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9. I thank you, Sir; I have some. 10. Madam, shall I send you a little of this soup? 11. Much obliged to you, Sir [see No. 16, in the above exercise]. 12. Sir, will you have the goodness to help this young lady? 13. With much pleasure, Šir. 14. John, take this soup to the gentleman. 15. These ortolans are delicious. 16. I am very glad that you like them. 17. Is the dinner on the table? 18. No, Sir; it is not yet on the table. 19. It is too early. 20. Does it please you to go there? 21. It does not please me to go to his house; but I will go, if you wish it. 22. Shall I go with you. 23. As you please. 24. Will not your friend sit down? 25. He is much obliged to you; he has not time to-day. 26. Have you wished your friend a good morning? 27. I wished him a good evening. 28. Have you not bid him farewell? 29. I have bid him farewell. 30. Have the goodness to sit down here. 31. I have taken leave of them. 32. I have taken leave of all my friends. 33. Madam, have the goodness to walk in. 34. We are much obliged to you, Sir. 35. Our father is waiting for us at home.

says: "I was then placed at school with an old woman who spun worsted, and the only good I remember receiving was a tremendous belief in, and dread of, ghosts and hobgoblins. In order to keep the children quiet, she would tell us the most terrific stories of apparitions, as she walked to and fro by her spinning-wheel; such as the following:- A man, once chopping wood at a place called Goodheavers, by accident chopped his bowels out. The hatchet became so fixed in the block, that it could never afterwards be removed, and this man's ghost ever afterwards haunted the place; and frequently, when many persons were present, he would make his appearance, put his finger into the fire, and light his pipe with it. After annoying the people for some time, he would descend into the coalpit. He was twice laid, but still made his appearance and terrified those who attended the pit; when a number of good men met together, and laid him in the Red Sea, and she was not aware whether he had since made his appearance, or not.' This is [given] just to show the kind of tuition in that temple of literature."

BIOGRAPHY.-No. VIII.

SAMUEL BUDGETT, THE SUCCESSFUL MERCHANT. Is the little town of Wrington, in Somersetshire, the birth-place of John Locke, one of England's greatest philosophers, Samuel Budgett, the subject of the present notice, was born on the 27th of July, 1794. From this place he was soon afterwards removed to Backwell, and subsequently to Nailsea.

"Temple of literature, indeed!" says one of his biographers, "and the priestess too! It is positively a marvel that this giant English people have ever grown to the proportions wherein they stand before the world to-day, considering the mental aliment on which the bulk of them were reared. Poor children! handed over, by way of education forsooth, to witness an old woman spinning two yarns, one of worsted, the other of hobgoblins. And the quality of her ghosts, too! They had not even the small profit of being poetical, to weigh against all the needless fears and pains they originated in the heart of a poor child!" As, however, time rolled on, Samuel was freed from this pernicious nonsense; he was sent, on the removal of the family, to another school, and afterwards, with his brother, to a third, which appears to have been of a higher order than any of the former.

In a brief narration of the leading events of his life, he tells us that the oldest circumstance of any importance which he recollected, was that of a Mr. Taylor, an Irish gentleman, coming to lodge in his father's house, and offering to undertake the education of the children. He acknowledges that his parents were both extremely When Samuel was about ten years of age, the following incident kind and indulgent; but this offer was so far from producing, as it occurred, as he was going to school. He says:-"I picked up a ought to have done, anything like hope or pleasure in his mind, horse-shoe, carried it about three miles, and sold it to a blacksmith and made him so much afraid on the occasion (although not aware that for a penny. That was the first penny I ever recollect possessing, the gentleman ever spoke an unkind word to any one), that, for a and I kept it for some time. A few weeks after, the same man short time, he seemed as if he would have preferred death to the called my attention to a boy, who was carrying off some dirt prospect before him, and life became a complete burden, from no opposite his door; and offered, if I would beat the boy, who was other cause than the idea he had formed of the warmth of this bigger than myself, to give me a penny. I did so; he made a mark gentleman's temper. His mind, however, was completely relieved upon it, and promised that if I would bring it to him that day from its apprehensions when he learned that the offer was not fortnight, he would give me another. I took it to him at the accepted. This circumstance left an indelible impression, and pro-appointed time, when he fulfilled his promise, and I thus became duced great care in his after life, to prevent an occurrence of the possessed of threepence; since which I have never been without, kind in the case of his own children. There are two points here except when I gave it all away." It is a trite saying that which ought not to escape the attention of parents and instructors, "The boy is father to the man ;" and the observation of self-educators. One is the constitutional sensitiveness and timidity of the young mind; and the other, the disposition of such minds to store up present experience for future

occasions.

and, in the circumstances thus simply narrated, we have the foreshadow ing of what Samuel Budgett afterwards became. In that selling of the horse-shoe, he laid the foundation of his habits and his fortune as a British merchant; and that he could give away, as well as see to profit, the following statement will attest:-"By the time I left Coleford for Kingswood, when I was between fourteen and fifteen years of age, I had saved thirty pounds, which I presented to my parents; which they intended returning, but never were able to do so." This was, indeed, a noble sacrifice; but it should be remembered that Samuel was a youth, and had been brought up under the power of religious principle; and as this daily directed his course, so, relying on God, he was enabled not only to make this sum, but through His blessing, "which maketh rich," he greatly prospered in his future labours.

