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BAYSWATER: It is not right.-B. (Cork): We should scarcely recommend ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS.

A. Murray's plan to any one. The student would require to live to the act of Methuselah who should study languages on his system ; and, after all

, R. TAYLOR (Cardiff): We must defer his question until a suitable op.

his learning would only consist in words, not in ideas.--ETA (Kensington): portunity.-B. C., L. M. and F. SHAW (Dudley), will soon be gratified.-1. Certainly not; his suggestion will be kept in view.-CONSTANT

SUBSCRIBER BANDERSON (Galashiels) is to inquisitive; he asks more than we have de- (Southampton): If one steamer atarts at 12 o'clock and rails at the rate of 101 important work, containing rules for the pronunciation of the English direction, at the rate of 114 miles per hou .; the latter will orertake the language; the most important in our estimation, is a pronouncing former in 224 hours after 12 o'clock, 21 hours after it started. -THEODORE diciionary; say Smart's, Walker's do.-E.G.: We really do not know what (Higham Ferrers): 1. See vol. 1., p. 320, col. 2, 7th line from bottom. 3.

We have seen an edition of the " Latin Poets" in one vol. 8vo, but we forget he wants; we are quite in the dark.

the publisher. The “Regent Classics" may be had cheap. 3. Cassell's INCONSTANOY is like hundreds of his fellow creatures; he must learn to take things coolly, and he will be sure to succeed; remember the advice, TAS (Ratland): Your bookseller is bound to give you a perfect copy of

“ French Manual," price 23.-H. c. (Theen): We do not know.-VERI. "in your patience possess ye your souls."-SIMON Argus: 1. We advise him the part

for June in return for the imperfect; he will not lose by it, because he to write to Victoria College, Jersey, at once, for the information he wants. has only to return it to the proper quarter. As to the question about Manetho. 2. We do not know. 3. Dr. Thomson says Pa-na-ma' and Ni-ag-ara. 4.

&c. see vol. I., p. 96, col. 1, line 6 from bottom.-J. F.L. : 1s. common edition, We do not know.-J. D. (Basingstoke): Algebra is promised. The best edition of the P. E. is bound in cloth for 1s. 6d.-Q. V. Z.: His exercises in -METAPAN (Glasgow): It will be done. For " but and ben" say two room

1s. 6d, fine.-R. SMITU (Cardiff): As soon as possible; thanks for his letter. composition require considerable ainendment both in the inditing and the spelling.-M. E. 8. (st. Austell) is wrong to discontinue ; let her persevere; the second or best room, but the passage to it was through the kitchen.

on a floor. In olden time, the kitchen was the first room, and the parlour and let her try to find a friend who knows better than herself to assist her a Favoured visitors were admitted within, common visitors remained in the little.

kitchen without. “ But" means be-out or without; and “ben'' means be-in G. SIMPSON (Low Tory), and ALPHA: Received.-JUNIOR CLERK: See vol. or within, 1., p. 288, col. 2, line 49.-R. M. (Aberdeen): Study mathematics and

H. WILLIAM (Chester!: Fractions.-W. H. (York): Not quite right; chemistry.-J. ATTENDRO (Loughbro'): Mathematics is absolutely necessary vations in his introductory chapter of the volume on this science in the Wren, the great architect of St. Paul's Church, London ; we would have iofor astronomy in its noblest and highest

view: see Sir John Herschell's obser- read, and think, and try again.-A Young READER (Rochdale) : Right."Cabinet Cyclopædia."-J.R. BARTON (Bankside): See Literary Notices.

serted them at once had we known their parentage; but we think now that -GARRULA (Wortley): 1. The explanations you require will be given. 2.

it will be better to include them in a biography of this eminent man.the History of Scotland is completed in 2 vols. 3. The works you mention

WORKER FOR A WIDER CIRCULATION (Darwen): Both expressions are are good ; to them you may add Graham's - English Composition” and Bell's equally correct. The pronunciation he proposes is too short for the second • Elocution." 4. Thomson's or Young's Algebra. 5. Make yourself master syllable, although the emphasis be on the first.-R. M. A. (Aberdeen). Both of English Grammar, and of the subject you wish to speak on, and your forms are used, inclosure and inclosed, enclosure and enclosed, and both are labours will be crowned with success.

