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as la peine de lire sa lettre P 19. Parce qu’elle n'en vaut pas a peine. 20. Wotre courrier a-t-il pris les devants? 21, Il n'a pu Prendre les devants. 22. N'avez-vous pas tort de prendre son parti ?. 23. Je n'ai pas tort de le prendre. 24. Avez-vous prisle thé" (your tea)?... 25. Nous n'avons pas pris (our) le thé, nous avons prisle café?

ExencISE 140.

1. Has your brother taken care not to spoil his hat? 2. He has taken care not to spoil it, he has only one. 3. Go and speak to your sister, she calls you (appelle). 4. Will you not take a cup (tasse) of tea .# have just taken my tea. 6. What have you said to your little girl? 7. I have told her to take care not to tear her dress. 8. Let us take care not to tear that book. 9. My son has just brought it, , 10. IIas he taken his tea 2 11. He has not yet taken tea, it is too early. 12. At what hour do you take tea" at your house? 13. We take tea at six o'clock. 14, Do you take tea" or coffee for breakfast (a votre déjeaner) : 15. We take coffee, 16. Is your courier gone on before ?, 17. He has not been able to go on before. 18. What resolution have you taken 19. I have taken the resolution to study my lesson. 20. Have you taken care not to tear your books? 21. I have taken care not to stain them. , 22. What has your brother determined 23. He has determined to remain silent, 24. Have you taken my part : 25. I have taken my brother's part. 26. Are you right to take his part? 27. I am right to take his part, because he is right. 28, Are you not afraid to take his part : 29. I am not afraid to take his part, , 30, Will you take your sister's part or mine? 31, I will take my sister's part. 32. Go and read i. book, }*. do not know your lesson. 33, I know my esson, and I know also that you are my friend, 34. Let us go to our father, he wants us.

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3. In the first conjugation, the subjunctive is in the singular, similar to the present of the indicative. Exception : aller-je vais, que j'aille, 4. The first and second persons plural of the subjunctive, in the four conjugations, are the same as the corresponding persons of the imperfect of the indicative. The third person plural is like the corresponding person in the indicative present. Exceptions: avoir, subjunctive, nous ayons, vous ayez, ils aient; savoir, nous sachions, vous sachier, ils saehent; 6tre, nous soyons, vous soyez, ils soient; faire, nous fassions, vous fassiez, ils fassent; aller, ils aillent; wouloir, is veuillent; valoir, ils vaillent. 5. The subjunctive may also be formed from the participle present, by changing ant into e, es, e, ions, iez, ent: as, chantant, je chante ; finissant, je finisse; recevant, je repoive; sachant, je waehe : craignant, je craigne, 6. The verbs presenting exceptions to this last rule are the following, which the student will find conjugated in the Second Part of this Grammar, $ 62 :

Acquérir Concevoir Mourir Prendre Savoir Venir Aller Décevoir Mouvoir (and Tenir (and (and Apercevoir Devoir Percevoir its com- its com- its comAvoir Etre Pouvoir pounds) pounds) pounds) Boire Faire Pourvoir Irecevoir Waloir Wouloir

* I.e. the, the meal called tra; du thé, the beverage called tea.

. 7. The past of the subjunctiye is formed from the subjunctive present of one of the auxiliaries, avoir, étre, and the past participle of a verb [$45]:— Que j'aie parlé, que je sois venu. That I may have spoken, that I may have come. 8. A yerb is put in the subjunctive, when it is preceded by the conjunction que, and another verb expressing consent, command, doubt, desire, surprise, want, duty, necessity, regret, fear, apprehension, &c. [$ 127 (2)]:— Je veux que vous lui parliez. I wish you to speak to him. Je désire que vous arriviez a temps. I wish you to arrive in time. 9. When the first verb expresses fear or apprehension, the yerb preceded by que must also be preceded by me, which, however, has no negative sense [$ 127(3), ; 138 (4) (5)(6)]:— Je crains qu'il ne tombe. I am afraid lest he fall, 10. After craindre, to fear; apprehender, to apprehend; avoir peur, to be afraid; trembler, to tremble, pas is used in connection with the me, when we wish for the accomplishment of o or occurrence expressed by the second verb [; 138 Je tremble qu'il n’arrive pas à I tremble that he may not arrive in temps. time.