Meanwhile, his brother occupied what was termed "the great shop on the causeway," though it was only a humble place of business; and to this brother, Samuel, who was his junior by fifteen years, was bound apprentice. Being very little of his age, and withal not very strong, he failed to give satisfaction to his brother, who accordingly gave him notice to leave "for want of ability." With much anxiety and many fears, he applied to a Mr. B. in Bristol, who had a vacancy, and his biographer graphically sketches what occurred on the interview:-"I fear you are not strong enough for my situation."-" O, do try me, sir, I am sure I can do."-" Will you write your address? Not being quite certain what the word "address" might mean, he replied, "I can write an invoice, sir."-"Very well; write 86 lbs. of bacon at 9d. per lb."-He wrote, but the reckoning was wrong. He tried second time, but again failed. His heart sank. Then, in came young man looking for the situation, taller, better dressed, and in every way more eligible in appearance than he, At him he looked

"

The childhood of Samuel Budgett had its perils. On one occasion he was hardly rescued from drowning in a tan-pit. On another, he had an equally singular escape, on this wise: a laden cart, drawn by three horses, was moving onwards, when Samuel, who was then between five and six years of age, ran before the wheels, and falling on his back, the broad wheel passed over the top of his right thigh, across his body, and over his left shoulder, grazing his chin, and leaving a mark which became indelible.

""

In 1801, the family removed to Kingswood, where, he remembered, that his father and mother took a shop which was termed "the great shop on the causeway.' Two years after, this shop was left in the hands of a brother, many years older than he was, and the son of another mother; his parents then opened a small general shop at Coleford.

But, what of his education, it will be asked? On this point, Samuel Budgett says: "We went to school to a Mrs. Stone, at the Yew-tree, whose usual mode of punishment was to put us in the corner with her husband's long speckled worsted stocking drawn over our heads, and the foot hanging over our faces, either for a long or a short time, according to the nature of our offence. This degradation I had twice to submit to : once for picking up an apple under the tree, and the other time for washing my shoe in her pan

of clean water."

We are here told of the dame's mode of exercising discipline, but as to that of her teaching, we are left quite in the dark; it is natural, however, to suppose, that there was more punishment than progress, Fore laziness than learning. Of his next instructor, he

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that

with despair; against such a rival he could have no hope. Mrs. B. and not at Waterloo; but it was on the plains of south Brabant, was present, and observing the excitement of the poor boy, said a word in his favour. "But he is not strong enough; you could never carry those heavy cheeses," pointing to some high upon the the shelves."Do let me try, sir; I am sure I can do it." In a second, he was up to the cheeses, and triumphantly displayed his strength. His feelings were always highly excitable, and on an occasion so urgent, they rose to a nervous intensity. This, with his whole spirit, quite won Mrs. B. She pleaded for him; her husband consented; and he left the shop happy in the knowledge that, when his month was ended, he had a place awaiting him.

He now set out for Coleford, accompanied by a younger brother, an apprentice in Bristol. And what was, at this time, uppermost in his thoughts? His failure in rightly reckoning the pounds of bacon at Mr. B.'s. As, therefore, his brother had received a better education than he had, he availed himself of the opportunity presented by the journey, to improve himself in arithmetic, and went on calculating the amounts of pounds of bacon, and butter, and various other things, long after his brother was tired of such exercises in ready reckoning.

All this was strangely characteristic. Eager had he been for the acquisition of knowledge; and that he continued to be so, is evident from the following fragment from his pen of a later date :"My time is flown, and I am what I am, instead of being what I might have been. My object, now, is to regain, as far as possible, what I have lost, and to obtain all that is attainable. My question now is, how shall I become what I may be? Shall I not do better, as I am single, to remain so for the present, and to keep my eye singly directed to the attainment of religious and useful knowledge? O wisdom! O knowledge! The very expressions convey ideas so delightful to my mind that I am ready to leap out and fly; for why should my ideas always be confined within the narrow compass of our shop walls."

But we anticipate. After Samuel had been with Mr. B. about six months, his brother "in the causeway" told him it was his duty to serve out his time; he therefore proceeded to do so, though his employer gave him up with evident reluctance. On the expiration of his apprenticeship, he engaged with his brother at a salary; and at the end of three years, he had saved out of it three hundred pounds. But now came another act of self-denial. The first thirty pounds which he saved he gave to his parents. Some time afterwards, his whole store amounted to fifteen shillings, and this he freely bestowed on his sisters. Now master of so much, and seeing that though his brother's regular business was thriving, he was in difficulty from a banking speculation, Samuel begged his acceptceptance of all he had.

Not long after this evidence of his generosity he became a partner with his brother; he soon greatly extended the business, and at length became the head of the house as a "General Provision Merchant." Most skilful, energetic, and persevering in this character, he was exceedingly considerate and generous towards the numerous people he employed, and munificent in his public charities. He died in May, 1851, leaving behind him as a motto on which he invariably acted, and which he considered essential to success in business, the following words:

"TACT,-ENTERPRISE,-PRINCIPLE."

[We have been asked already to explain the word tact; and we are likely to be asked again. We shall therefore take this occasion to explain the whole three words, tact, enterprise, principle.

The word tact originally signifies touch; and as the whole body is the organ of touch, so when applied metaphorically to the operations of mind, the term tact implies that the whole soul is alive to those proceedings in business which are touching or are likely to touch the profit of the merchant. But it implies more than this: it implies immediate action, according to the necessity of the case; it implies a correct and instantaneous judgment, and a prompt and decisive putting of it into execution. In short, tact means the doing of the right thing, at the right time, without one moment's delay. We have had many brilliant examples of tact and the want of tact in public men in modern times. The character of Wellington as a general may be summed up in the single word tact. The secret of his great success was not, as many persons have foolishly supposed, his good fortune or his great luck, but his remarkable tact, visible in the history of his campaigns in the Peninsular or elsewhere. On the other hand, the ruin of Napoleon the great, Emperor of France, and subjugator of Europe, was the want of tact on many occasions, and especially in his attempt on Moscow. "Twas there that he fell,

"He left a name, at which the world grew pale,
To point a moral, or adorn a tale."