in Chalmer's abridgement of Todd's Johnson.-A. 0. 2. : Decimals are of R. C. (Guyzance) should consider how many persons there are, eren in the greatest use imaginable for simplifying and shortening calculations, and Northumberland, who cannot write, and who are thankful for the copy-heads; we recommend the view of them given in Cassell's Arithmetic, price ls. and he should remember the apostolic advice, we that are strong ought to -GEORGB Cox (Thomas-street, West Bromwich) wishes the address of a bear with the weak, and not to please ourselves.-G. HARRISON ( Worthing): JOURNEYMAN GLASSCUTTER.-W. W. (Ochiltree) : Many thanks for his Very soon.-J. ADAMSON (St. Martin's): The principle of squaring a num- letter.-R. H. M. (Delph): Very well done.-JAMES W1GBTMAN ( Retford): ber is well known ; see vol. 1., p. 121, col. 2, line 18.-R. W. (Bingley) : Under His theory of fairy rings is very ingenious, but it does not meet all the cases, consideration.-J.8. (Woodhall Colliery): Right.-J. 8. $. (Barnstaple): We such as those found in sheep pastures, where no horses are.-T. WILLIAMS really do not know.–C. K. Y. Z.: His question is a good one; but it will be (Oldham): Thanky.-P. R. A.: Thanks for his letter.-Tuomas C-(Cork): explained under astronomy.-ARCHIMEDES (Newcastle): See our Literary By all means take the P. E. to America; we cannot answer your other ques. Notices.-CORAZZA (London): In gutlu percha, the ch is pronounced like ch lion.-J. R-N (Dublin): We cannot tell yet.-J. D. H. X.: A candle has in church.-X. Y. Z. (London): Thanks for his hints.-JUVENIS VERITAS no base, but a candlestick has.-G. Henri G. (Bristol): How many rules (Whitehall): We really cannot advise him. Phonographers assert that the in arithmetic do you want for a shilling ! fastest speaker can be followed.-J. C. (Caston Pewsey): Right.-8. A. 1. WYAT? Henley-on-Thames): For the pronunciation of the French, we JONES (Southport): His proposal is very ingenious, and among the best of recommend “ Lessons in French," reprinted from the “ Working Man's the kind we have seen ; but we fear that it would not work well without Friend," and to be had from this office on the receipt of seven peany general superintendence, and this could not be done withou: expen:e.-star:ps.-FAINT, YET PURSUING (Dorcheater): If, by "bad language" you CONCTATOR: We beg humbly to differ from him.-SHEERNESS : See Literary mean incorrect English, the first point is to ascertain what is the correct Notices.-8. EMSLEY (Sheffield): We cannot tell.-A STUDENT (Bradford): English to be used instead, and then to carefully use it on all necessary As is often used in England for has, but the words are very different: has occasions; if you are laughed at for your precision, never mind, a laugh is the third person singular of the present indicative of the verb to have - does not hurt those who are conscious they are doing right; in due time thus, I have, thou hast, he has; as is a conjunction used in sentences of you shall reap, if you faint not. Your penmanship would be improved by comparison-thus," as he is so are we in this world."

imitating our court-hand.-N. B. (Portsea): Exercise 3 to Prop. 20 Cassell's LATIN.-Let SARAH BRADLEY begin to study Dr. Beard's Lessons on Euclid, is applicable to any position of the points.-NoSTOLLITI: Thanks English ; she will find her difficulties solved in due time. One who has her for his suggestions.-Beaver: Not at present.-PERTINAX (Fulham): The talents would find much light accrue from the study of Latin.-JUVENIS: sentence, "I am informed that neither you nor I are much esteemed by Passive verbs have no object.-J. S.: The participal future in rus with verbs him," is very bad grammar; why not say I am informed that we are not in the past tense is Euglished by might, would, or should.-A Pooa much esteemed by him." His useful suggestions will be kept in view.-JAXES SCHOLAR will never become a rich or a ripe one if he attempts all things at WIGHTYAN (Retford): Received.-UN ECOLIER ATTENTIF (Kerry) will once; in due time instructions on the collocation of words in Latin sentences find all his queries answered in Cassell's “ Lessons in French" above menwill be given. Meanwhile, let him correct bis exercises according to the tioned. Music will be noticed.-ARTHURUS MACDUFF: We shall be glad key.-AMANS LITERARUM: Keep to Dr. Beard's Lessons in this work, study to be informed of the real truth of his experience in the matter to which be also his " La tin Made Easy ;" beyond these the proper book, the only one refers.-HALDESA : Her inquiries shall be answered.-P. L. (Luton): Hle worth buying, is “ Zumpt's Grammar of the Latin Language,” by Schmitz, solution is curious, but does not exactly answer the requirements.-E. FARNprice 148. Mr. Cassell will shortly publish a first-rate Latin Dictionary at a COMB (London): His communication will be considered.-C. RUMLET comparatively small price; wait for this.-D. D.: The continuation of the (Bristol): The trisection of an angle is a failure; try the construction on an key to Dr. Beard's Latin Lessons will appear in a week or two.

