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The reason of
would not be right to leave unnoticed. It is probable that can be consumed by the flame. many of these calcareous springs issue in "the dark unfathomed wells abound, the growth of vegetation is greatly procaves of ocean." It is a fair inference that many of the lime- moted by them. It is found that herbs, ferns, and trees stones which consist of shells and zoophytes, and constitute the flourish more luxuriantly, and grow more raukly, than they coral reefs of our seas, were supplied with their carbonate of would otherwise do in the same climate. lime, and with other mineral ingredients, from such springs this luxuriant growth is, that the leaves of such herbs and issuing at great depths. It is also likely that the high tem-trees absorb, or drink, in the carbonic acid that has been so perature of these springs, as well as their gascous, earthy, and plentifully disengaged in the surrounding district. This fact mineral impregnations, promoted the development of corals, is worth knowing, as it will help you to account for the sponges, and shellfish. See, then, how boundless is the study enormous quantity of carbonic acid gas that must have been of the chemical action of calcareous springs. discharged to produce the coal formations. ii. Siliceous Springs.
The chemical substance or clement which goes to constitute flint, is called silex or silica. Hence the name siliceous. It is well known that many springs hold in solution a great quantity of silex or flint, and that when their current becomes cooler, they deposit a flinty substance upon the ground. Water must be of a high temperature, like the geysers of Iceland, before it can hold silex in solution; but as its temperature decreases, it precipitates its siliceous ingredients. This deposit is called sinter, as that of calcareous springs is called tufa or travertin. At St. Michael in the Azores, there are hot springs which precipitate an immense deposit of siliceous sinter. The basin of one of the largest of them is nearly circular, and is about twenty or thirty feet in diameter. Around the outward edge of this basin are found alternate layers of coarse sinter mixed with clay, imbedding ferns, grasses, and reeds in different states of petrifaction. Wherever the water has flowed, sinter is found. These layers of sinter rise, in some places, eight or ten inches above the ordinary level of the stream. In the channels of these waters, branches of ferns of the kind now growing on the island are found completely petrified. Also fragments of wood, and, in one instance, a bed of reeds from three to five feet deep, have become perfectly mineralized. Fig. 44.
We may class, under this head, the springs which are found impregnated with petroleum, naphtha, asphaltuin, bitumen, and pitch, and kindred minerals.
These springs are very numerous. They are, no doubt, in many instances, connected with subterranean fire, which subimate the more subtle parts of the bituminous substance confained in rocks. There are many of these petroleum springs in Italy, but the most remarkable and powerful are found in the East Indies. On one spot on the banks of the Irrawadi, in the Burman empire, there are above five hundred wells of this description, which yield every year four hundred thousand hogsheads of petroleum.
Another spot remarkable for this mineral production is the Island of Trinidad, north-east of South America. On both sides of this island, fluid pitch or bitumen oozes from the bottom of the sea and rises to the surface of the water. In one place near it there is a whirlpool which in stormy weather eddies with violence, raises the water of the sea some five or six feet, and then covers the surface of the ocean for a considerable space with pitch or tar. Trinidad is also distinguished for its celebrated lake of pitch. Many theories have been put forth to account for this extraordinary quantity of pitch in this neighbourhood. The most probable is this. The immense river Orinoco has for many ages been bringing down to the sea great quantities of vegetable and woody substances. When they reach the sea they are by the force of currents and eddies arrested and made to accumulate in particular places. As earthquakes take place very frequently in this neighbourhood, they lead to the inference that these vegetable substances are within the agency of subterranean fire, which effects those transformations and chemical changes which issue in petroleum. Having been thus produced, it is again by volcanic action forced up to the surface, where, on exposure to the air, it forms the different varieties of pure and earthy pitch or asphaltum which abound in the island.
A Cone formed by Chemical Depositions from a Well holling
iv. Saliferous Springs.