As a statesman, the secret of Sir Robert Peel's popularity was his tact; and the changes which have frequently taken place in the administration of this country, can only be attributed to the want of tact in the leading men of the ministry.

When tact has performed its duty, then enterprise ought to follow as a matter of course. Enterprise means the undertaking of some bold course of action under the reasonable expectation of success, and the actual accomplishment of the same. In actual business, this quality of mind is termed pushing; thus we say of an active and energetic man of busines, that he is a pushing fellow, and that if any one will succeed, he will. Enterprise, however, is not speculation; there are many persons who mistake a speculating spirit for an enterprising spirit. Many speculations turn out successful, but such do not constitute enterprise. A speculation has no proper grounds for its proceedings; no reasonable prospect of success in its result; no tact has been displayed in getting it up; and no experience has been employed in its management and operations. An enterprise, on the contrary, has most advantageous and safe grounds for its commencement; the most reasonable expectation of its accomplishment; the best application of tact has been exhibited in its arrangements; and the dictates of experience are visible in all its transactions. Without enterprise, the world would stand still; with speculation, it would go to ruin.

Principle is the next important quality in a man of business, a statesman, or a public instructor. Principle is only another term for downright honesty in all our transactions. This has been admired in all ages; it is the unalterable foundation of all mercantile success. It is the standard characteristic of the British merchant. Without it, the walls of the Royal Exchange would fall down, the doors of the Bank of England would be broken open, and the port of London would become a waste and howling wilderness. The necessity of principle in the every-day business of life is set forth in several trite and well-known, but expressive proverbs, such as the following: "Honesty is the best policy,' ," "Honesty stands the longest," "Steal a penny, steal a pound," "Dishonest in little, dishonest in much,' &c. Principle will be seen like a vein of silver in a seam of coal, running through the whole of a man's character and transactions; all the particulars of his character, and all the nature of his business, we may not be acquainted with, but principle will peep out very clearly in the smallest transaction, and will enable you to judge of all the rest. We do not pretend to be particularly skilful in physiognomy, but we think we can after a few interviews, and even sometimes at a glance, tell what we think is our opinion of a man's principle, and we have rarely been deceived. There are some people who cannot look you straight in the face, and who have no defect of vision, who always look down, or up, or sideways, or at something else, when you are speaking to them, beware of such characters. There are other people who boldly stare you in the face, who do not care if they should put you out of countenance, and who even seem to wish to do so by their effrontery; beware of such characters also. Again there are a third class who receive you with the mildest and blandest countenance you ever saw, and with the politest and softest tongue you ever heard; of these characters we say also beware. Honesty or principle needs no such appearances. Dishonesty may be concealed under pretended modesty or shamefacedness; it may be concealed under a proud, haughty, and overbearing demeanour; and it may be concealed under the greatest show of politeness and gentleness of manners. One or two actual transactions in business, however, will soon reveal the true character, and will show that we are correct in our observations.]

LESSONS IN GERMAN.-No. XXVIII.
SECTION LIII.

VERBS REQUIRING TWO ACCUSATIVES; ALSO THOSE GOVERN

ING THE ACCUSATIVE WITH THE DATIVE.

Several verbs in German, as in English, govern two accusatives. Ex.: Er lehrt mich die deutsche Sprache, he teaches me the German language. Gott nannte das Licht Tag, und die Fin sternis Nacht, God called the light day, and the darkness night"

Man nennt ihn nur den guten Walther, (Pfeffel), they call him only the good Walter. (§ 132. 2.)

Verbs signifying to compare, to give, to take away, &c., govern the accusative and the dative. ($ 129. 1.) Ex.: Nimm dir wieder einen Sprachmeister, take to thee again a languagemaster. Wem soll ich dich vergleichen? to whom shall I liken thee? Die Feinde nahmen ihm Alles, the enemy took from him all (every thing).

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EXERCISE 57. Absicht, f. view, inten- Lehre, f. instruction, Taufen, to christen, tion; lesson; baptize; Achtung, f. esteem, Le'bensgeschichte, f. hisrespect; tory of life; An'denten, n. remem- Liebevoll, affectionate

brance, keep-sake; ly;
An'vertrauen, to con- Mehrmals, at several
fide to ;
times;
Bescheiden,
conside- Mishan'teln, to mis-
rate;
use, ill-treat;
Beweis, m. testimony; Neugierte, f. curiosi
De'müthig, humble; ty;
Empörer, m. rebel; Prinzess'inf. princess;
Gryro'ben, to prove;
Reichen, to reach,
Geheim'niß, n. secret ;
extend;
traitor;
Geisel, f. scourge;
Schelten, to scold, Verschwiegenheit, f. se-
Heuchler, m.hypocrite, chide;
crecy, discretion;
dissembler; Schimpfen, to disgrace, Versöhnung, f. recon-
Hun'nenkönig, m. king (to call names); ciliation;
of the Huns;
Schöhnheit, f. beauty; Vorzug, m. preference;
Klar, clear;
Telemach, Telemachus; Weigern, to decline.
Herr, lehre mich deinen Weg.
Er nannte ihn seinen lieben Sohn.
Man (Sect. 26. 4.) heißt ihn den
Vater der Waisen und den Tröster
ter Wittwen.

Den Feigling schimpft man einen
Hasen

Er giebt sich viele Mühe um dich.
(Gellert.)

SECTION LIV.

PREPOSITIONS REQUIRING THE GENITIVE.

