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INDEX.

.......................

LESSONS IN ALGEBRA.

PAGE
I. Section I., Introduction : Illustrations, Definitions,

Exercises, Positive and Affirmative Quantities,
Axioms

354
LESSONS IN ARCHITECTURE.
VII. Architraves, Arches, and Vaulted Roofs

13
VIII. Aqueducts, Roman and French

29
IX. Arcades, Cupolas, Domes, Churches, Basilicas, Ro.
manesque-style, Arabic Arch, &c.

45
X. Gothic Architecture; with Illustrations

105
XI. Private Houses; with Illustrations

121
LESSONS IN ARITHMETIC.
XVII. Properties of Numbers ; Different Scales of Notation 16
XVIII. Analysis of Composité Numbers : Least Common
Multiple

55
XIX. Vulgar Fractions: Definitions and Principles

132
XX. Problems in Vulgar Fractions: Prob. I. To reduce
a Fraction to its Lowest Terms

230
XXI. Problems in Vulgar Fractions : Brob. II. To reduce
Fractions to a Common Denominator..

267
XXII. Problems in Vulgar Fractions: Prob. III. To find

the value of an Improper Fraction. Prob. IV.
To reduce a whole or mixed number to an Im-
proper Fraction. Prob. V. To reduce Compound

Fractions. Prob. VI. Addition of Fractions. 328
XXIII. Problems in Vulgar Fractions : Prob. VII. Subtrac-

tion of Fractions: Prob. VIII. Multiplication of
Fractions

357
LESSONS IN BIOGRAPHY.
VIII. Samuel Budgett, the Successful Merchant

192
IX. Rev. Samuel Lee, D D., Professor of Hebrew, &c. 290

LESSONS IN BOTANY.
XV. Classes : 18. Polydelphia, Dodecandria, Icosandria,

Polyandria; 19. Syngenesia, Polygamia Æqualis,
Superflua, Frustanea, Necessaria, and Segretata;
21. Gynandria, Monandria, Diandria, Hexandria;
21. Mopæcia, Monandria, Triandria, Tetrandria,
Polyandria; 22. Diæcia, Diandria, Tetrandria ;
23. Polygamia, Monæcia, Diæcia :.

41
XVI. Class 24. Cryptogamia, Lichens, Fungi, Mosses,
Ferns, &c.

77
LESSONS IN DRAWING.
I. Introduclory Chapter : Perspective, Form, Light and
Shade, &c.

149
II. Angles and Geometrical Figures,

181
III. Elementary Forms and Linear Drawing

225
IV. Linear Drawing continued; Architectural Mould.

ings, Vases, Quatrefoil, Compasses, Apollo Belve-
dere, &c.

257
V., VI. Outline Drawing from Simple Forms; Principle

of Copying Drawings; the Pantograph........285, 317
VII., VIII. Perspective: Section I., II. Definitions, &c., 345, 377

LESSONS IN ENGLISH.
XVII, Prefixes from the Greek, the Latin, and the

Saxon ; Origin of Numerals and some Com-
mon Nouns, &c.

7
XVIII., XIX., XX., XXI. Suffixes: List of English

Suffixes, Able to Ly: Conversations on English

Grammar and Composition, No. I., 26, 33, 59, 74
XXII. Suffixes continued; Ment to Y; Summary of
Suffixes

85
XXIII. Uncombined Suffixes: Adverbs, Prepositions 102
XXIV. Words that are both Prefixes and Suffixes ;

Conversations on English Grammar, No. II. 116
XXV. to XXVII. The Greek Element: Greek Stems,

&c., Conversations on English Grammar, No.
III...

..127, 144, 152
XXVIII. Greek Stems continued, &c.

170
XXIX. Greck Sterns concluded, &c. ...

186
XXX. The La'in Element· Examples

212

Рдов
XXXI. Latin Stems : Explanations; Conversations on
English Grammar, No. IV.

228
XXXII. to XXXV. Latin Stems: Explanations and Ex-

ercises ; Conversations on English Grammar,
No. V...

248, 263, 281, 287
XXXVI. to XXXVIII, Latin Stems: Explanations and
Exercises

..303, 323, 335
XXXIX. French Stems : English words from the French ;
French words in the English

351
XL. Diverse Stems; the Lord's Prayer in Ten Dif.

ferent Languages; English words from the
Italian and Spanish,

368
XLI. The Celtic Element

378
LESSONS IN FRENCH.
XXVI. The Past Anterior and the pluperfect; Inter-

rogative Construction ...
XXVII. Idioms relating to the Verb, with particular in-
stances

15
XXVIII. Plural of Compound Nouns; the two Futures,
Simple and Anterior

30
XXIX. Irregularities of the Future; the two Con.
ditionals; Idioms....

47
XXX. XXXI. Frequent Idioms; Dimension, Weight, 64, 78
XXXII. The Imperative Mood of the Regular Verbs ;
the Subjunctive.......