obtuse angle and you will be convinced. BHORTHAND WRITER (Devonshire), and J. B. M., will be answered soon.

A. B. (Cardiff): We wish all the Cardifians liked the English Lessons as -John Pooson (Mossley) should study Cassell's Euclid. Logarithms will much as he does; indeed, we hope they will do much good in the Principality. be explained. - MODESTUS (Liverpool): Wrong in the snail query; thanks His peninanship is really very good, but the nearer he comes to the courtfor his letter.-J. M. LEATH (Ottley): Thanks for his correction. The hand the better.-W. S. (Leeds) : Right.-GULLIELMUS ROPER (Norwich): questions already inserted must be solved before we give any more. In the His penmanship is not good enough for a counting-house; the Latin Dicadditions made to the “Nautical Almanac," of late sears, there is a treatise, tionary is, we believe, in progress.-J. BLACKBURN (Preston): We don't we believo, on eclipses.

know any receipt for strengthening and clearing the voice for singing, except FARMER (Gamrie): The books in common use are " Crocker's" and attending to the general health of the system, and avoiding all intemperance. “Nesbit's" land-surveying.-A DEVONSHIRE Boy wishes to know what -HABACUC will have a tolerably good notion of the French from the study are the instruments which are contained in the boxes patronised by the Society of the ". Lessons" and the “* Manual,” but he will gain a more complete of Arts, viz., the 6s. box, and the 2s. 6d. box.-H. T. (Derbyshire): Norie's knowledge from the lessons in our pages.-ROBERT (Drogheda): We should Navigation, price 168.-G. D. HACKELTON (Haverfordwest): See vol. I., be glad to insert the lessons he wishes, but we have not room for them, and p 239, col. 2, line 31; and the 12th axiom of Euclid, Book I.-A FARMER'S we fear that they would not be generally acceptable to our subscribers.-R. Son (Parford) is quite right; we have not lost sight of the subject he men- CROSBIB (Basingstoke): The most useful languages for a printer to learn tions.-A. W. J. has kindly pointed out the following misprint in our Euclid : appear to us to be the following: English, Latin, French, Greek, German, p. 29, line 13 from bottom, for A B D read A B C.-W.A. (South Molton): | Hebrew, Dutch, Romalc, Spanish, &c.-T. G. (Brecon): See vol. I., p. 11, We recommend Whateley's Logic and Bell's Elocution for the present. See col. 2, line 2 from the bottom.-JUNIUS (Stafford) must learn the original vol, I., p. 288, col. 1, line 24 from bottom. We thank him for his letter - tongues fisat.-G. Bome (Manchester): French and German are equally in DAWSON (Koaresborough): Right.-A TEACHER (Norts): “He leaped over demand in business. the bill ;" in this sentence leaped is an active verb.-- AEGYPTUS (Stamford)

ERRATA. should study Penmanship and English first. In making globes, after the paper slips containing the names are pasted on them, they are coated with a

No. 35, p. 136, col. 2, lines 36 and 87, for 26 read 18. strong varnish which makes them look like glass.-K. H. N. C.: Cassell's

Vol. II., p. 71, col. 2, line 38, for unequal read equal, Arithmetic is published, price 1s. Colenso's is, we believe, a pretty good one. Such questions as he has proposed will appear in the P. E.-L. L. A.

Vol. 11., p. 73, col. 1, line 14, for noun read noon. (Tower-street): Yes; but we cannot say when.-CYMRAES (Llanbadarnnwr): We feel obliged by her useful hints ; they will be kept in view.IGNORAMUS must really know better than we do his own deficiences. Read Printed and Published by JOHN CASSELL, La Belle Sauvage Yard, Ludgate Mae Philosophy of Stady.

hill, London.-December 25, 1852,

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LESSONS IN PHONETIC SHORT-HAND. No. I.