The prepositions, mittelst, oberhalb, ungeachtet, vermittelft, vermöge, &c., ($ 109. § 110.) govern the genitive. Ex.: Oberhalb der neuen Brücke ist der Fluß breit und tief; above the new bridge the river is broad and deep. Aller Mühe ungeachtet gelang es nicht; notwithstanding all the pains it did not succeed. Mittelst seines Beistantes Treue, f. fidelity; sezten wir es durch; by means of his assistance we carried it through Tyrann, m. tyrant; (achieved the design). Das kannst du, vermöge deines Verstantes, Uebereinstimmen, to ac- begreifen; that canst thou, by dint of thy understandig, comcord, to corres-prehend. Vermittelft Uebergabe kam tie Stadt in Feindes Hände; pond; by means of surrender, the town came into (the) enemy's hands. Ueberfluß, m. super- Vermöge seines Versprechens mußte er kommen; in consequence of abundance; his promise, he was obliged to come. Vergan'genheit, f. time past, things past; Verleihen, to endow, to bestow; Verräther, m. betrayer,

Teach me thy way, O Lord.
He called him his beloved Son.
They call him the father of the
orphan, and the comforter of
the widow.

They call a coward a hare.

He gives himself much trouble

principles, which do not correspond with my inclinations. 10. The "Popular Educator" teaches the English, French, and Ger man languages in the easiest manner.

Amt, n. office, charge;
Aengstlich, anxious:
Ausserhalb, without,
out of, beyond;
Besorgt', solicitous;
Bleich, pale;
Diesseit, on this side;
Empfehlen, to recom-
mend;
Erlaubniß, f. permis-
sion;
Galben, or halber, for
Gallier, Gauls;
the sake of, on ac-
count of;
Herrschen, to reign,
prevail;
3n'nere, inner, inter-
Hunger, m. hunger;

EXERCISE 58. Jenfeit, beyond, on the other side; Kraft, by virtue of; Kreuz, n. cross; Landhaus, n. countryseat;

Un'terhalb, below, at the lower end; Unterstüg'en, to support, assist; Unweit, not far off; Verbet', n. prohibition; Verhaften, to arrest; Vermittelst, by means consequence of; of, (See mittelst); Mittelst, by means of; Vermöge, by means Oberhalb, above, at of, (See above); Pappel, f. poplar; the upper part of; Verzweiflung, f. desThal, n. vale, valley; Trog, in defiance of, in spite of; Ueberzeugung, f. conviction;

pair, despondency; Wegen, on account of, by reason of; Bufolge, in pursuance of, in consequence of;

3urud kehren, to

Umher'gehen, to go
about;
turn;
Un'geachtet, notwith- 3usage, f. promise,
standing;
word;

Längs, along;
Laut, according to, in

re

Gieb mir immer den erquid'enden Trost, daß ich dich bald freudiger wie'dersehen werde. (Weiße.)

Dir ein Bild find fie gegeben.

(Schiller.)

about you.
Give me still the refreshing con-
solation, that I shall soon
see you more joyful again.
To thee are they given (as) a

picture.

1. Den Fürsten, der sein Volk mishandelt, nennt man einen Tyrannen. 2. Er frägt mich um Dinge, die ich ihm nicht nennen kann. 3. Schilt mich was (Sect. 70. I.) du willst, nur keinen Verräther. 4. Diejenigen Leute muß man Heuchler schimpfen, die schön reden und schlecht handeln. 5. Man hat die Prinzessin Louise getauft. 6. Ich fragte ihn dieses nicht aus Neugierde. 7. Attila, ein Hunnenkönig, nannte sich eine Geißel Gottes. 8 Ich nenne den einen Freund, der mich nicht auf meine Vorzüge, sondern auf meine Fehler liebevoll aufmerksam macht. 9. Er heißt Alles Feinde und Empörer, was nicht mit ihm ist. 10. Der Lehrer schalt den Schüler einen faulen Knaben. 11. Ich fragte ihn vergebens seinen Namen. 12. Ich verdiene nicht, daß mich das Volk einen Verräther nennt. 13. Ich gebe Ihnen dieses Andenken zum Beweise meiner Liebe und Achtung. 14. Wie gern verzeihen Eltern ihren Kindern die begangenen Fehler, wenn jene die selben herzlich bereuen. 15. Er erzählte mir mehrmals seine Lebensgeschichte. 16. Sie vergaben mir mein Unrecht und reichten mir die Hände zum Beweise ihrer Versöhnung. 17. Wohl dem Menschen, dem die Natur einen gefunden Geist und einen klaren Verstand verlich, aber doch wohler dem, welchem sie ein demüthiges und bescheidenes Herz schenkte.

1. Mentor taught Telemachus the art of governing. 2. They will teach him this language. 3. The time past gives to men the best instruction for the future. 4. In his last letter he wrote to me the following news. 5. The rich should contribute a little from their superabundance with pleasure to the poor. 6. He showed me the beauty of nature. 7. I trusted him with the secret with the intention to prove his discretion and fidelity. 8. Görgey is called a betrayer of his country by his own people. 9. He chides me with being a fool, as I declined to follow those

nal;

In'nerhalb, within;

Der politische Flüchtling irrt außer.

halb seines Va’terlandes umher'.

Laut eines kaiserlichen Befehls'
mußten die Bürger ihre Waffen
ab'geben.

Während des sie benjährigen Krieges
belagerte Friedrich II. die Stadt
Prag.

Wegen seines gesell'igen und mun'.
teren Betra'gens liebte man ihn.

The political fugitive wanders
about beyond the limits of
his native country.
In consequence of an imperial
command the citizens were
forced to give up their arms.
During the seven years' war
Frederic II. besieged the city
On account of his social and
(of) Prague ($ 123. 6.)
cheerful deportment they
loved him.