Many geological sections of the earth's crust exhibit bituminous shales, and also many stratified beds or deposits of bitumen and pitch. These facts clearly prove that, at former epochs in the earth's history, springs were as commonly impregnated with bituminous matter as they are now. This The geysers of Iceland, to which your attention has been matter was carried down by streams and rivers into lakes and directed in a previous Lesson, supply one of the most re-seas, which afterwards produced our beds of coal and shale. markable examples of the deposition of silex by a siliceous spring. The manner in which a flinty sediment is deposited around the well's mouth by a silicious spring is represented in fig. 44. These springs contain a great quantity of muriate of soda, or common salt, and are hence called brine springs, or salt If you apply your knowledge of siliceous springs to phe-wells. Some of them yield one fourth of the weight of their nomena which take place in the occan, your interest in geology water in salt. Those of Cheshire are reckoned the richest in will be greatly extended and enlivened. When siliceous springs, England, for those at Northwich are almost saturated with salt, of high temperature, issue at great depths under the pressure There are also rich brine springs at Barton, in Lancashire, and of the sea, they retain their heat much longer than they do Droitwich, in Worcestershire. These springs rise up through when they issue in the open air. The inference is, that such beds of sand-stone and red marl, which contain thick strata of submarine springs may be charged with a greater quantity of rock salt. They are known to have flowed for more than a silex than the most powerful springs which appear on the surface of the earth. These siliceous springs, which find an outlet must have discharged into their respective rivers and seas, must thousand years, consequently the quantity of salt, which they at the bottom of the ocean, and the mineral waters charged be enormous. with silica which flow into the sea, supply, it is probable, certain corals, sponges, and infusorial animals, with matter for their diversified siliceous secretions.
iii. Carboniferous Springs.
These are generally called carbonated springs, as they are plentifully charged with carbonic acid gas. These springs are found in almost every country, but especially in the regions of active or extinct volcanoes. In Auvergne, there are springs of this character, in which the water is seen bubbling and boiling up with great noise. This noise is occasioned by the superabundant disengagement of gas, just as you find in a gas burner, there is a fluttering noise when more gas escapes than
v. Ferruginous Springs.
There are scarcely any springs which do not hold some iron in solution. Some of the phenomena of these springs are very familiar to you. Waters impregnated with this metal are found to stain the rocks, the soil, and even the herbage, through which they pass. Such water, also, binds together sand, gravel, and pebbles, into solid masses, as you may have observed on the south side of the Isle of Wight, and in other places, especially in Hertfordshire, where what is called plum-pudding stone abounds.
Again arises a question: Where does all this iron come from. It is constantly sent up from the interior of the earth, and
who pursues wisdom, one who is given to wisdom. Now such is the meaning of the word, and such is the whole meaning of the word as taught by etymology, or the doctrine of tracing out the Now apply these few facts to every red soil that you have root-signification of words. And here you have an instance of the seen, and especially to the immeasurable masses and conglo-short-comings of etymology. So far as I have yet gone you see no merates of the old red sand-stone under the coal and to the difference between philosopher and sophist, for both are students of new red sand-stone above it, and then think and study what wisdom. Yet, if you meet with the two in a narrative or a discus incalcaluable quantity of iron springs must have been brought sion, you find that their meanings are different; at least, a philoso up from the interior of the earth to colour and to cement enor- pher is spoken of with respect, a sophist is spoken of slightingly. mous mountains of such depth, and of such extent.
I have entered into these details in order to show you that history must be taken as an ally to etymology in the study of languages. In the case before us history supplies the lacking information. From history we learn that the sophists were a set of Greek teachers who, not content to be called philosophers or lovers of wisdom, pretended to be sophoi or wise men, and so came to be designated sophistai, sophists, disparagingly. A sophist, then, you thus learn, is a pretender to wisdom; and as all pretenders are obliged to resort to trickery, so a sophist is one who, by unsound and cunning arguments or delusive appeals, aims, for his own purposes, to produce a false impression. Knowing what a sophist is you easily infer the meaning of sophism, or a means by which the sophist works; and sophistry, his art. Advanced thus far, you have no difficulty with sophistical, nor with sophistically.
Turn your attention for a moment to the English representatives given above, and observe generally that in representatives, whether designated English or foreign, I mean the radical parts of the words, in each case the radical or essential elements of each word. Now, you have above these three combinations of letters, namely, adelph, phil, and soph. These three parts are the parents of all the words of which I have just treated, and connected with them is all the information I have here set forth. When I have added, that what I have said is only a very small part of what I might have said, you will have some idea of the extent and value of etymological studies.
conveyed into lakes and seas. There it cannot escape by evaporation, but acts as a colouring and cementing substance in the deposits which are now being formed under water.
LESSONS IN ENGLISH.-No. XXV.
THE GREEK ELEMENT.-GREEK STEMS.