98
XXXIII. The Subjunctive continued; the Imperfect and
Pluperfect of the Subjunctive

106
XXXIV. Regimen or Government of Verbs...

139
XXXV. Regimen of Adjectives, Government of Pre-
positions...

138
XXXVI. The Demonstrative Pronoun, ce; other Idioms, 161
XXXVII.'Idioms relating to Conjunctions, Verbs, and
Articles

178
XXXVIII. Idioms relating to Pronouns, Verbs, &c.... 190
XXXIX., XL. Idioms relating to Verbs..... ..201, 218
XLI. Idioms relating to Nouns, Pronouns, &c. The

Present Participle, the Verbal Adjective.... 236
XLII. Practical Résumé of the Rules on the Past
Participle

246
XLIII. Examples illustrating the uses of the principal

Conjunctions ; Abbreviations employed in
French

268
XLIV. SECOND PART.-Parts of Speech; Nouns, Cases
and Gender

282
XLV. Gender and Plural of Nouns...

289
XLVI. Nouns, Plural and no Plural; Proper Names;
the Article; the Adjective.....

305
XLVII. Qualifying Adjectives; Formation of the Femi-
nine of Adjectives

325
XLVIII. Formation of the Plural of Adjectives ; Deter-

mining Adjectives; Demonstrative and Pos-
sessive

341
XLIX. Numeral Adjectives ; Cardinal and Ordinal

Numbers ; Variations of the Cardinals; Ob-
servations and Rules on Cardinals and
Ordinals ..

349
L. Numeral Nouns; Fractional Numerals; Inde-
finite Adjectives; the Pronoun.....

372
LI, The Personal Pronouns........

384
FRENCH EXTRACTS.
Pensées Morales et Maximes: Doute-Hauteur

314, 359
LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.
MAPS OF EUROPE, Asia,

AFRICA, N. and S. AMERICA,
and AUSTRALASIA: Boundaries, Divisions, Seas,
Straits, Gulfs, Islands, Peninsulas, Isthmuses,

Capes, &c., to be prefixed to the volume....
XI. Astronomical Principles : Orbits of the Planets;

Attraction, Tangential Impulse, Inclination of
Axis, Circle of Illumination, &c.

1
XII. Astronomical Principles : Law of Attraction, Num-

ber of the Planets, Table of the Solar System 31
XIIỊ. Bride's Laiv, Titius Law, Telescopic Planets, the

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PAGE

PAGE
New Planets, Additional Table of the Solar XXXIV. Idioms relating to Nouns, Verbs, Pronouns, &c. 278
System, Satellites of Jupiter

61 XXXV. Idioms relating to Verbs; Passive Verbs in the
XIV. The Seasons; the great Circles of the Globe; the

Indicative and Subjunctive

293
Meridian; the Equator; Latitude, &c.

89 XXXVI. to XL. Idioms relating to Prepositions, Verbe,
XV. Explanation of Latitude and Longitude by Rectan-

Particles, Adverbs, Nouns, &c.,309,321, 339, 352, 369
gular Axes; First Meridiin; East Longitude,

XLI. Idioms of various kinds

380
West Longitude, &c. ...

146
XVI. Latitudes and L ngitudes; to make a Circle pass

LESSONS IN LATIN.
through any three points; Construction of the

XXV. to XXVIII. Deponent Verbs: First, Second,
Map of the World; small Circles of the Globe;

Third, and Fourth Conjugation; Exercises;
the Arctic and Antarctic Circles; the Tropics of

Ablilire Absolute

..8, 22, 37, 54
Cancer and Capricorn; the Five Zones of the

XXIX. to XXXVII. Deviations from the Model Cen.
Earth, its surface and solid content

220

jugations; Deviations in the First, Second,
XVII. Explanation of the Map of the World; Natural

and Third Conjugation, 70, 82, 91, 108, 123, 140, 158,
Divisions on the Earth's Surface
253

168, 183
XVIII. Explanaiion of the Map of Europe: 'Table of the XXXVIII. Deviational Verbs; Inchoatives; Deviations in
Countries, Kingdoms, Empires, and Sates of

the Fourth Conjugation ; Construction, &c... 199
Europe

295 XXXIX., XL. Irregular Verbs; Exercices, &c. .....243, 260
XIX. Explanation of the Map of Europe ; Table of

XLI. The Defective Verbs, &c.
European Lakes; Statistical Table of Europe ;

XLII. Impersonal Verbs, &C.....

306
British Empire in Europe

311 XLIII. Various kinds of Verbs; Simple, Derivative,
XX. Explanation of the Map of Asia ; Table of Countries,

Desiderative, Diminutive, lochoative, and
Kingdoms, Empires and States of Asia

370

Compound; verbal stems; verbs transitive
XXI. Explanation of the diap of Asia; Statistical Table 385

and intransitive

319
LESSONS IN GEOLOGY.

XLIV. t. XLVI. Syntax: Definitions ; Agreements;
Examples

347, 363, 382
XV. On the Action of Volcanoes on the Earth's
Crust; Volcanic Dykes

