sick.
Musicien, m. musician.
Oubli-er, 1. to forget.
Part-ir, 2. to set out.

Perd-re, 1. to lose.
Remont-er, 1. to wind
up.
Retrouv-er, 1. to find
again.
Sort-ir, 2. ir. to go out.
Spectacle, m. play.

1. Ne saviez-vous pas où le musicien était allé? 2. Je savais
qu'il était allé à Paris. 3. Ne vous avait-on pas dit que votre
frère est mort? 4. On m'avais dit qu'il était dangereusement
malade. 5. Ne vous couchiez-vous pas ordinairement, dès que
vous aviez fini vos leçons? 6. Dès que je les avais finies,
j'allais au spectacle. 7. Dès que vous eûtes fini vos leçons,
que fites-vous hier au soir? 8. Aussitôt que je les eus finies,
j'allai au bal. 9. Cette petite fille n'avait-elle pas envie de
dormir? 10. Elle avait plus envie de dormir que d'étudier.
11. Qu'aviez-vous fait de (with) votre livre quand je vous le
demandai. 12. Je l'avais égaré. 13. Je l'avais oublié dans le
15.
jardin. 14. Pourquoi votre montre était-elle arrêtée ?
Parce que j'avais oublié de la remonter. 16. L'horloger ne
l'avait-il pas remontée? 17. Il avait oublié de la faire. 18.
N'aviez-vous pas perdu votre bourse? 19. Je l'avais perdue,
mais je l'ai retrouvée. 20. Votre cousin était-il parti? 21.
Il n'était pas encore parti. 22. Etait-il sorti? 23. Il était
sorti avec ma mère. 24. Où était-il allé? 25. Il était allé
chez mon frère, qui l'avait invité à dîner.

EXERCISE 108.

1. Had you not intended to speak to my brother? 2. I had intended to speak to him, but he was gone. 3. Did your sister go to bed last evening as soon as she had read (lu) her book? 4. She went to bed as soon as she had read it. 5.

Où sont nos amis et nos parents?
Qu'écrit votre correspondant?

2. When there are in a French sentence two regimens of
equal length, the direct should precede the indirect [§ 76 (7)].
Avez-vous donné les jouets à l'en- Have you given the child the play-
fant?
things!
Avez-vous donné cette lettre à

Have you given the man that letter?

l'homme ?

3. The régime indirect precedes the direct, when the latter
is followed by a relative pronoun, or by other words qualifying
it, and rendering it much longer than the indirect [§ 76- (8)].
The indirect regimen should also precede the direct, when the
sentence would otherwise be equivocal [§ 76 (9)]:-
:-
Avez-vous donné à l'enfant, les
jouets que vous lui aviez promis?

Where are our friends and relations?
What writes your correspondent ?

Quel âge a cette demoiselle?
Que veulent dire ces messieurs ?
Où sont allés messieurs vos frères ?
Combien d'enfants a ce monsieur?

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.

Avez-vous payé cet argent au mar

chand?

J'ai payé mon habit au tailleur.
N'aviez-vous pas demandé cela à

l'enfant ?

Have you given the child the play-
things which you had promised
him?

How old is that young lady?
What do those gentlemen mean?
Where are your brothers gone!
How many children has that gentle

man ?

Have you paid the merchant that
money?

I paid the tailor for my coat.
Had you not asked the child for that?

EXERCISE 109.
Accompagn-er, 1. to ac- Chaîne, f. cháin.

company.

Chapeau, m. hat, bon

net.

Ainé, e, eldest.

Associé, m. partner.

Cinquante, f. fifty.

Aubergiste, m. landlord. Clef, f. key.
Bouteille, f. bottle. Commis, m. clerk.

Dernier, e, last.
Près, near, nearly.
Rend-re, 4. to return.
Serrurier, m. locksmith,
Serviette, f. napkin.

1. Où étaient vos parents l'année dernière? 2. Ils étaient
en Angleterre. 3. Où sont restés les messieurs qui vous ac-
compagnaient ce matin? 4. Ils sont restés chez leurs associés.
5. Que lisaient vos amies lorsque vous les avez quittées ? 6.
Elles lisaient les nouvelles qu'elles venaient de recevoir. 7.
Que dit monsieur votre père? 8. Il ne dit rien. 9. Quel âge
11. Quel âge
a ce monsieur? 10. Il a près de cinquante ans.
ont vos enfants? 12. L'ainé a dix ans, et le plus jeune a six
ans. 13. Avez-vous demandé votre chaine d'or à ce monsieur?
14. Je la lui ai demandée. 15. Avez-vous rendu au commis,
l'argent qu'il vous avait prété? 16. Je le lui ai rendu. 17.
Aviez-vous envie d'envoyer vos clefs au serrurier? 18. J'avais
envie de les lui envoyer, car elles sont cassées. 19. Valait-il
la peine d'envoyer ces bouteilles à l'aubergiste? 20. Il valait
la peine de les lui envoyer, car il n'en avait pas. 21. Avez-

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