THE prefixes and suffixes of which I have treated, are connected with certain roots or stems. So far as these stems are of Saxon birth, you need little instruction in them; they are your mother tongue, and, in general, are as readily understood by you as the words which denote the members of your body, or the food that you eat. With other stems you are not acquainted. Among the words I gave you for exercise in composition in the last lesson, there are words for the meaning of which you have probably had to resort to a dictionary. Such a word is accessary. Now accessary being made up of the Latin words ad, to, cedo, I go, and the termination ary, would have occasioned you no difficulty had you been familiar with the foreign or exotic stems of our language. origin, those stems are various. Chiefly they are derived from the Latin, as in the word accessary. Some come from the Greek; others are of different parentage. These must all be separately considered. I begin with an example of
The branchings of these three stems may be exhibited thus:soph
philosophy philosopher, philosophically
Greek words. adelphos, a brother
English words. Philadelphia philosophy sophist
adelph philos, a friend, loving phil sophos, wise soph Now let me explain the process I here intend. Adelphos is found in Philadelphia, but not in its full form. It is found as it appears under "Stems;" for adelphos, passing into Philadelphia, loses os, and takes ia. By this time you know enough of the changes in language to be aware that these changes in the terminations do not affect the root-meaning, or the essential import of the word. Prefixes and suffixes convert verbs into nouns, and adjectives into adverbs; or they may modify the signification; they may even reverse it, but they nevertheless leave the import of the stem still traceable after it has undergone their influence. Philadelphia, then, has clearly something to do with adelphos, a brother. What that something is, you find indicated in the next Greek word and its stem, namely, philos, loving, and phil. Putting the two together, you have Philadelphia, and putting the two meanings together, namely, love and brother, you obtain brotherly-love as the import of the word under consideration. Remembering that Philadelphia is the name of a town in the United States, you are reminded that the name, brotherly-love, was given to it by its founder Penn, as indicative of the spirit with which he dealt with the original inhabitants of that region. Passing on to the next word, philosophy, I find at the beginning of it the same phil of which I have already spoken. But I find, also, sophy. What am I to do with sophy? First, I know that they may represent the Greek ia, as is set forth in the remarks on suffixes .Changing the one into the other, I thus get sophia. Now, by referring to the next line in my list of words, I see one which is very like sophia; that is, sophos. I already know enough of the changes which words undergo to find reason for thinking that sophia is connected with sophos in meaning and source as well as in form. This idea is confirmed by my seeing that soph is given as the stem of sophos. Now soph is equivalent to our wise; here love and wise must be put together, and so I learn that philosophy is the love of what is rise, or the love of wisdom. Such being the case, a philosopher must be one who
But soph is given as the origin of sophist. Sophist obviously consists of two parts; the part which is given, that is, soph, meaning wise, and ist. What is this ist? Let me think. Have I not had ist before? O yes, I remember, ist is a suffix, a Greek suffix, and denotes a partisan, one who follows a party in an opinion; like baptist, one who observes baptism, Sophist, then, must be one
sophist, sophism, sophistry,
Do not suppose that I have chosen these three terms because they were specially prolific. I took adelph because it begins with the first letter of the alphabet. The other words followed of course. So far from the series being very prolific, one member of it, adelph gives birth to only one word, and that word is etymologically unproductive.
My chief object, however, in going into this detail was to lay before you the principle on which the following list of words is drawn out, and the manner in which you are to study them. If you will faithfully, diligently, and perseveringly study these lists, combining with them the knowledge communicated in previous lessons, you will make rapid progress, and acquire a superior familiarity with the English language in all its elements.
Having done with this triplet of words, and pursuing the order of the alphabet, I come to other Greek terms found in English:
athletic demagogue democracy aristocracy aristocratic.
aethlos, a combat agogos, a leader demos, the people kratos, strength aristos, best In these lists I do not give the English meanings of the examples, lest you should be turned away from the efforts by which, from the aids furnished, you ought to be able to gather the significations yourself. When, however, it may appear desirable, I will quote instances from good authors of the employment of the words, and so you will obtain another kind of assistance. The most effectual teaching is that which leads persons to teach themselves.
"David's combat (with Goliah) compared with that of Dioxippus the Athenian Athlete."-Delaney.
tinct powers, entirely independent of each other; first, the king; "The legislature of the kingdom (of England) is entrusted to three dissecondly, the lords, spiritual and temporal, which is an aristocratical assembly of persons selected for their piety, their birth, their wisdom,
their valour, or their property; and thirdly, of the House of Commons
LESSONS IN MUSIC.-No. XIII. (the representative of the democracy)."-Blackstone : “ Cornmentaries."