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ExERcise 141. I’mpêch-er, 1. to prevent. Moulin-à-scie, saw-mill. Fortement, very much. Obé-ir, 2. to obey. Force, f. strength. Rempl-ir, 2. to fulfil. Magasin, m. warehouse. Rue, f. street. Déjà, already, Malsain, e, unhealthy, Tomb-er, 1. to fall.

1. Que voulez-vous que nous fassions? 2. Jo désire quo vous fassiez attention a vos études. 3. Ne craignez-vous pas que la pluie ne vous empêche de sortir 4. Nous craigmons fo: tement que la pluiene nous empêche de remplir nos engagemen s : 5. Doutez-vous qu'il soit chez lui maintenant? 6. Jedoute qu'ily soit, il est déjà dix heures. 7. Exigez-vous qu'il parte de bonne heure? 8. Je m'étonne qu'il ne soit pas deja parti. 9. Aimez-vous mieux que je vous rende ces bracelets 10. J'aime mieux que vous me les payiez. 11. Votre voisin craint-il que son enfant ne sorte 12. Il craint qu'il me tombe dans la rue, 13. Ne désirez-vous pas que vos élèves vous obéissent? 14. Je souhaite qu'ils m'obéissent et qu'ils obéissent a leurs professeurs, 15. Ne craignez-vous pasque cet artisan ne tombe malade 16. Je crains qu'il ne tombe malade, car son atelier est très malsain. 17. Ne regrettez: vous pas qu'il soit oblige de travailler? 18. Je regrette qu'il soit ... de travailler au dessus de ses forces; 19. Ne désirez-vous pas qu'on lui apprenne cette nouvelle?_20. Je desire qu'on la lui apprenne le plus tot possible. , 21. Votre père ne veut-il pasque vous achetiez un magasin 22. Il veut que j'achète un moulin-à-scie. 23. Désirez-vous que je vous quitte; 24. Je désire que vous restiez avec moi, 25. Je veux que vous partiez cematin.

Artisan, m. mechanic. Atelier, m workshop. Au dessus, above. Bracelet, m. bracelet,

ExEncis E 142.

1. Do you wish me to speak to the mechanic? 2. I wish ou to tell him to (de) come here to-morrow morning. 3. W.A. do you wish me to do? 4. I wish you to bring me a book. 5. Do you not wish me to read your letter & I wish you to read it and (que) give it to my sisters. 7. Does not your sister fear lest the rain may prevent her going out ; 8. She fears that the rain may prevent our going out 9. Po ou doubt that your father be at home now 10. I doubt his §: there. 11. Do you requireme to do my work now? 12. I wish you to do your work before going out (arant do sortir). 13. Do you not regret your being obliged to work? 14. I do not regret my being obliged to work. 15. Are you not astonished that he knows that? 16. I am astonished that he knows all. 17. Do you requireme to pay him to-day ? 18. I wish you to pay him to-morrow. 19. What would you have me do (see Mo. 1 of the above exercise)? 20: I will have you pay him immediately. , 21. Do you fear lest the master punish your son? 22. I fear that he may not punish him. 23. What would you have me say? 24. I would have you say the truth. 25. Does not your father wish you to buy a house? 26. He wishes me to buy a storehouse. 27. Do you wish us to leave you? 28. I wish you to go away to-morrow. 29. Do you wish me to stay with you? 30. I wish you to stay, here. 31. Do you wish me to tell him that news? 32. I wish you to tell it to him. 33. Do you wish your children to obey their teacher 34, I wish them to obey him.