By Alex. MELVILLE BELL, F.R.S.S.A.,
Professor of Eloention and Vocal Physiology, Member of the British Phonetic Council, Author of the Principles of Speech and

Elocution"_“The Elocutionary Manual"—" Steno-phonography,” &c. In the present day, arts that economise time are of the first | articulations, namely, p-p-, and can only be distinguished importance; and especially to be esteemed are those that do so one from another either by the insertion of the appropriate vowel in connexion with intellectual pursuits. Of this nature is the marks, or by some clear indication of the relative positions of art of stenography, or short-hand writing. This study has the vowels and the articulations. By a novel principle of always possessed strong attractions for the youthful student; writing the articulations so as to show the vowel positions, and the comparatively few persons whose perseverance has without inserting vowel marks or adopting a single arbitrary given them facility in its use have ever been loudest in praise character, we are enabled to furnish a means of perfectly disof its advantages. It is emphatically an art of which may be tinguishing all such words in their “articulate skeleton." said, that “the more you know it, the better you will like it."

1. All the articulations (consonants) are represented by Its fascinations are less felt at the outset than on a more straight or curved lines, written—either upwards or downwards, thorough acquaintance; its difficulties are chiefly rudimental, backwards or forwards, as may be most convenient-in one o: giving way before industry with a most encouraging rapidity. other of the following directions :The benefits of short-hand writing are by no means limited to

Slanting from Up and down Slanting from

Across the page or the professional reporter: all classes of the community, literary,

left to right. or perpendicular. right to left. commercial, or mechanical, may share in the many advantages of this economiser of time and labour, this sharpener of the faculties, this hand-maid of taste and ingenuity. To none is this art of more consequence than to the working man, enabling the direction slanting from right to left; those which are formed

2. Those letters which are formed by the lips are written in him, as it does, to jot his feeting thoughts, or to treasure by the middle or back of the tongue, are written in the direction up knowledge for future reference, on scraps of paper, and in slanting from left to right; those which are formed by the point scraps of time.

of the tongue raised, are written in the direction up and down the The following system is simple in its theory, very brief even page, or perpendicularly; and those which are formed with the in its full alphabetical writing, easily written, and easily read. tongue flat (the sibilant, S and Th) are written across the pages

or horizontally. It is called phonetic (from the Greek phone, a sound) because

3. Straight lines are appropriated to those letters - called it is founded not upon letters but upon sounds; words being obstructives" -that shut the mouth and obstruct the breath spelt for writing by analyzing their pronunciation. Thus in in their formation, thus : the words debl, psalm, wright, &c., the ear recognises no 6 in

P k. the first, no p or l in the second, no w, g, or h in the third, but 4. Curved lines denote those letters-called “continuous". simply d-t, s-m, and r-. These letters, then, form what is that are formed by near approach only, or by partial contact called the “articulate skeleton" of the word, requiring but of the organs, and do not obstruct the breath in their formation, the filling in of a sign for the different vowels to complete a

thus :

th, perfect representation of the spoken word.

f. &c. The elements of speech are vowels, open throat-sounds, 5. The letters of the alphabet are of two kinds, phonetically and articulations (from the Latin articulus, a joint)-close con- considered, that is, with regard to their mode of utterance, as junctions of the various parts of the mouth. These latter are

formed of whispered breath or of sonorous voice ; the “breath" more commonly called consonants (from the Latin con and letters consisting of simple puffs or hisses of breath from the

mouth, as pos, s, &c.; and the "voice" letters, of the same sonans, sounding together) from their presumed incapacity of oral breathings, accompanied by a murmuring effort of voice being sounded without the aid of a vowel. In this work we from the throat, as b, v, z, &c. The following are all the simple shall use the term articulation in preference to consonant, the forms of articulation divided into these two classes :latter being associated with a faulty definition, and one espe

Breath Letters : F, S, Sh, Th (as in thin), Wh, Yh, P, T, K.