4
KEY TO THE LATIN ESERCISTS.

11
XVI. Extinct Volcanoes

40 Lessons X. to XIII.
XVII. On the Action of Rain upon Rocks

65
Lessons XIII, to XIX.

222
XVIII. On the Origin of Springs of Water..
SO

238
Lessons XX. to XXIII.
XIX. On the Phenomena of Artesian Wells
100 Lessons XXIII. to XXVI.

298
XX. On the Chemical Action of Water; Calcareous,
Lessons XXVII, to XXVIII.

342
Siliceous, Carboniferous, Saliferous, and
Lessons XXIX. to XXXI.

375
Ferruginous Springs

124

LESSONS IN MUSIC.
XXI. On the Excavating Power of Running Water

159
upon Sirface Soils

X. Revision, and Answers to Inquirers; Exercises, The
Welcome Back, The Happy Miod

18
XXII. On the Agency of Water in abrading Rocks 165

XI. Mental effect of the Notes of the Scale

49
XXIII. On the Disintegrating Power of Falling Water,
with illustrations

XII. Mental effect of Notes; Exercises, The Norwich

187
XXIV. On the Transporting Power of Rivers and Floods 232

Chant, White Sand and Grey Sand, If Happiness 114
XXV. On the Reproductive Agency of Rivers

XIII. Rules for performing the Exercises; Exercises, Old
261

128
XXVI. On the Formation of Deltas ...

308

England, Crosscombe...
XXVII. On the Destructive Agency of the Ocean

XIV. Requirements of the Tonic Sol-fa Association; Use
XXVIII. On the Reconstructive Agency of the Ocean.... 365

of the Black Board; Dictation; Exercises, Full
Many a Shaft, The Irish Air ..

174
LESSONS IN GEOMETRY.

XV. The scale of all Nations; Explanation of Notes;
XII. Lectures on Euclid : Definitions ; Quadrature and

Exercises, The Man's the Gold for all that,
Area of a Circle

71

Nare's Chaunt, Delightful Sounds, The Merry
XIII. Postulates and Axioms; Geometry without

Homes of England

283
Axioms,” Nomenclature, Propositions, &c. 201 XVI. Exercises : The Spanish Chant, Cyprus, and Clifton
XIV. Intercalary Book : Book I. Prop. I. Scholia

245
Grove

337
XV. Book I. Props. II. and III.; Scholia

297

LESSONS IN NATURAL HISTORY.
XVI. Book I. Prop. IV. Solution of Exercises .......... 327
XVII. Book I. Corollary to Prop. IV.; Scholium; Prop.

X., XI. The Bat

35, 92
V., Three new Proofs and Corollary

373
XII. The Common Hedgehog

143
LESSONS IN GERMAN.
XIII. The Jackal; the Foxes of Scripture

177
XIV. The Walrus or Morse

209
XVI. Adverbs, Idioms

XV. The Civet Cat

251
XVII. Comparison of Adjectives ; Inflection of the XVI. The Weasel

292
Anjective, Old and New Declension

25
XVIII. Inseparable Particles ...

39

LESSONS IN PENMANSHIP.
XIX., XX. Idioms; Verbs Active in form with Passive

I. Position of the Body, the Hand, and the Pen ...... 31
Signification, &c.....

..58, 72 II. The Writing Alphabets ; Lessons in Text, Half-Text,
XXI, Impersonal Verbs; Reflexive Verbs, &c.... 83

and Current-hand, from A to D

50
XXII. XXIII. Idioms; Subjunctive Mood

III. Remarks on Letters and Style ; Lessons in Text,
XXIV. Idioms; Conditional Mood

134

Hall-Text, and Current-Hand, from E to H .. 67
XXV. Idioms; Verbs governing the Genitive ; Adjec-

IV., V., VI.,

VII. Lessons in Text, Half-Text, and Cur-
tives requiring the Genitive

141
rent-Hand, from I to Z

67,95, 111, 155, 171
XXVI. Adjectives requiring the Dative; Verbs requir-

LESSONS IN PHYSIOLOGY,
ing the Dative

154
XXVII. Verbs requiring an Accusative of a Person, and

XI. Concluding Lesson : Glossary of Physiological Terms 29
a Genitive of a Thing; Verbs requiring the

LESSONS IN PHONETIC SHORTHAND.
Dative or Accusative

169 1. The Alphabet, Breath Letters, Voice Letters, Nasals,
XXVIII. Verbs requiring two Accusatives ; also those

Aspirations, Natural Scheme of the whole System
governing the Accusative with the Dative;

of Spelling without Vowel-marks

197
Prepositions requiring the Dative

II. Variable and Compound Articulations; Double
XXIX. Prepositions requiring the Accusative, and the

Letter, Repeater, Examples and Exercises

210
Dative or Accusative; Examples of the use
II. Vowel-marks, Abbreviations, &c.

241
of Prepositions..