By Joun CURWEN. EXERCISES FOR PARSING. Philadelphia is the word employed by the Apostle Paul in his Waile our pupils are continuing the study of Pax and Las in epistle to ihe Romans (xii. 10). Philadelphia, as employed by the connexion with the following exercises, we shall touch a few Apostle to the Gentiles, is rendered in our English version by incidental topics of information and guidance. “brotherly love." A word of the same origin is used by the
1. It will contribute to the confidence of our pupils, and to Apostle Peter, where (1. Pet. iii. 8) he gives the injunction love their hopes of some day singing at sight, to remember that as brethren." Sophos is the Greek ierm found in that text: “Pro- every tune, with the exception of " minor tunes to be menfessing themselves to be wise they became fools.” (Rom. i. 22) The tioned hereafter, and some few others, begins on don, ME, words just cited accurately describe the character of a sophist. A or sou. So that having taken the key-note from your word derived from sophos is the word employed in this question; tuning-fork, and struck the chord, you are sure to be in pos“Whence hath this man this wisdom?" (Mait. xiii. 54.) Our word session of the right note to begin with. You will also athletic has a word of the same origin in the words: “Ye endured a find that the accompanying “parts" of a tune (adapted to great fight of afflictions.” (Heb: *. 32.) The Greek demos is in the lower voices) commencé always on some note of this “comoriginal, used in the passage : " The people gave a shout.” (Acts xii. 22.) Kratos is in the New Testament represented by these English
mon chord.' words.-namely, strength (Luke i. 51), porcer (Ephes. i. 10), and diligently following the course in which we are guiding them,
2. For the sake of the thorough workers, those who are so dominion (1. Pet. iv. 11).
it will be well to remind our pupils of the process through EXERCISES IN COMPOSITION.
which they must pass in connexion with each exercise, and Words with their proper Prepositions to be formed into sentences.
of the reasons for each step of that process. Every exercise F. R.
should first be-
a. LEARNT BY PATTERN from the MODULATOR. This will
cultivate the ear and voice generally. It will teach the par. Admission to, into, miss, sent (mission) Admit of, mitt (miss), to send
ticular tune along with a pictorial representation of its intervals, Advantage over arant, before
and will accustom the mind more and more to that beautiful Advise of, vis, sight, vision
language of interral, which, by giving a distinct and uniform Advocate for, roca, to call
syllabic name to each interval of the scale, enables us, by the Affection for, fici (fac, sec) making
ever renewed association of the syllable with the sound, to sing Affinity to, fini, an end (final)
with increasing ease and confidence. The “second part Agree with, to, on, grat, pleasing
should be learnt in the same manner-as though it were a Agreeable to, grat, pleasing:
separate exercise-before it is sung with the “air." The exerAlienate from, alien, another's (an alien)
cise should next beQuestions: Where is the difference between to agree with and to b. Sol-Fard from the book. This will give scope for a more agree ? to also between agree to and agree on?" Form illustra, accurate observance of measure, as indicated by the accent live sentences. Where is the difference between admonish and marks, and allow the “parts” of a tune to be sung together, admonish of ? Form illustrative sentences. Besides working each term given in this list into a simple sentence, work into simple sen- their proper intervals. But lest the syllables of a tune should
It also strengthens the association between the syllables and tences words formed from them; as, admonition, admission, advocacy, agreement, alienation, taking care to employ the proper come to be sung by mere “rote”--the pupil having no mental prepositions.
picture of their relative position on the modulator, it will be Study the following anecdote; write down the substance of it found advisable to require each exercise to be from memory; and then give an account of it to your fireside com- Pointed on the MODULATOR from memory. This will panions.
complete the knowledge of the tune, and greatly increase its A WHALER IN A STORM.