Voice Letters : cially at variance with the art of reading from our short-hand

V, Z, Zh, Th (as in then), W, Y, B, D, G;

L, R, M, N, ng. characters, which very often requires the "consonants” to be

6. The breath letters are represented by thin hair-stroke “ sounded alone."

lines ; and the voice letters by the same forms written comparaOf these elements of speech, articulations are the more tively_thick and heavy, thus : various in kind, the more fired in use, and the more character

P, B; T, D; K, G (hard); 8, Z; F, V; &c istic in the representation of words; and vowels are the more fluctuating in dialects, and the less dis'inctive, either as sounds or as etymological signs. In short-hand writing, therefore, more attention is paid to the former than to the latter class of the mouth in the same obsiructive positions as for B, D, G, while

7. The letters M, N, ng (called “ nasals"), are formed with elements. Indeed, to one who writes or reads a language with the the voice from the throat issues freely through the nose. phraseology of which he is familiar, the insertion of vowels 8. The nasal passage of the breath is indicated by a small may be, to a very great degree, dispensed with, if care be taken ring, which aptly represents a nostril; and to this a very short merely to indicate where vowels do, and where they do not, straight line is added to denote the obstructive position of the

mouth, thus : occur. This has been attained, hitherto, in short-hand, only by the use of vowel points or dots, the omission of which was

M, (formed as B) fatal to perspicuity, often rendering the MS. altogether unin. telligible even to the writer himself. The reason of this will

N, (formed as D) P be evident when it is considered that such words as part, prate,

ng, (formed as G hard) parrot, apart, upright, and operate, all contain the very same VOL. JI,

40

S,

sh,

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9. In writing the ring letters, always begin with the ring : the vowels; as the articulations themselves show with absolute tail may be turned either upwards or downwards, provided accuracy where vowels do, and where they do not occur. A principle that it stands in the required direction, thus:

of extraordinary brevity and perspicuity is thus inherent in the system, without the use of a single arbitrary character. In

order to decipher the writing, the reader has merely to name M may be either y dort

the letters on the principle of pronunciation explained above, N

and in so doing he will articulate the words. 9. pd be

16. The following examples will at the same time test and

illustrate the application of this principle : ng i

Analysis. Koy.

Analysis. Key. 10. The simple aspiration H, is represented by a thin horizontal straight line ; and the English vowel, R, as in poor, firın, her, &c. is denoted by a relatively thick and dark hori.

p-ur-t part

p-l-ut plats zontal straight line, thus : -R.

p-ur-ut parrot

p-ul-t pell 11. The following is a complete scheme of the English artieulations (or consonants) arranged so as to illustrate the

P-r-ut prate foregoing principles :

p-ul-ut Back of Tongue,

palate Point of Tongue.

Lips.

up-r-ut. upright

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thus: “P,'

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ut-sh-ur elchor up-ur-t-un-d apper

tained
th th h rt
(in thin) (in then.)

17. The ring letters, when no vowel precedes them, are represented by the ring alone.

18. The ring is placed on the convex side of curve lines for fri, 12. In the notation of speech, the characters, as shown in and on the concave side for ^ * without preceding vowel, he above table, alimply a preceding vowel. They are to be nained, or pronounced, not pee, tee, kay," &c., but " ир,

Analysis.

Analysis. Key. ut, uk; ub, ud, ug; um, un, ung,&c.; uttering a vowel before them. 13. When no vowel precedes the articulations, the characters

m-ul-t

nice are written only half size, or as small as possible. They are then to be named, or pronounced without any vowel sound, and simply

r-uth-m rhythm ," "t," "k” (a puff of breath from the lips, the point

n-ul-t

kuelt of the tongue, or the back of the tongue): “b," “d," "g”

heathen (the same pu t/s from the mouth, peceded by a murmur of the voice

Wh-uth.n from the throat): “m," “n," ' ng” (a vocal sound through

m-ur-o

h-us-n haston the nose, while the mouth is in the position for b, d, or g), &c. &c.

h-ul-m helm

n.ur-o 14, S, without preceding vowel, is contracted to a mere kook written in any direction, upwards or downwards, back

m-ush

mesh

f-ul-n wards, or forwards, thus :

fallen Analysis. Key. Analysis. Key.

n-ush

Gnash s-ut-s sits

19. The ring, written very small, is placed on the right s-us-p-uk-t-s suspects

side of ring letters for m, and on the left for n, without pres-p-uk-s speaks

ceding vowel, thus :
s-ul-d-um seldom
Analysis. Key.