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In our last Lesson, “On the Origin of Springs,” I explained to you how wells and fountains are caused by peculiar conditions in the geological structure of the earth. . Of these conditions I gave you two illustrations, and reserved two others for this Lesson. You have seen that water derived from rain, dew, and snow, enters into porous soils of gravel and loose sands. You know from observation that such grounds become soon dry after heavy showers and long wet weather. Such soils and rocks are called arenaceous, or sandy, and easily “drink in" the water that falls upon them. Theother soils and rocks, which retain the water, or through which water percolates with great difficulty, are called argillaceous, or clayey. The water which percolates through these porous beds descends, by its own gravity, lower and lower, until it finds a stratum of stiff clay, or impervious rock, through which it cannot penetrate. This fact has been already explained to you in two instances. If the surface of the impervious rock forms a curve upward like a bow, the percolating waters will flow and produce wells on each side of the hill, as was represented in fig. 39. If the surface of the retentive rock be an inclined plane, as in fig. 40, the water will flow along the slope in one direction, and appear as a well on one side only of the mountain, or at its base. It is hence obvious that when water reaches an impervious stratum and fails to percolate to a greater depth, it mustaccumulate as in a reservoir, and will then try to ooze out at any outlet, which it can effect by the laws of hydrostatic pressure. The principal difficulty in § phenomenon is to explain why the water does not ooze out at every point, along the line of junction of the porous beds with the impervious or watertight stratum, instead of at a few points where we find springs. The reason of springs being found at few points only, and not along the whole line, is that the percolating waters concentrate at those points. This concentration of the water is occasioned by two conditions in the structure of the soil. First, it is well known that even in gravelly and loose beds there are fissures and crevices, which act as natural and easy drains to the percolating waters. Secondly, there may be curves, swellings, and inequalities, in the surface of the stiff and impervious rock which the waters have reached. In the dents and hollows of these beds, the water accumulates till it overflows their edges; or it may be that by means of these depressions, the water is conducted to lower levels, and thus forms channels for a current to force for itself an outlet at a powerful spring.

These facts lead me to mention a third case, in which a peculiarity of geological structure gives rise to a different description of springs, a case which the next diagram will help you to understand. Fig. 41.

Springs caused by Depressions in the Strata.

Fig. 41 represents a spring in a mountain side near Zurich, in Switzerland. You see that the upper part of the hill, A, consists of a deep and extensive mass of gravelly soil. Through this mass water, from rain and snow, penetrates until it reaches the impervious and retentive beds BB. These beds curve upward on both sides, and, therefore, form a kind of trough or basin at c, where the water, from the porous soil running on each side of the inclined planes B B, meet and gush out as a large and copious spring. Were the porous surface of this mountain thin and of small extent, the well would be an intermittent one, and would soon be exhausted in a dry season. For, if the supply of water in the porous soil be not equal to the discharge at the spring, the flow at the well will stop, until the reservoir be afresh replenished, either from rain or from melted snow. But, because this gravelly soil is deep and of considerable extent, and because the basin-shaped rocks below help, the water to accumulate at the bottom, the fountain is copious, powerful, and perennial. The knowledge of these conditions of geological structure will aid your comprehension of the phenomena of Artesian wells. An Artesian well is a boring made perpendicularly into the ground by means of a large auger, which is worked till it penetrates through different soils and rocks into a bed which contains water. Such wells are called Artesian from the French province called Artois, which is the ancient Artesium. It was in this district that wells of this description were first formed in Europe. It has been lately ascertained that such wells have been established in China from a considerable antiquity. As the borer is worked and made to penetrate into the underlying rocks, a jointed tube of iron, and of larger bore or circumference, but surrounding it, is beaten down into the boring. This tube answers two purposes. First, it hinders the sides of the boring or well from falling in; and secondly, it prevents the water, in its ascent, from escaping and spreading into any lo or fissure which it might find in the sides of the rock. In these wells the water rises from various depths, either to the surface of the soil or many feet above it, according to certain conditions of the strata in which water is found. In many instances after the borer has passed through many hundreds of feet of impervious and retentive beds, and it comes, to a porous stratum containing water, the fluid rises immediately with considerable impetuosity, rushes up the tube, and flows over. The first rush is often very violent, so that for a time the water plays like the jets of a fountain, and then, where the origin of the percolating water is at a low level, it gradually sinks, and eventually continues to flow in a tranquil stream from the surface of the well; or, as the case of level may be, it is constantly full up to within a few feet of the surface. You are aware that this action of Artesian wells is due to the laws of hydrostatic pressure, or to that constant tendency and effort of water to find its level. These phenomena will be easily comprehended by means of the following diagram, fig.