202 IV. Affixes or Terminations; Recapitulation of Prefixes
XXX. Examples of the use of Prepositions; Idioms

and Affixes; Key to Exercises

279
relating to Verbs, Nouns, &c....

216 V. Abbreriations of various kinds, List of Subordinate
XXXI. Idioms relating to Conjunctions; Words relating

Words, Articles and Conjunctions

301
to Number, Quantity, Weight, and Measure 231 VI. List of Subordinate Words represented by a Simplifia
XXXII., XXXIII. Idioms relating to Adverbs, Verbs,

cation of their Alphabetic form ; Il'usiration with
Particles, fixes, &c...

..250, 261
Кеу

361

333

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..94, 110

193

LESSONS IN GEOGRAPH Y.-N0. XI.

ASTRONOMICAL PRINCIPLES OF GEOGRAPHY. SUPPOSE that you were elevated in the heavens, or in the vast the sun to the centre of the planet passes over equal areas in equal space in which roll all the stars, to a point millions of miles above the times in every part of the orbit; that is, whether the planet be in sun; and that you were furnished with a telescopic eye so powerful, its aphelion, or farthest from the sun, in its perihelion, or nearest that from that point you could observe the magnitudes, motions, to the sun, or at its mean distance from the sun. And 3. That and distances of all the bodies in the Solar System; that is, the the squares of the periodic times of the planets, that is, of the bodies or planets which revolve round the sun in consequence of times of a complete revolution in their orbits, are proportional to the laws of attraction and tangential impulse ; you would perceive the cubes of their mean distances from the sun; in other words, among them a highly.favoured planet called the Earth, accompanied that the square of the periodic time of one planet is to the square by a satellite (an attendant) in its course, called the Moon." This of the periodic time of another planet, as the cube of the mean Earth and her satellite, like all the other planets and their satellites distance of the former from the sun is to the cube of the mean diswhich you would behold in this bird's-eye view, receive both their tance of the latter from it. Into the full explanation of these laws light and their heat from the sun; and the influences of these im. we cannot enter until we treat of astronomy; in the meantime it is ponderable bodies are distributed to all the planets in the same necessary to give some explanation of the law which we have ratio as the power of attraction which keeps them revolving in their marked first, though it is generally accounted the second, in order orbits (tracks or paths); that is, in the inverse ratio of the squares to clear up some points connected with phenomena relating to the of their distances; or, to express it more clearly, the power of the earth, and the circles drawn on the globe, which is the only true attraction, the light and the heat of the sun on one planet, is to representation of the earth's surface. Supposing then the ellipse that on another planet, as the square of the distance of the latter, is in fig. 1 to represent the earth's annual orbit round the sun, and to the square of the distance of the former. In your elevated posi- the focus p' the place of the sun's centre ; then the point a will tion, you would next perceive that the planets in their various represent the position of the earth's centre at mid-winter, when it revolutions, would at some times be nearer to the sun than at other is nearest the sun, or in its perihelion ; B will represent its position times ; and that if the orbit of each were traced by a white line in at mid-summer when it is farthest from the sun, or in its aphelion ; space, it would appear to your eye, if rightly placed, to have the c will represent its position at the spring or vernal equinox, when form of an oval nearly, being in fact, what is called in the language it is at its mean distance from the sun ; and p its position at the of mathematics, an ellipse. In order that you may understand the harvest or autumnal equinox, when it is also at its mean distance nature of this curve, we shall explain it by means of a diagram. from the sun. Fig. 1.

Thus, in fig. i, if you fix two pins on a board, We think we hear some of our readers exclaiming, notwithstand

at the points F and F', and fasten a string | ing the elevated position in which we have supposed them to be CM

F M F, of any convenient length, but greater placed, What ! will you tell us that the sun is the cause of light and than the distance between the two points, by heat on the earth's surface, and yet you assert that the carth is its extremities, at these points ; and if you nearer to the sun in winter than in summer? How can this be? take a crayon or chalk pencil, and press it on Paradoxical as this may seem, it is nevertheless true ; and the the string horizontally at m, so as to keep it reason we shall now give. As you are supposed to be looking always tense (i. e. stretched), and parallel to from a great distance, and to be able to discern all the motions of