Analysis. Кеу t-uk-st-s texts

s-w-un-d-1 swindle
8

m-ung-gal mingle 15. The above principle of notation enables the short-hand

maim

m-um-b-ur meinór writer to dispense with vowel marks—except for final or double

P • G soft, , is a compound articulation (see paragrah 25),

number

Ľ n-um-b-ur +R initial should always be written perpendicularly, and R final, horizontally.

op In other situations, the forms may be used indiscriminately. In the combmasions pr, tr, cr, fr. &c., the horizontal is preferable to the perpendicular R, on ccount of its easier formation and legibility:

The third nasal (ng) never occurs at the beginning of a syllable ; or || This articulation occurs only before alphabetic U, as in hue, hew, human, at the end of a syllable without a vowel preceding; therefore no similar

pia vision is required for this element,

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20. In connexion with straight lines, a loop or oval must be a boy) only a small part of them form a perfect in ui, as matuused instead of a ring for m and n without a vowel preceding. resco, maturescere, maturui, to become ripe (matúrus). 21. The loop is placed on the right or upper side of the

VOCABULARY. straight line for m, and on the left or under side for n, without

Coalesco, coalescere, coalui, coalitum, to grow together, unite, coa vowel preceding, thus :

alesce; consanesco, ui, to become sound (sanus) or healthy; convalesco, Analysis. Key.

Analysis. Key. ui, to grow well or strong (validus); defervesco, bui, to cerse fermenting,

to cool down (servidus) ; illucesco, illuxi, to become bright, to shine forth

(as the day); recrudesco, dui, to grow raw (or sore) again, to break out nout night

again (intransitive); condemnāre, to condemn, with capitis, to con

demn to death; permanāre, to flow through ; advertère, to turn to; m-ut might h-ud-n hidden

auditor, oris, m. a hearer; viscus, éris, n. (commonly in the plural,

viscera), the bowels ; adulterinus, a, um, false, adulterate; omnis, n-uk neck

@, every ; rescisco, to come to know find out ; imprudens, entis, without frut-n fatten knowing it; aborigines (ab and origo), the original natives.

EXERCISES.-LATIN-ENGLISH. m-uk make uk-mi

Crede omnem diem tibi illuxisse supremum; Socratis responso

sic judices exarserunt ut capitis hominem innocentissimam con. тар

demnarent; ratio, quum adolevit a'que perfecta est, nominatur

rite sapientia ; quaeritur si sapiens adulterinos nummos acceperit, n-up пар

h-uk-ni

hackney

imprudens pro bunis, quum id rescierit, soluturusne sit eos pro bonis;

incredibile memoratu est quam facile Romani et Aborigines coalue22. The reason that a loop rather than a ring is necessary sanet eam cupiditatem, permavat in venus et inhaeret in jsceri.

rint; quum est concupita pecunia, nec adhibi a continuo ratio, quae with straight lines is to be found in the fact before explained, bus illud malum; Endymio, nescio quando, in Latmo, Cariae that the nasals" (m, n, ng), are of the same oral formation as the monte, obdormivit, necdum est experrecrus; oratori abstinet.dum ese "obstructives" (6, 8, 9), and consequently are represented in verbis quae propter vetustatem obsoleverunt; convaluistine tanfull by a short straight line after the nasal ring ; so that a ring dem ex morbo, quo tamdiu laburnsti? illius orator s ardor animi, before a full-sized straight line would signify a full-sized nasal, qui prius omnium auditorum animos ad se advertebar rapiebatque, followed by a half-sized obstructive, thus :

jam plane deferbuit; vulnus meuin quod jam consanuisse videba. tur, nunc recruduit.

ENGLISH-LATIN. The last day has shone on thee; has the last day shone on my brother ? my father broke into anger at my foolish words; judges

should not break into anger ; belpreen the Romans and the Caris un and d, connected;

thaginians a terrible war broke out; all things have grown old with our enemies; did you take that bad money for good ? I took

it without knowing it; I have now found it out, and shall not pay is ung and k, connected ;

it for good; the Romans and the aboriginal inhabitants soon coalesced; Édymion will fall asleep on the mountain; I have

fallen asleep on the pillow; many words have grown old, many is um and p, connected. words will grow old; your ardour has cooled down (defervesco);

my ardour will not cool down; the wound has broken out afresh; my wounds have not healed; I do not know whether my father's wounds have healed.

DEVIATIONS IN THE FOURTH CONJUGATION. LESSONS IN LATIN.--No. XXXVIII.