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A Section explaining the Rise of a Natural Spring and the Perforation for an Artesian Well.

42, representing a geological section in which Artesian wells mo made. t AB c, in fig. 42, be the surface of a country, in which water is scarce, except where it has a natural spring at the height A. Under the vegetable soil zz z are the two beds a a, which are stiff and impervious to water, or through which water percolates with great difficulty. The rock b b. is gravelly or sandy, and allows the water to percolate easily, and to accumulate between b and b. But this reservoir of water is concealed by the supersicial soil and by the beds a a. A geologist, indeed, might, from the natural spring at A, and from the fact that these beds are what he calls synclinal (inclining together), infer that water would be found below at some points between B and c. The rock bb rises to the surface, or crops out, as it is geologically termed from beneath the rocks a a at the height A, where there is a natural spring. To the left of A, and to the right of c, it is found that beneath b b is another rock da, which is impervious to water. It is now obvious that water, entering the soil at A and c, will be absorbed by the elevated parts of the rock b b. The percolating water will now pass downward to, and along, the surface of the water-tight rock did, and take a direction under the impervious bed a a, and render the whole rockbb a kind of subterranean drain. The laws of hydrostatic pressure inform us that water, in such conditions, being constantly in effort to find its level, will strive to force its way upward through the overlying beds a a ; but being unable to accomplish this, it will, in the natural order of things, remain beneath unexposed to evaporation, unless it can find an outlet at some lower level as at A. If, under these geological conditions, a boring be made at B, through the beds a a, into the rock b b, the water in that stratum will rise in the well, and play above the surface as high as the dotted line B y; that is, it will play as high above the surface as c is higher than B. The great quantity of water contained in a reservoir so extensive as the bed bb between c and A, and the hydrostatic pressure from c to b and from A to b, are sufficient to account for the impetuosity and the copiousness of the rush of water at B. The phenomena would be perfectly as represented here, if the heights A and c were of equal elevation. But the height. A is lower than the height c, and accordingly the water that enters bb at c produces, according to hydrostatic laws, an outlet at A, where there is a natural spring, at the point where bb crops out aboved d. You will see, however, even in this case, that when the Artesian boring has reached the bed bb, the water between A and b, as well as that between c and b, will have a tendency to rush towards the outlet effected at B. In consequence of this tendency, the natural spring at A will either be lowered, or have its supply of water diminished, in proportion to the discharge at B, or until the pressures previously exerted be balanced.

As a case in point, I may mention, that in the year 1784, an Artesian well was formed at Sheerness, in the Isle of Sheppey, near the junction of the Thames with the German Ocean. The sea is many miles wide between Sheerness and the opposite coast of Essex. This well was bored on a point of land close to the sea side. The perforation was more than three hundred feet deep. When the boring instrument reached the bed of gravel and plastic clay which is known to be under the stratum called the London clay, the water immediately rushed up with violence and filled the well. As the water continued to supply this Artesian well at Sheerness, it was found that the supply of water in the wells on the coast of Essex was proportionably diminished. These representations will be sufficient to assist you in forming correct notions of the principles of the many Artesian wells which are about London and its neighbourhood; as well as of many others, according to their geological condition. The instance of the natural spring found on the lower height. A in fig. 42, introduces you to another condition of geological structure . gives rise to wells, as represented in g. 43. In fig. 43, let A B cla y z represent a section of a country many miles in length, with three different rocks & y z resting conformably on each other, and among which the rock y is argillaceous and porous. Therain enters this rock in the space between z and y. The other rocks 2 and z are impervious to Water. It is found that the series of these beds have been fractured and dislocated by a disturbing force from below. Such a fracture is called, both by miners and geologists, a fault. This fault or fissure produces an outlet on the surface at B. The water which has entered the porous bed y at z y, is prevented from descending lower by the watertight character of the underlying rock 2. Let B+ be a fault or fissure, from the effect of which the continuity of the bed y y is broken, and a portion of it is thrown down to a lower level on the left of the diagram. If the rock y be tapped by an Artesian perforation at w, the