the board, moving the pencil round and round the planets, if you look narrowly at the earth, you will perceive at the same time, from one side to the other; you will describe the that besides its orbitual motion round the sun, it has a revolving curve AC BD, which is called the ellipse. It is evident that the or journal motion on its own axis. By aris here is meant that limits of the form of this curve are the circle and the straight line. imaginary straight line passing through the globe of the earth, on If the two points f and f' are brought close together, the curve which its rotation is supposed to take place, and which is aptly will be a circle ; if they be separated as much as the string will represented in artificial globes by the strong wire passing from one allow, the curve will become a straight line. The two points F side to the other, at the points called the poles (that is, pivots), and pl are called the foci (the plural of focus) of the curve; the which are the extremities of the axis. This motion may be straight line A B drawn through them, and terminated both ways likened to the spinning of a top, a motion which continues while by the curve, is called the major axis; and the straight line C D the top is driven forward in any direction from one place to another. drawn at right angles to this axis from its middle point o, and In fact, the analogy would be so far complete, independently of the terminated both ways by the curve, is called its minor axis. If a causes of the motion, if the top, while it is spinning or revolving as straight line be drawn from f' to c, it will be equal to the straight it were on its own axis, were made to run regularly round in an line å o, or half the major axis. The point o is called the centre oval ring on the ground, under the lash of the whip. Thus, the of the ellipse, and the ratio of po to A o, that is, of the distance earth has two motions; one on its own axis, performed once every between the centre and the focus to half the major axis, is called twenty-four hours; and one in its orbit, performed once every 365 the eccentricity of the ellipse. The distance from the focus p to days 6 hours ; we have stated these periods in round numbers, in any point in the curve is called the radius vector of the ellipse ; order that they may be easily remembered; but the exact period of it is least at A, and greatest at B. With these explanations, while the earth's daily revolution on its axis, is 23 hours, 56 minutes, you are supposed to be looking at the orbit of a planet from 4 seconds, and 9 hundredth parts of a second; and the exact your elevated position in space, you will now be able to compre period of the earth's annual revolution in its orbit is 365 days, 5 hend the fundamental principles of Astronomy,-viz. Kepler's hours, 48 minutes, 49 seconds. The analogy of the motions of Laws.

the top, however, to the motions of the earth, as thus described, The eminent German astronomer just mentioned, who flourished is incomplete in respect of the position of their axes.

The axis of at the close of the 16th century and the beginning of the 17th, the spinning top is in general upright or perpendicular to the discorered, by laborious observations and calculations, the follow- ground, which may be called the plane of its orbit, that is, of the ing remarkable laws, which were afterwards mathematically de. oval ring in wbich it is supposed to move; but the axis of the monstrated by Sir Isaac Newton :-). That the planets all revolve earth in its daily motion is not perpendicular to the plane of its in elliptic orbits, situated in planes passing through the centre of orbit, or the ellipse in which its annual motion is performed. In the sun; the sun itself being placed in one of the foci of the ellipse. speaking of the plane of the earth's orbit our analogy fails, for 2. That the radius vector or straight line drawn from the centre of there is nothing to represent the ground on which the motion of the VOL. II,

27

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F

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spinning top takes place. The mere attraction of the sun, coupled regions, it is winter in the southern or antarctic regions. While with the effect of an original impulse in the direction of a tangent the earth remains in this position, the rays of the sun fall more to its orbit, is sufficient to preserve the earth in its orbitual motion directly upon the northern hemisphere than they do upon the in empty space. Hence, the sublimity and truth of the ancient southern hemisphere, and thus have more power to produce heat passage in the book of Job: “He stretcheth out the north over than if they fell obliquely, according to the illustration given above. the empty place, and hangeth the earth upon nothing.” (Job xxvi. Now, as we in this country are inhabitants of the northern hemi. 7.) This passage is singularly true in regard to the first sentence sphere, and of that part which is within the circle of illumination all as well as to the second. For the axis of the earth is inclined to the year round, we experience the vicissitudes of the seasons just the plane of its orbit, at an angle of 66 degrees, 32 minutes; that described as belonging to it, and we are consequently colder in is, rather more than two-thirds of a right angle, so that literally winter than in summer, although the earth be actually nearer the and truly “the north is stretched over the empty place," and not sun in winter than in summer. over the body of the earth itself, in either of its motions, whether But we must explain more fully what we mean by the circle of axial or orbitual. This inclination is preserved during the whole of illumination. It is plain that the rays of light falling from the its motion in its orbit, and is the cause of the variation of the sea- sun upon the opaque or dark body of the earth in straight lines, sons; the preservation of the inclination of this axis has been not can never illuminate more than one-half of its surface at a time; unaptly called the parallelism of the earth's axis.

as may be seen by the very simple experiment of making the light Before explaining the effect of this parallelism and inclination of of a candle fall upon a ball at a distance from it. Now, as the the earth's axis in producing the seasons, it will be proper to explain earth revolves on its axis once every 24 hours, it is evident that the what is meant by tangential impulse. In fig. 2, let A C'B'repre- illuminated half, and consequently the circle of illumination which sent the orbit of the earth, which is nearly cir

is the boundary of that half, is perpetually changing, so that almost cular; let represent the place of the sun, and