1. Perfect in ivi and ui; Supine in tum. By John R. BEARD, D. D.

i. Sepelio, sepelire, sepelevi, sepultum, bury, inter (E. R. DEVIATIONAL VERBS.

sepulture). 8. Inchoatives.

ii. Salio, salire, salui (no supine), to leap (E. R. salient), Those verbs are called inchoatives (from the Latin inchoo; Compounds: silio, silire, silui, sultum ; as, assilio, assilire, I begin) which denote a commencerrent, or a transition from assilui, assultum, to spring at. one state into another, with special reference to the idea con

2. Perfect in i; Supine in tum. veyed by the roots from which they are severally formed; e. g.; i. Comperio, comperire, compěri, compertum, to experience, vetus is old ; accordingly the inchoative veterasco means, I grow to find by experience. or become old. Inchoatives are of the third conjugation, and ii. Reperio, reperire, repěri, repertum, to find. Apério has follow the perfect and the supine of their radical verb. aperui aperire, apertum, to open (E. R. aperture). Opěrio and

i. Inveterasco (Radical, inveterare), inveterascere, inveteravi, coopério, to cover, have rui, rtum. inveteratum, to grow old.

iii. Věnio, venire, vēni, ventum, to come. ii. Exardesco (R. ardēre), exardescere, exarsi, exarsum, to

3. Perfect in si; Supine in tum. burst into a flame, to burst into anger, break out.

i. iii. Indolesco (R. dolere), indolescere, indolui, indolitum,

Amicio, amicire (amixi and amicui, both rare), amic

tum, to clothe. to feel pain.

ii. iv. Revivisco (R. vivěre), reviviscěre, revixi, revictum, to fercio, fersi, fertum, as refercire, to stuff quite fully.

Farcio, farcire, farsi, fartum, to stuff. Compounds in live again, to revive.

iii. Fulcio, fulcire, fulsi, fultum, to prop, to support. y. Concupisco (R. cupere), concupiscère, concupivi, concu. pitum, to desire, (E. R. concupiscence).

iv. Haurio, haurire, hausi, haustum, to draw up, drink, vi. Obdormisco (R. dormire), obdormiscere, obdormivi, ob- sanctus, a, um, as an adj., holy), to consecrate, confirm.

Sancio, sancire, sanxi, sancitum (more seldom sanctum; dormitum, to fall asleep. The inchoatives of the obsolete oleo, olère, olui, to grow, are

vi, Sarcio, sarcire, sarsi, sartum, to repair, make good, replace. formed thus : adolesco, adolescere, adolēvi (adultus, as an

vii. Sepio, sepire, sepsi, septum, to hedge in. adjective, grown up, adult), to grow up; exolesco, exolescere,

viii. Vincio, vincíre, vinxi, vinctum, to bind, put into chains. exolēvi (exoletus, as an adj., grown old, worn out, antiquated), to

4. Perfect in si; Supine in sum. grow out, grow old, become obsolete ; inolesco, inolescěre, inolevi i. Sentio, sentíre, sensi, sensum, to feel, to be of opinion. (no supine), to grow upon, to add to one's growth ; obsolesco,

VOCABULARY. obsolescěre, obsolēvi, obsoletum, to grow down, become obsolete. Very many inchoatives want the perfect and the supine, as

Consentire, to agree with, consent ; dissentire, to disagree; desilire,

to leap apart, to open ; transilíre, to jump over ; exhaurire, to exhaust; augesco, io increase, from augeo, augēre, auxi, auctum. Here indagāre, to investigate ; dispellěre, to drive out, dispel; catena, ac, f. may be placed the inchoatives which are derived from substana chain; munificentia; ae, f. liberality ; documentum, i. a proof tives or adjectives, as repueras cěre, to become a boy again (puer, Idumentum, i, n. a place full of brushes; ludibrium, i, n. scaling, sport;

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parricidium, i, n. killing of a father, parricide; curatio, onis, f. healing ; 7. To hunt : explorator, óris, m. an explorer, spy ; rector, oris, m. a ruler, direcior

“Ut cervum a rdentes agerent canes."-Virgil. coetus, As, m. an assembly; afflueuter, richly; undique, on all sides ;

8. To move lifeless objects to and fro :desidero 1, to require; repres, is, m. a briar; probe, well.

" Celeriter vineis ad oppidum actis." --- Caesar, EXERCISES.-LATIN-ENGLISH.