Fig. 43.

| A Section representing a Natural Spring produced by a Fault, and an Artesian Well by boring.

water will immediately rise to the surface. . But irrespective of the artificial boring at w, you have a natural artesian well at B ; for the fissure or fault B + serves the same office as the artificial boring. There is this difference between them : The artificial boring is a mere puncture, as to extent; but the effects of the fault are felt along a more extensive line downwards, frequently of some miles in length. On this account, springs produced by faults are more permanent than others. This arises from themechanical arrangements of the reservoir, by which a vast quantity of water is accumulated, and can only escape by slow degrees. Without these natural fissures, which permit the cscape of waters from a great depth, many districts would be comparatively destitute of this great necessary of life, particularly during long dry seasons. The severe droughts, which dry up the more superficial springs, are comparatively little felt by those which are produced by faults.

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LESSONS IN ENGLISH.—No. XXIII. By John R. DeAnd, D.D. UNCOMBINED SUFFIXES.

The suffixes of which we have spoken enter into the structure of the words with which they are severally connected. Thus the ment in amendment forms an essential part of the term. If ment is sundered from amend, the word amendment ceases to exist; and instead of a noun, there arises a verb, the verb to amend. Other words are appended to roots without entering into union with them. For instance, we say cast down and east up. Here down and up form no part of cast. Cut off down and up, and east remains the same. Yet down and up modify the meaning of cast, and they modify it in a very important way. And down and up come after east. In some sort, then, they are suffixes. They perform the part of suffixes in regard to meaning, and they differ from suffixes chiefly in not combining with the root as do the suffixes already considered. Hence they appear to be uncombined suffixes. Putting the two together, I may designate suffixes, properly so called, combined suffires, and those that do not enter into the composition of words, uncombined suffices. The uncombined suffixes down and up are adverbs. Adverbs form one class of uncombined suffixes. Another class consists of repositions; for instance, we say, I speak to, and 1 speak of. Here to and of are prepositions. These uncombined suffixes, you see, very materially modify the meaning of the verb to speak. Consequently, the right employment of prepositions as suffixes is a matter of great consequence. If you carefully follow me in what immediately ensues, you will see reason to believe that the English is a very flexible and a very rich language, and that it owes these qualities largely to the existence in a free and uncompounded state of many of its words. Let me explain what I mean by “a free and uncompounded state.” Suppose that fall and down had coalesced into one word ; thus, to falldown; then falldown would be a compound, and *s. nor down would be free, being absorbed in the new term, Indeed we have in the shape of a noun this very compound, only the terms are inverted as in downfall. Now down and fall, thus combining, you cannot modify fall by using other prefixes; you cannot, for instance, say outfall. But with down, as an uncombined prefix, you can say fall out equally well with fall down; and as you can sayfall out, so can you also say fall in. Indeed the power of expression thus acquired is almost endless. The greater is the pity that some writers, ignorant of the treasures of the Saxon element of our language, and misled by false views of elegance, should have given preference to Latinisms, and frowned on the idiomatic diction which ensues from the employment of our uncombined suffixes.