1. Kinder dürfen, ohne Erlaubniß ihrer Eltern, nicht außerhalb des Hauses umhergehen. 2. Diesseit des Flusses steht ein schönes Landhaus, 3. Des Vaters halber ist die ängstliche Mutter besorgt. 4. Innerhalb der Stadt herrschte Hunger und Verzweiflung. 5. Jenseit des Berges ist ein schönes Thal. 6. Kraft seines Amtes verhaftete er den Dieb. 7. Bant seiner inneren Ueberzeugung sprach er diese Worte. 8. Längs des Stremes stehen viele Pappeln. 9. Mittelst eines Briefes empfahl er ihn. 10. Vermittelst eines guten Freundes kam er in dieses Haus. 11. Oberhalb der Stadt sieht ein Kreuz. 12. Anstatt des Kaffee's trinkt er Wasser. 13. Troß des starken Regens geht er spazieren (Sect. 65.). 14. Unterhall dieses Dorfes liegt eine schöne Wiese. 15. Ungeachtet des Verbotes seines Vaters besuchte er das Theater. 16. Unweit dieses Waldes sah ich einen großen Vogel. 17. Vermöge seines Reichthumes kann er tie Armen un terstüßen. 18. Während der lezten Zeit sah er sehr bleich aus. 19 Wegen des Krieges flichen die reichen Einwohner. 23. Dieser Zusage zufolge kehrte er zurück.

1. He did it in spite of his relations. 2. I found myself quite happy beneath the humble roof of that countryman.

3. Everything below the sun is subject to change. 4. What in No. 25 of the POPULAR EDUCATOR, concerning the Socratic had you for desert besides melons and grapes. 5. The poor method of disputing. If he will peruse the paragraph again, with emigrants hope to live better on the other side of the ocean. a little more care than he seems to have done, he will find that 6. He persevered in spite of all opposition. 7. The Gauls he has mistaken its meaning, and that I have passed no opinion directed their toilsome march along the sea shore. 8. It is favourably of the merits of an English grammar, which, I have on the subject. The object of the communication was, to speak beneath the indignation of an honest man. 9. Greenwich since ascertained, was written by the celebrated Sir Richard Steele, is within five miles of London. 10. He ought to be spared one of the contributors to the "Spectator." The only remark I on account of his age. 11. He is a nobleman by right of his made, was an expression of my dissatisfaction with "the manner birth. and the matter of the example" given as an illustration of the Socratic SECTION LV method of disputing,-that example, in my opinion, not being calculated to give a favourable impression of the merits of the Socratic system in investigating and discovering the truth. The subject discussed in the example is, "the efficacy of the Divine Providence," a question arising out of that problem which has puzzled-and which will continue to puzzleall finite intelligence from the beginning till the end of time, viz., how the free will of the creature can co-exist with the eternal and immutable purposes of Him who is infinite in power, and excellent in working. In spiritual; the ways of God are considered as like the ways of man; the progress of discussion, material things and ideas are compared with infinity is attempted to be measured and grasped by a finite and very limited understanding; and the result is as futile as it is unsatisfactory. Observe, hitherto I have given no opinion of the Socratic method, and I examine the subject. I am, however, inclined to agree with your correhave, at present, neither the inclination nor the opportunity thoroughly to spondent, when he states that he considers "the Socratic method MOST ADMIRABLY suited for the purpose of coufuting or silencing an opponent;" but whether confuting an opponent is investigating truth, may reasonably be doubted. No mere man dare, and no sober-minded man will say, with one of old, "I am the truth." If the question as to the value of this method in ascertaining truth might be settled by an argumentum ad auctoritatem, I would scarcely venture to stake the opinion of John Scott, who is so enamoured of the method, against the experience and sagacity of Benjamin Franklin, who, we are informed by his biographer in No. 17, vol. 1, of the POPULAR EDUCATOR, Soon "discontinued it, considering it less adapted to inform or convince than to gain a triumph."

The rules and explanations of the Socratic method I need not give, as Four correspondent has given their substance and meaning with tolerable accuracy. They are, however, a little more plainly and far more plausibly expressed in the work alluded to. In conclusion, I would remark, that however useful and necessary an acquaintance with the rules of logic may be, the habitual cultivation of the reflective and reason. ing powers is of much more value and importance. A man who can think for himself, will not likely be led astray by the arguments of sophists, either political or religious, however specious they at first sight may appear. Yours, &c, JAMES ADAMSON.

St. Martin's, 22nd Nov., 1852.

PREPOSITIONS REQUIRING THE DATIVE.

The prepositions, entgegen, gemäß, nebst, seit, &c., (§ 111. § 112.) govern the dative. Ex.: Dem Strome entgegen schwimmen ist nicht leicht; to swim against the stream is not easy. Er erzählt die Sache der Wahrheit gemap; he relates the affair conformably to the truth. Er, nebst seinen beiden Söhnen, ist in Amerika; he, together with both his sons, is in America. Seit dem Lage, daß er seine Heimath verließ, ist alle Freude von ihm gewichen; since the day that he left his country, (home) all gladness has forsaken him. EXERCISE 59. Auflösung f. dissolu- Fordern, to demand, Rütli, n. Rütli (amouncall for ; tain in Switzerland); Gegenü'bersizen, to sit Sammt, altogether; over opposite; Scene, f. scene; Außer, except, out Gemäß', conformably Verabredung, f agreeside; Bogen, m. bow; Gartha'go, Carthage; Entgegengehen, to go

tion; Auf'schauen to look up;

m. con

to;
India'ner, m. Indian;
Jagt, f. hunt, chase;
Kampf, m. battle;
Meh'rere, several;
Nadt, naked, bare;
Nebst, together with;
Oberst, m. colonel;
Pfeil, m. arrow;
Römisch, Roman;

ment;
Verbüntete,
federate, ally;
Verlie'ren, to lose ;
Zunächst', next to;
Zusammenkommen, to
come together;
Zuwider, contrary to,
(i. e disagreeable).

to meet; Entge'genrücken, to approach toward; Grst, first; Fall, m. fall;

Verge'bens suchte er sich diese trüben
Gedanken aus dem Sinne zu
schlagen.