Fig. 2.

all parts of the globe receive light for several hours in succession, A the place of the earth at the moment when it

and that they are also enveloped in darkness for several hours in began its revolution in its orbit. At this mo

F the same manner. If the axis of the earth, instead of being inment the force of the sun's attraction would be.

clined at a certain angle to the plane of its orbit, which we shall gin to act on the earth in the direction A D, and

A hereafter call the Peliptic, were at right angles to that plane, and had this alone been allowed to operate, would

preserved its parallelism, then the circle of illamination would conhave drawn it rapidly towards the sun in a straight

tinually extend from pole to pole, and all places on the earth's sur. line, until it had come finally in contact with the

face would enjoy light for 12 hours in succession, and would be sun itself; but at the same moment, an original impulse was, or is enveloped in darkness for exactly the same period the whole year supposed to have been given to the earth in the direction A E, round. On the other hand, if the axis of the earth were coincident which is that of a tangent, or straight line touching the circle at with the plane, and preserved its parallelism, this would bappen the point a; so that the carth, which under the action of the former only twice a year; and each hemisphere would at opposite periods force would in a certain time have been found at some point in Ad, be in total darkness for a whole day, while the variations between and under that of the latter force would, in the same time, have these extremes would be both inconvenient and injurious. In the been found at the point r in A E, would, by the combined action of former case the seasons would be all the same, that is, there would both forces, be found near the point c in the curvilinear orbit A C B. be perpetual sameness of season all the year round; in the latter This original impulse, the effect of which remains to this day un- case, the seasons - instead of four would be innumerable, that is, altered by the action of attraction, (seeing it has met with no resis- there would be perpetual change. Here, then, creative wisdom tance in empty space, and has been so balanced against the force of shines unexpectedly forth. The inclination of the earth's axis is attraction as to retain the earth in its orbit,) is called the tangential such as to produce the four seasons in a remarkable manner, and impulse or force, which was imparted to it when it began its orbitual to permit sufficient time for the earth to bring her fruits to perrevolution. Young, in his "Night Thoughts," alluding to this feetion, as well to let her lie fallow for a period that she may renew tenet of the Newtonian philosophy, asks—

her fruitfulness. In fig. 1, when the earth - is supposed to be at " Who rounded in his palm those spacious orbs ?

the point c, she is at her mean distance from the sun at the ternal Who bowl'd them flaming through the dark profound ?"

equinox, which is the first time of the year wlien day and night are

Night IX. equal, which happens on or about the 21st of March. Now, at Let us now consider the effect of the inclination of the earth's this point the inclination of the earth's aris to the minor axis of axis to the plane of its orbit. In fig. 1, we have supposed the sun the ellipse is a rigbt angle, and as the focus f', in the case of the to be at the focus r', while the earth is at the point A in mid- earth, nearly coincides with the centre 0, the rays of light prowinter. Now, at this point, you would see from your supposed ceeding from the sun nearly in the straight line o c, fall upon that elevated position, that the northern half of the earth's axis is in- axis nearly perpendicularly, and illuminate the globe from pole to clined to the major axis A B at an angle of 113 degrees 28 minutes, pole, so that the circle of illumination passes through the poles, the supplement of its angle of inclination to the plane of the orbit; and the days and nights are equal all over the globe, each consisting so that the North Pole, with the space on the earth's surface of 12 hours, while the earth is in this position. In the opposite around it to a considerable extent, is prevented from receiving the position at D, the earth is again at her mean distance from the sun, rays of the sun, and consequently the heat of those rays; while the at the autumnal equinox, which is the second time of the year when South Pole, with the space around it to the same extent, is made day and night are equal, which bappens on or about the 22nd of to receive these rays and to enjoy their heat. Hence, while it is September. At this point the circumstances of the globe and the winter in the northern or arctic regions of the earth, it is summer circle of illumination are exactly the same as we have just described. in the southern or antarctic regions. While the earth is still in this At these four points, A, C, B, and D, in the orbit of the earth, are position, the rays of the sun fall more obliquely upon the illu- found the middle points of the four seasons of the year, viz., at a, minated portions of the northern hemisphere, than they do upon Mid-winter ; at c, Mid-spring; at B, Mid-summer; and at o, the southern hemisphere, and thus have less power to produce heat Mid-autumn. At the point A, or Mid-winter, which is on or than if they fell perpendicularly : just as a person sitting at the about the 21st of December, we have the shortest day in the side of a fire-place with a good fire in it, feels less heat than a per: sphere ; and at the point B; or Mid summer, which is on or about

northern hemisphere and the longest day in the southern hemison who sits exactly in the front of it. On the other hand, if you the 22nd of June, we have the longest day in the northem heni 2 in mid-summer, the reverse of all this takes place. The northern spiere and the shortest in the southern hemisphere. half of the earth's axis is inclined to the major axis (or line of apsides, "Thus, is primeval prophecy fulfilled : as it is sometimes called; that is, the line of junction of the two