UN.com BINED SUPPIxEs. 1. Adverbs. Aback. “Away there! lower the mizon yard on deck," He calls, and, “brace the foremost yards aback." Falconer, “Shipwreck,” Abaft, on the aft or hind part. “Let all hands go abaft.—Anon. Aboard, on board ship. “Resolv'd, he said; and rigg'd with speedy care, A vessel strong, and well equipp'd for war; The secret ship with chosen men he stor'd, And bent to die or conquer went aboard.”

The facility of combination afforded by those uncombined suffixes may be excmplified in this verb went.”

(glas, the linnacle amongst the scholars aboard the ship before the picture alyst in a balloon behind the door aback suddenly into the house aftr from his country out of the church • back in a carriage ... upwards to the coiling 5 |forward in good works 5 round the monument * { lackward in morali y : in to ste his friends * 1 sidentard to avoid a nuisance to out to take a walk to: sideways b, tween the posts |*| high in the air amidst the crowd low in pocket below: the floor along the highway above the roof octor the seas apart from the mass across the meadow ashore f on the beat under the archway

through the folding doors fur to prove it B s: successfully : wrong in his mind # / off altogether # I right into the theatre 2\ aright in all he undertook | < \ up the stairs : I near the place intended : within the enclosure by the church w

Here are forty-one different acceptations of the word teent. In no other language known to me is this multiplying power exceeded, if, indeed, it is equalled, even in the German; while in most languages, as in Latin, in French, and in Spanish, the facility of combination is very much less.

So familiar, however, are Englishmen with the import and the application of the uncombined adverbs, that I have no need to go through them in detail. It may be more useful to give two or three instances of the way in which they modify the verú to which they are subjoined.

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Here are fifty-six words made out of four with the aid of suffixes, which being common property may enter into union with many other verbs. In Todd's edition of Dr. Johnson's Dictionary, sixty-two different applications of the verb to east are given and exemplified; and this variety is owing mainly to the efficacy of the uncombined suffixes. The diversity of meaning given by these suffixes is no less remarkable. To run up an account is a very different matter from running down an enemy's vessel. By blowing up a citadel, a revolt may be put down. You may enter into a cave, and you may enter into Milton's Conception of Samson Agonistes. If you have money, you may set up a shop; if you are rich, you may set up your carriage; if you are liberal, you may, at the same time, set up a friend; and if you have also a proper spirit, you will not fail to set down the impertinent. Edgar having run through his fortune, enlisted as a common soldier, and was run through in battle. To laugh with one's friends is agreeable; to be laughed at by them is very unpleasant.

“So long as nature
Will bear up with this exercise, so long
I daily vow to use it." Shakspear.

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On a tempestuous night a horseman fatigued with a long day's journey, in attempting to go across a dilapidated bridge, was blown over it into the river. If you gothrough the Thames you will probably be drowned; if, by means of the Tunnel, you go under it, you will not wet the sole of your foot. A balloon will carry you over the Thames, and you may cross the river in a wherry, I sauntered along the river, and at length went upon its tranquil bosom. My cousin walked under the bridge, while I was above it in the balloon, and we both saw the sheep go into the river. These adverbial suffixes must not be confounded with ordinary adverbs. They are only a small portion of ordinary adverbs. Their connexion with their verbs is more intimate than is the connexion of ordinary adverbs, for though uncombined they form a part of the verb in each case, and are essential to its signification. The office of the ordinary adverb is not to change the import of a verb, but to denote the manner of its action. In to bear patiently, the adverb patiently does nothing more than mark the way in which the evil is borne ; it is borne patiently, not impatiently, not peevishly, not complainingly. ut to bear through, as, “the admiral bore through the enemy's line,” is in the primitive sense of the term not to bear at all, nor in the derivative sense to endure, but to sail or direct a ship. Besides, ordinary adverbs may be connected with these adverbial suffixes; e.g. “the admiral boldly bore through the enemy's line.” LINCOMBINED SUPFIxE8. 2. Prepositions. I have termed the uncombined suffixes of which I have spoken adverbs and adverbial suffires. In doing so I have, in regard to such as into, through, &c., considered them in their connexion with their several verbs. Thus viewed, they in construction are taken as parts of their verbs. In consequence the verbs become compound, and in their compound state govern their objects. But through, into, and others may be viewed as prepositions. When so considered they are connected not so much with the verb as with the noun; which in that case is governed not by the verb but by the preposition; in other words, the noun is directly dependent on the preposition rather than on the verb. I may illustrate my meaning by an example of 1. A Verb Compounded with a Suffic.