Bei diesem Kampfe erwar'ben un'
sere Waffen wenig Ehre.
Von allen Bäumen zieht die Eiche

am liebsten den Vlis an.
Mit dem Versprechen ist das Halten
verbunden.
1. Aus diesem Grunde verließ ich mein Vaterland. 2. Außer dem
nackten Leben hatte er nicht gerettet. 3. Bei dem Kampfe verloren mehrere
Soldaten ihr Leben. 4. Unsere Truppen rückten dem Feinde entgegen.
5. Dem Freunde gegenüber faß der Prediger. 6. Der Verabredung gemäß
kamen die Verbündeten in der Nacht auf dem Rütli zusammen. 7. Nach
dem Falle Carthago's ging das römische Reich seiner Auflösung immer
mehr entgegen. 8. Nächst dem General kommt der Oberst. 9. Ich habe
Herrn N., nebst seinen Kindern, zum Essen eingeladen. 10. Wir werden
Sie in den ersten Tagen sammt unserem Freunte besuchen. 11. Mit dem
Pfeil und Bogen geht der Indianer auf die Jagd. 12. Seit dem dreißig
jährigen Kriege hat es nicht ähnliche Scenen gegeben. 13. Von mir dürfen
Sie Alles fordern. 14. Zu dem Himmel ausschauend gab der Kranke seinen
Geist auf. 15. Ihm zunächst stand der König. 16. Das Gesicht dieses
Menschen ist mir zuwider.

In vain he sought to drive these
gloomy thoughts from the
mind.

At this battle, our arms acquired

little honour.

Of all trees, the oak the most
readily attracts the lightning.
With the promising the per-
forming is connected.

LITERARY NOTICES.

&c.-A magnificent PORTRAIT of this celebrated and talented lady is
MRS. HARRIET BEECHER STOWE, AUTHORESS OF "UNCLE TOM'S CABIN,"
given in the ILLUSTRATED EXHIBITOR AND MAGAZINE OF ART, for the
of Mrs. H. Beecher Stowe in furnishing him with her portrait, and thus
present week.
John Cassell feels highly honoured by the kindness
enabling him to present to the British public a striking likeness, engraved in
EXHIBITOR AND MAGAZINE OF ART is published in Weekly Numbers, price
the first style of art, in a cheap and popular form. The ILLUSTRATED
Twopence each. A new and improved Series, under the title of the ILLUS-
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Number will contain a fine Engraving worked on Plate Paper; and with
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AHT.

THE ALTAR OF THE HOUSEHOLD; or, DOMESTIC WORSHIP. Part I. will be published on the 1st of January, 1853, price ls. This work will con1. I am going on, according to my former custom. 2. My tain a Series of Services for the Family, adapted for every morning and even. friend went against my enemy. 3. Opposite me sat my mothering throughout the year, viz., portions of Scripture, Prayers and Thanksby the side of my uncle. 4. I rode across the park. 5. He tical comments to explain the subjects read, or enforce the duties enjoined. givings, suitably adapted to each other, to which will be added short pracis inquiring after my sister. 6. Since I was there, I have heard This work will be edited by the Rev. Dr. Harris, Principal of New College, nothing more about the affair. 7. I have not seen him since assisted by a band of eminent divines in London and the country. yesterday. 8. I have sent the letter to his house. 9. He went out of the room. 10. I was with my brother. 11. This is against the law.

CORRESPONDENCE.

[We entirely agree with our correspondent in his concluding remarks, and we recommed them strongly to the attention of our readers. We can admit no more discussion on the Socratic method.]

SOCRATIC METHOD.

SIR,-In No. 34 of your excellent periodical, I observe a letter, signed John Scott, in which he takes exception to a remark of mine, printed

First Six, and the Eleventh and Twelfth Books of Euclid. Edited by Robert
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ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS.

R. TAYLOR (Cardiff): We must defer his question until a suitable Op portunity.-B. C., L. M., and F. SHAW (Dudley), will soon be gratified.-1. SANDERSON (Galashiels) is too inquisitive; he asks more than we have decided upon ourselves.-DISCIPULUS wishes to become familiar with some important work, containing rules for the pronunciation of the English language; the most important, in our estimation, is a pronouncing dictionary; say Smart's, Walker's do.-E.G.: We really do not know what he wants; we are quite in the dark.

INCONSTANCY is like hundreds of his fellow creatures; he must learn to take things coolly, and he will be sure to succeed; remember the advice, "in your patience possess ye your souls."-SIMON ARGUS: 1. We advise him to write to Victoria College, Jersey, at once, for the information he wants. 2. We do not know. 3. Dr. Thomson says Pa-na-ma' and Ni-ag'-ara. 4. We do not know.-J. D. (Basingstoke): Algebra is promised. The best edition of the P. E. is bound in cloth for 1s. 6d.-Q. V. Z.; Ilis exercises in composition require considerable amendment both in the inditing and the #pelling.-M. E. S. (St. Austell) is wrong to discontinue; let her persevere; and let her try to find a friend who knows better than herself to assist her a little.