While earth continues, and the ground is tilled; opposite points A and B), at an angle of 66 degrees 32 minutes,

Spring time shall come, when seeds put in the soil which is its angle of inclination to the plane of its orbit; so that

Shall yield in harvest full reward for toil; the North Pole, with the space on the earth's surface around it,

Heat follow.cold and fructify the ground, above-mentioned, is made to receive the sun's rays, and conse

Winter and summer in alternate round; quently their heat; while the South Pole, with the similar space

And night and day in close succession rise,

While each is regulated by the skies. around it, is prevented from receiving those rays and enjoying

Supreme o'er all, at first, Jehovah stood, their heat. Hence, while it is summer in the northern or arctic

Aud, with creative voice, pronounced it good."

six.

1

fant ?

l'homme ?

LESSONS IN FRENCH.-No. XXVI. Were you told that your sister was sick? 6. I was told that

she had been dangerously sick. 7. Did you know what you By Professor Louis FJEQUELLE, LL.D.

had done with your pen: 8. I knew that I had mislaid it. SECTION LIV.

9. How many of your books have you mislaid? 10. I had

mislaid five, but my brother has found them. 11. Where had THE PAST ANTERIOR AND THE PLU PERFEOT (§ 122, 123).

1. The past anterior is formed from the past definite of the you left them? 12. I had left them in the garden." 13. Was auxiliary and the past participle of the verb : J'eus parlé, 1 your brother's watch stopped 14. It was stopped. 15. Why

was it stopped: 16. He had forgotten to wind it up. 17. had spoken ; je fus venu, I had come. 2. The past anterior expresses generally a momentary action, 19. Was the dyer gone? 20. He was not yet gone, he in.

Had he not lost his key? (clef, f.) 18. He had not lost it. which took place before another action. The latter immediately tended to leave at five. follows the former, and often depends upon it. The action came yesterday? 22. I had spoken to him. 23. Had you told

21. Had you spoken to him when I expressed by this tense is not a customary one. The past him that my sister is here: 24. I had told him. 25. Is he ant rior is often preceded by à peine, scarcely; dês que, aussi- still here? 26. No, Sir, he is gone, he went this morning at tôt que, as soon as ; quand, lorsque, when [§ 122. Ý 123 (3)]. Dès que j'eus fini ma tâche je m'en As soon as I had finished my task I

SECTION LV. allai.

went away. 3. This tense partakes of the nature of the past definite.

1. We have given [Sect. 4, R. 4, and § 76 (4)] a rule for the 4. The pluperfect is composed of the imperfect of the auxi- place of the noun, subject or nominative of an interrogative liary, and the past participle of the verb : j'avais parlé, I had sentence. To avoid confusing the student, we have hitherto

refrained from introducing another construction which is often spoken ; j'étais venu, I had come.

5. To this tense might be applied nearly all the rules on the used by the Freneh instead of that given in the rule. When use of the imperfect. The action which it expresses, or the a sentence commences with où, where ; que, what ; quel, which; situation which it depicts

, is frequently a customary 'one, or combien, hoo much, how many; and quand, when ; the noun one often repeated :

may be placed immediately after the verb. This construction Dès que j'avais fini ma tâche je As soon as my trusk was finished I the verb has no auxiliary [5 76 (5)]:

is similar to that of the English interrogative sentence when m'en allais.

used to go away.

Où sont nos amis et nos parents ? IVhere are our friends and relations ? Resume OF EXAMPLES.

Qu'écrit votre correspondant ? What driles your correspondent ! Aviez-vous eu soin de vos effets ? Had you taken care of your things? 2. When there are in a Trench sentence two regimens of J'en avais eu soin. I haul taken care of them.

equal length, the direct should precede the indirect [§ 76 (7)]. N'aviez-vous pas eu besoin de moi ? Hall you not wanted me? J'avais eu besoin de vous et de I had wanted you and

Arez-vous donné les jouets à l'en. Have you given the child the play

your brother. votre frère.

things ? N'aviez-vous pas eu l'intention de l'al you not intended to speak to me ? Avez-vous donné cette lettre à Hace you given the near that letter?

me parler ? Dès que vous eûtes fini votre lettre, As soon as you had finished your letter

3. The régime indirect precedes the direct, when the latter ne la portâtes-vous pas à la poste ? did you not carry it tothe post-ofiice! is followed by a relative pronoun, or by other words qualifying Dès que vous aviez lini vos lettres, As soon as your letters were finished, it, and rendering it much longer than the indirect ($ 76 (8)}. neles portiez-vous pas à la posto? did you not take them to the post- The indirect regimen should also precede the direct, when the

office 1 Dès que rous fates arrivé, ne com- As soon as you had arrived, did you

sentence would otherwise be equivocal ($ 76 (9)]:mencâtes-rous pas à écrire ? not commence roriting?