2. A Preposition Connected with a Noun. He went-under the bridge. IIe went under the bridge. The boat sailed-down the river. The boat sailed down the river. In the use of prepositions in connexion with verbs, special regard must be paid to usage. The power of the verb is materially effected by the preposition. This fact is broadly seen in the appending of to or of to the verb to speak; e.g., to speak to, to speak of Besides the phrase to speak to, we use the phrase to speak with. The two meanings are nearly the same, but to speak to is to address, and to speak with is to interchange remarks, to converse. The usage you are to follow is present usage. In its very nature usage is a varying thing. Of old, to lay hold on was employed in the way of our to lay hold of. At present we say dependent on, but independent of, yet the two adjectives, as they differ only in the negative in, would naturally require the same construction; and in former days on was used with independent as well as dependent. “A being of dependent nature remains independent upon him."— South. It is a rule that verbs, compounds of the Greek, Latin, and French languages, take after them the same prepositions as those which enter into their structure; thus, we say sympathise with, for the sym of sympathise denotes with. In the same way we say adhere to ; intervene between. Yet we say prefer to instead of prefer before (prae, Lat. before). We have also conformable with, and conformable to. “The fragments of Sappho give us a taste of her way of writing eonformable with that character we find of her.”—Addison. “lie gives a reason conformable to the principles,"—Arbuthnot.

With, however, seems to denote a greater degree of resemblance or correspondence than to. According to the rule just enunciated averse (a, from ; and verto, I turn) would take from after it; yet we say not averse from, but averse to. Exception (ex, out of; and capio, I take) would require out of or from ; yet we say exception to. “Pleads, in exception to all general rules, Your taste of follies with our scorn of fools.” Pope.

The eleganee as well as the propriety of language much depen on a correct use of the prepositions, and, consequently, I shall make them the subject of a series of exercises in English composition.

PARSING.

God made the little worm that crawleth on the ground. I saw a fly crawl up the window pane. Let us go forth into the green fields. John has gone down into the cellar. The buds come out on the trees... The cowslips hold up their heads; will the cowslips never hang their heads down #. goslings are running on the green. They are now going down into the pond. The hen sits upon her nest. When the hen has broken the shell, the chicken will come out. The sheep can scarcely stand under their wool. The butterflies flutter from bush to bush. The young animals of every kind sport about. The shepherd careth for his sheep, and bringeth them back to the fold. My son, take care of your aged mother, and sustain her in her weakness. Your mother brought you up on her knees. You lay in her bosom. She fed you with her own vital substance. Therefore, let her now, in her age, cleave to you, and, upheld by you, let her gently go down into her tomb.

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Acquit of, quit, to free Adapted to, apt, to fit Add to, do, to give Adequate to, aequ, equal

Adhere to, Adjacent to, jace, to lie Adjudge to, judec, a judge Questions: What is the difference between accord with, and ac. cord to f between accountable to, and accountable for f between admit, and admit off between address, and address to ? In order that you may clearly see what I require, I give a sentence or two by way of example. Such conduct draws upon him the abhorrence of all men. conduct subjects him to the wrath of God. The former sentence is constructed on draws upon ; the latter is constructed on subjects to. Suppose that I had given absence from and arrival at, as the germs of a sentence, then I perform what is demanded, thus: Your absence from home has given your parents, much pain, John's arrival at Portsmouth has inspired all the family with hope

haere, to stick

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