G. SIMPSON (LOW Tory), and ALPHA: Received.-JUNIOR CLERK: See vol. 1., p. 288, col. 2, line 49.-R. M. (Aberdeen): Study mathematics and chemistry.-J. ATTENDRO (Loughbro'): Mathematics is absolutely necessary for astronomy in its noblest and highest view: see Sir John Herschell's observations in his introductory chapter of the volume on this science in the "Cabinet Cyclopædia."-J. R. BARTON (Bankside): See Literary Notices. -GARRULA (Wortley): 1. The explanations you require will be given. 2. the History of Scotland is completed in 2 vols. 3. The works you mention are good; to them you may add Graham's English Composition" and Bell's "Elocution." 4. Thomson's or Young's Algebra. 5. Make yourself master of English Grammar, and of the subject you wish to speak on, and your labours will be crowned with success.

R. C. (Guyzance) should consider how many persons there are, even in Northumberland, who cannot write, and who are thankful for the copy-heads; and he should remember the apostolic advice, we that are strong ought to bear with the weak, and not to please ourselves.-G. HARRISON (Worthing): Very soon.-J. ADAMSON (St. Martin's): The principle of squaring a number is well known; see vol. I., p. 121, col. 2, line 18.-R. W. (Bingley): Under consideration.-J. 8. (Woodhall Colliery): Right.-J. S. S. (Barnstaple): We really do not know.-C. K. Y. Z.: His question is a good one; but it will be explained under astronomy.ARCHIMEDES (Newcastle): See our Literary Notices.-CORAZZA (London): In gutta percha, the ch is pronounced like ch in church.-X. Y. Z. (London): Thanks for his hints.-JUVENIS VERITAS (Whitehall): We really cannot advise him. Phonographers assert that the fastest speaker can be followed.-J. C. (Caston Pewsey): Right.-S. A. JONES (Southport): His proposal is very ingenious, and among the best of the kind we have seen; but we fear that it would not work well without general superintendence, and this could not be done withou: expense. CUNCTATOR: We beg humbly to differ from him.-SHEERNESS: See Literary Notices.-S. EMSLEY (Sheffield): We cannot tell.-A STUDENT (Bradford): As is often used in England for has, but the words are very different has is the third person singular of the present indicative of the verb to havethus, I have, thou hast, he has; as is a conjunction used in sentences of comparison-thus, "as he is so are we in this world."

LATIN.-Let SARAH BRADLEY begin to study Dr. Beard's Lessons on English; she will find her difficulties solved in due time. One who has her talents would find much light accrue from the study of Latin.-JUVENIS: Passive verbs have no object.-J. S.: The participal future in rus with verbs in the past tense is Englished by might, would, or should.-A Poon SCHOLAR will never become a rich or a ripe one if he attempts all things at once; in due time instructions on the collocation of words in Latin sentences will be given. Meanwhile, let him correct his exercises according to the key.-AMANS LITERARUM: Keep to Dr. Beard's Lessons in this work, study also his "Latin Made Easy;" beyond these the proper book, the only one worth buying, is "Zumpt's Grammar of the Latin Language," by Schmitz, price 148. Mr. Cassell will shortly publish a first-rate Latin Dictionary at a comparatively small price; wait for this.-D. D.: The continuation of the key to Dr. Beard's Latin Lessons will appear in a week or two.

In the

SHORTHAND WRITER (Devonshire), and J. B. M., will be answered soon. -JOHN POOSON (Mossley) should study Cassell's Euclid. Logarithms will be explained.-MODESTUS (Liverpool): Wrong in the snail query; thanks for his letter.-J. M. LEATH (Ottley): Thanks for his correction. The questions already inserted must be solved before we give any more. additions made to the "Nautical Almanac," of late years, there is a treatise, we believe, on eclipses. FARMER (Gamrie): The books in common use are "Crocker's" and "Nesbit's" land-surveying.-A DEVONSHIRE BOY wishes to know are the instruments which are contained in the boxes patronised by the Society of Arts, viz., the 6s. box, and the 2s. 6d. box.-H. T. (Derbyshire): Norie's Navigation, price 168.-G. D. HACKELTON (Haverfordwest): See vol. I., p239, col. 2, line 31; and the 12th axiom of Euclid, Book L.-A FARMER'S SON (Farford) is quite right; we have not lost sight of the subject he mentions.-A. W. J. has kindly pointed out the following misprint in our Euclid: p. 29, line 13 from bottom, for A B D read A B C.-W. A. (South Molton): We recommend Whateley's Logic and Bell's Elocution for the present. See vol. I., p. 288, col. 1, line 24 from bottom. We thank him for his letter.DAWSON (Knaresborough): Right.-A TEACHER (Notts): "He leaped over the hill;" in this sentence leaped is an active verb.-AEGYPTUS (Stamford) should study Penmanship and English first. In making globes, after the paper slips containing the names are pasted on them, they are coated with a strong varnish which makes them look like glass.-R. H. N. C.: Cassell's Arithmetic is published, price ls. Colenso's is, we believe, a pretty good one. Such questions as he has proposed will appear in the P. E.-L. L. A. (Tower Yes; but we cannot say when,-CYMRAES (Llanbadarnbliged by her useful hints; they will be kept in view.

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much as he does; indeed, we hope they will do much good in the Principality. A. B. (Cardiff): We wish all the Cardiffians liked the English Lessons as His penmanship is really very good, but the nearer he comes to the courthand the better.-W. S. (Leeds): Right.-GULLIELMUS ROPER (Norwich): tionary is, we believe, in progress.-J. BLACKBURN (Preston): We don't His penmanship is not good enough for a counting-house; the Latin Dic know any receipt for strengthening and clearing the voice for singing, except attending to the general health of the system, and avoiding all intemperance. what-HABACUC will have a tolerably good notion of the French from the study of the" Lessons" and the Manual," but he will gain a more complete knowledge from the lessons in our pages.-ROBERT (Drogheda): We should be glad to insert the lessons he wishes, but we have not room for them, and we fear that they would not be generally acceptable to our subscribers.-R. CROSBIE (Basingstoke): The most useful languages for a printer to learn appear to us to be the following: English, Latin, French, Greek, German, Hebrew, Dutch, Romaic, Spanish, &c.-T. G. (Brecon): See vol. I., p. 411, col. 2, line 2 from the bottom.-JUNIUS (Stafford) must learn the original tongues first.-G. SOME (Manchester): French and German are equally in demand in business.