Avez-vous donné à l'enfant, les Hare you given the child the playDès que vous étiez arrivé, ne com- As soon as you useil to arrive, did jouets que vous lui aviez promis? things which you had promiecd menciez-vous pas à écrire ?

You not commence writing?
EXERCISX 107.

RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.
Arrêt-er, 1. to stop. Egar-er, 1. to mislay. Perd-re, 1. to lose.

Quel âge a cette demoiselle ? Ifor old is that young lady? Bal, m. ball. Invit-er, 1. to invite. Remont-er, 1. to wind

Que veulent dire ces messieurs ? What do those gentlemen mean? Bouree, f. purse. Se ler-er, ref. to rise.

ир. .

Où sont allés messieurs ros frères ? Where are your brothers gone? Se coucher, 1. ref. to go Malade, sick.

Retrouv-er, 1. to fint

Combien d'enfants a ce monsieur? How many children has that gentla to bed.

Musicien, m, musician. again. Dangereusement, dan- Oubli-er, 1. to forget. Sort-ir, 2. ir. to go out,

Avez-vous payé cet argent au margerously.

llare you paid the merchant - that Part-ir, 2. to set out. Spectacle, m, play.

chand ? Diner, m. dinner.

money ?

J'ai payé mon habit au tailleur. I paill the tailor for my coat, 1. Ne saviez-vous pas où le musicien était allé? 2. Je savais N'avicz-vous pas demandé cela à Had you not asked the child for that? qu'il était allé à Paris. 3. Ne vous avait-on pas dit que votre frère est mort ? 4. On m'avais dit qu'il était dangereusement

EXERCISE 109. malade. 5. Ne vous couchiez-vous pas ordinairement, dès que vous aviez fini vos leçons ? 6. Dès que je les avais finies, Accompagn-er, 1. to ac- Chaîne, f. chain. Dornier, c, last. j'allais au spectacle. 7. Dès que vous eûtes fini ros leçons,

company.

Chapeau, m. hat, lon- Près, near, nearly. que fites-vous hier au soir? 8. Aussitôt que je les eus tinies: Associé, m. partner.

Ainé, e, eldest.

Rend-re, 4. to return. j'allai au bal. 9. Cette petite fille n'avait-elle pas envie de Aubergiste, m. landiord. Clef, t. key.

Cinquante, f. fifty. Serrurier, m. locksmith, dormir? 10. Elle avait plus envie de dormir que d'étudier. Bouteille, f. bottle.

Serviette, f. napkin.

Commis, m. clerk. 11. Qu'aviez-vous fait de (with) votre livre quand je vous le demandai.. 12. Je l'avais égaré. 13. Je l'avais oublié dans le

1. Où étaient vos parents l'année dernière? 2. Ils étaient jardin. 14. Pourquoi votre montre était-elle arrêtée ? 15. en Angleterre. 3. Où sont restés les messieurs qui vous acParce que j'avais oublié de la remonter. 16. L'horloger ne

compagnaient ce matin? 4. Ils sont restés chez leurs associés. l'avait-il pas remontée? 17. Il avait oublié de la faire. 18. 5. Que lisaient vos amies lorsque vous les arez quittées ? 6. N'aviez-vous pas perdu votre bourse 19. Je l'avais perdue, Elles lisaient les nouvelles qu'elles renaient de recevoir. 7. mais je l'ai retrouvée. 20. Votre cousin était-il parti? 21. Que dit monsieur votre père 8. Il ne dit rien. 9. Quel age Il n'était pas encore parti. 22. Etait-il sorti ? 23. Il était a ce monsieur : 10. Il a près de cinquante ans. 11. Quel age sorti avec ma mère. 24. Où était-il allé? 25. Il était allé ont vos enfants? 12. L'ainé a dix ans, et le plus jeune a six chez mon frère, qui l'avait invité à dîner.

13. Avez-vous demandé votre chaine d'or à ce monsieur ?

14. Je la lui ai demandée. 15. Avez-vous rendu au commis, EXERCISE 108.

l'argent qu'il vous avait prété? 16. Je le lui ai rendu. 17. 1. Had you not intended to speak to my brother? 2. I had Aviez-vous envie d'envoyer vos clefs au serrurier? 18. J'avais intended to speak to him, but he was gone. 3. Did your envie de les lui envoyer, car elles sont cassées. 19. Valait-il sister go to bed last evening as soon as she had read (lu) her la peine d'envoyer ces bouteilles à l'aubergiste? 20. Il valait book : 4. She went to bed as soon as she had read it. 5. la peine de les lui envoyer, car il n'en avait pas. 21. Arez

him?

man?

l'enfant

ans.

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