teaching power. Every pupil should do this in his private About eleven o'clock, I ventured on deck, and, for the first time practice, and should be ready to do it at the teacher's call, bein my life, saw what the ocean looks like in a storm. I could see fore the class. But the solfa syllables, though invaluable as the nothing all around but heaving mountains of water; each succeeding mnemonics and interpreters of interval, and likely to be always wave seemed as if it would swallow up the labouring vessel, but it useful in learning new tunes, and in studying the difficulties always appeared 10 melt away gently under us, except when one or beauties of particular passages, are only instruments for acmore rapid, or "cross,” would send water and spray washing over her decks and high up into the rigging: The motion of the ship acquire the power of perceiving the musical property of a
complishing the higher purposes of music. The learner must pitching we had experienced in the North Sea. I remained on note, and of producing it, in connection with any syllable. deck about a quarter of an hour, gazing about me in silent wonder With this view, the pupil should not shrink from the mental and admiration, little thinking that the hitherto harmless waves effort of having each exercisewere upon the very ere of proving their might over man's puny d. FIGURED, or sung to the words one, two, three, &c., bolts and beams. Feeling it chilly, I went below. I had just en according to the number of syllables in each line of the poetry: tered the cabin and taken my seat, when the ship became motionless, Thus “common metre” would be sung 1!2:3! 4:516:7 as it were, and seemed to tremble in eve beam. A report, like 18:1|2:34:5 | 6 &c.; and " thunder, mingled with the rending and crashing of timber; sudden, 6's &c. This will make the perception of the characters and
11:23:45: and complete darkness, with a rush of water through the skylight, intervals of notes more perfectly mental, and independent of and the ship thrown on her beam-ends, showed me what one has to expect occasionally at sea. I scrambled on deck after the captain syllabic associations. It will also introduce the use of slursas I best could, scarcely knowing what had happened. Here nothing each utterance corresponding with a syllable of the verse, and was to be seen but wreck and destruction. The quarter-deck was not, as before, with every note of the music. As this exercise literally swept of everything, rails and bulwarks; almost all the is difficult at first, it is an advantage that the words used (1, stanchions, the binnacle, compasses, dog's couch, and nothing 2, 3, &c.) require no attention, and that the mind is left free could be seen of the wheel but the nave. But the worst was still to to study the music alone. But the highest attainment is reached come; two poor fellows were missing. One had perished unnoticed; when, the tune itself being perfectly mastered, it ishe must have been killed amongst the wreck, washed overboard, and e. SUNG TO SUITABLE WORDS. This exercise should not sunk like a stone. The other had been seen by the mate-for an in- commence until the words themselves are thoroughly under, stant onls—floating on the binnacle and just sinking. No human stood, enjoyed, and loved, and then it should be performed assistance could have been rendered to them with such a sea running with careful regard to EXPRESSION. Thus the pupil is introTwo other poor fellows were rather seriously injured, and took up duced to a new study, most elevating and ennobling to the restored confidence to his men, and, in a short time, had the wreck mind, which he will pursue in sympathetic converse with his cleared away, a long tiller shipped, and the vessel again hove to. teacher. Spare spars were lashed to the stanchions that remained, so that It is not necessary that the pupil should thus make the we had again something like bulwarks, but for many a day after- fullest use of one exercise before he passes to the next. It wards, the ship had a sadly-damaged and wrecky appearance.-would be better that, at every season of practice, each of the Goodsir's Arctic Voyage.
above employments should have place—some new exercise
being taught by pattern, a previous one sol-faed from books and pointed on the modulator, and an earlier one still "numbered " and sung to words. The pupil should keep a record of progress, both on the book and separately-showing to what extent each exercise has been used. On the book each exer
cise would be marked with the letters above used in connexion
- 1 s : f
m mr m.f
pen : d
ne · ver
d stur - dy
m : d
d face. d
: s1.1 | ti
NOTE.-When you come to sing this tune to words be careful to | observe the LOUD and soft phrases, as indicated by the capitals and and feelings you utter-and sing accordingly. italics. But a better way still is, to throw your own soul into the
'TIS SAFE ENOUGH AND SOUND ENOUGH,
3. Our England's heart! Aye, God be praised,
That thus, in patriot pride,
AN ENGLISH CHEER can yet be raised
(The Words from "Ballads for the Times," by MARTIN TUPPER, Esq. Tune, Old English.)
2. Many a foe is a friend in disguise,
Many a sorrow a blessing most true, Helping the heart to be happy and wise, Bringing true love and joys ever new.
:f' .m' 'r'
NOTE. These two songs will show LAH and FAH in new positions, and with new rhythmtical arrangements. The pupil will pay special attention to these two notes wherever he finds them. I
right, s.fm .r
Im :f .s black will be I d
The "time" in this tune will be rather difficult, but must be kept perfectly. Remember, that with proper care and self-discipline at first, it is easier to be perfect than imperfect.
LESSONS IN FRENCH.-No. XXXIV.
REGIMEN OR GOVERNMENT OF VERBS (§ 129).
1. Many verbs come together in French without prepositions, which are in English joined by them. Many others are connected in French by prepositions different from those connecting the corresponding verbs in English. No satisfactory
Stand in the van, strive like a man,
This is the bravest and cleverest plan-
general rules can be given on this point. We shall give in
verbs introduced in our lessons.
2. The student will recollect, that a verb following another verb (not avoir or être) or a preposition (not en) must be in the infinitive.
3. The following verbs, extracted from the list, 130,