BAYSWATER: It is not right.-B. (Cork): We should scarcely recommend A. Murray's plan to any one. The student would require to live to the age of Methuselah who should study languages on his system; and, after all, Certainly not; his suggestion will be kept in view.-CONSTANT SUBSCRIBER his learning would only consist in words, not in ideas.-ETA (Kensington): (Southampton): If one steamer starts at 12 o'clock and sails at the rate of 16 miles per hour, and another starts at half-past 1 o'clock and sails in the same direction, at the rate of 11 miles per hou; the latter will overtake the former in 22 hours after 12 o'clock, 21 hours after it started.-THEODORK Higham Ferrers): 1. See vol. I., p. 320, col. 2, 7th line from bottom. 2. We have seen an edition of the "Latin Poets" in one vol. 8 vo, but we forget the publisher. The "Regent Classics" may be had cheap. 3. Cassell's TAS (Rutland): Your bookseller is bound to give you a perfect copy of "French Manual," price 2s.-H. C. (Theen): We do not know.-VERIthe part for June in return for the imperfect; he will not lose by it, because he has only to return it to the proper quarter. As to the question about Manetho, &c. see vol. I., p. 96, col. 1, line 6 from bottom.-J. F. L.: 1s. common edition, 1s. 6d. fine.-R. SMITH (Cardiff): As soon as possible; thanks for his letter. -METAPAN (Glasgow): It will be done. For " but and ben" say two room the second or best room, but the passage to it was through the kitchen. on a floor. In olden time, the kitchen was the first room, and the parlour Favoured visitors were admitted within, common visitors remained in the kitchen without. "But" means be-out or without; and "ben"' means be-in or within,

read, and think, and try again.-A YOUNG READER (Rochdale): RightH. WILLIAM (Chester): Fractions.-W. H. (York): Not quite right; AN ADMIRER has sent us some interesting remarks on Sir Christopher Wren, the great architect of St. Paul's Church, London; we would have inserted them at once had we known their parentage; but we think now that it will be better to include them in a biography of this eminent man.— equally correct. The pronunciation he proposes is too short for the second WORKER FOR A WIDER CIRCULATION (Darwen): Both expressions are syllable, although the emphasis be on the first.-R. M. A. (Aberdeen). Both forms are used, inclosure and inclosed, enclosure and enclosed, and both are the greatest use imaginable for simplifying and shortening calculations, and in Chalmer's abridgement of Todd's Johnson.-A. O. Z.: Decimals are of we recommend the view of them given in Cassell's Arithmetic, price ls. JOURNEYMAN GLASS CUTTER.-W. W. (Ochiltree): Many thanks for his -GEORGE COx (Thomas-street, West Bromwich) wishes the address of a His theory of fairy rings is very ingenious, but it does not meet all the cases, letter.-R. H. M. (Delph): Very well done.-JAMES WIGHTMAN (Retford): such as those found in sheep pastures, where no horses are.-T. WILLIAMS (Oldham): Thanks.-P. R. A.: Thanks for his letter.-THOMAS C-(Cork): By all means take the P. E. to America; we cannot answer your other ques tion.-J. R-N (Dublin): We cannot tell yet.-J. D. H. X.: A candle has no base, but a candlestick has.-G. HENRY G. (Bristol): How many rules in arithmetic do you want for a shilling?

recommend "Lessons in French," reprinted from the Working Man's 1. WYATT (Henley-on-Thames): For the pronunciation of the French, we Friend," and to be had from this office on the receipt of seven penDy starps.-FAINT, YET PURSUING (Dorchester): If, by "bad language" you mean incorrect English, the first point is to ascertain what is the correct English to be used instead, and then to carefully use it on all necessary occasions; if you are laughed at for your precision, never mind, a laugh you shall reap, if you faint not. Your penmanship would be improved by does not hurt those who are conscious they are doing right; in due time imitating our court-hand.-N. B. (Portsea): Exercise 3 to Prop. 20 Cassell's Euclid, is applicable to any position of the points.-NOSTOLLITI: Thanks for his suggestions.-BEAVER: Not at present-PERTINAX (Fulham): The sentence, I am informed that neither you nor I are much esteemed by him," is very bad grammar; why not say "I am informed that we are not much esteemed by him." His useful suggestions will be kept in view-JAMES WIGHTMAN (Retford): Received.-UN ECOLIER ATTENTIF (Kerry) will find all his queries answered in Cassell's " Lessons in French" above men tioned. Music will be noticed.-ARTHURUS MACDUFF: We shall be gisd to be informed of the real truth of his experience in the matter to which he refers.-HALDESA: Her inquiries shall be answered.-F. L. (Luton): His solution is curious, but does not exactly answer the requirements.-E. FARNCOMB (London): His communication will be considered.-C. RUMLEY (Bristol): The trisection of an angle is a failure; try the construction on 21 obtuse angle and you will be convinced.

ERRATA.

No. 35, p. 136, col. 2, lines 36 and 37, for 26 read 12.
Vol. II., p. 71, col. 2, line 38, for unequal read equal,
Vol. II., p. 73, col. 1, line 14, for noun read noon.

really know better than we do his own deficiences. Read Printed and Published by JOHN CASSELL, La Belle Sauvage Yard, LudgataStudy.

hill, London. December 25, 1852.

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