“Simul naves in advorsum agmen agebancur."-Tacitu. Regis sepulchro haec verba inscripta sunt; probe vixit, improbos

9. To steer (with navis) :vinxii, hostes vicit; hostes victi et catenis vincti in servitutem abducti sunt; imperium justis legibus fullum esse debet; rex, " Navim agere igaarus navis timet."-Horace. pace compositâ, rempublicam labefactam suâ virtute fulsit; 'virtus 10. To drive a chariot (with currum) :difficilis iaventu est, rectorem ducemque desiderat; artes innu.

"Non agat hos currus ?' '-Ovid. merabiles repertae sunt, docente naturâ; vita, si undique referta

11. To lovy a tax or tribute (with vectigal) :bonis est, beata dicitur; homines urbes moenibus sepserunt; occultae inimicitiae magis timendae sunt quam apertae; quis

" Publicum vectigal in Asia egit."-Suetonius. est tam miser ut non Dei munificentiam sensērit? Dei, induti 12. To send forth :specie humana, fabulas poetis suppeditaverunt, hominum autem vitam

“Et spumas aget ore cruentas."-Virgil. superstitione omni referserunt; continuis bellis reipublicae spes

13. To die (with animam) :exhaustae sunt ; quo quis affluentius voluptates undique hauserit, eo gravius ardentiusque sitiet; spero te mecum consensurum esse; “Nam et agere animam et efflare dicimus." —Cicero. Cicero Archimédis st pulchrum septum undique el vestitum vepribus 14. To strike root (with radīces) :et dumetis indagavit; fama est ludibrio frairis Remum novos urbis

“Robora suas radices in profundum agunt."-Pliny. muros transiluisse ; Lycurgus nibil lege ullâ in alios sanxit, cujus non ipse primus in se ducumenta daret; Hippias gloriatus est,

15. To spring a leak, split, open (with rimas) :pallium quo amictus esset, se manu suâ confecisse ; speramus

"Tabernae rimas agunt." pacem omnia belli damna brevi sarturam esse; una victoria omuia

The meanings already given imply a literal moving of the prius accepta detrimenta sarsit; Caesar ubi per exploratores como objects spoken of. Another series of meanings arises from the përit hostes adventare, protinus milites e castris eduxit; nebula, tropical or metaphorical use of the term ; that is, where not the horâ quartå sole dispulsa, aperuit diem; Plato Athenis (at Athens) movement of sensible objects is denoted, but actions, &c., iu Academia sepultus est. ENGLISH-LATIN.

resembling those either in reality or in appearance. The king, dying, said I have lived well; I have bound bad men ;

16. To move, drive, or induce any one:I have conquered enemies; the soldier being conquered was put " Agricola in gloriam praeceps agebatur.”-Tacitus. into chains; they will be led away into slavery; he props the fall. “Agunt eum praecipitem poonae."- Cicero. ing republic; he will prop the falling house; the art of writing has 17. To pursue, persecute : been discovered; they have opened the book; my life has been with

"Acerba fata Romanos agunt."-Horace. the good; I fear hidden enemies; peace being arranged, I shall return home; happiness is difficult to be found; the husbandmen

18. To plead (with causam) :have surrounded the meadow with hedges; the plain is full of “Hanc egit causam apud judices."-Cicero. brambles and briars; the spies are aproaching; Caesar has learnt 19. To take an augury (with augurium): from the spies that the enemy are approaching; the rising sun

"Augures agere augurium dicuntur."-Varro. opens the day; they have felt the goodness of God; didst thou make thy cloak with thine own hand? I made with my own hand 20. To play (with fabulam); that is, personate a character, the cloak with which I am clothed ; the healing of the sick man Hence, a distinction between facere and agere : jspelled my fears; the captive came hither in chains; he was condeinned of parricide ; bad men are the sport of fortune (in Lat. are agit; contra, actor agit et non facit; et sic a poeta fabula fit non

“ Potest aliquid facere et non agere ; ut poeta facit fabulam et non for sport to fortune); the house of the ruler of England is richly agitur ; ab actore agitur, non fit."—Varro. filled with good things; a goud king will repair the injuries of war; the queen drank up (haurio) the cup; they bound the captive;

21. To do, to be active, to be engaged generally :they will come into the city ; will they come into thy house? “Scipio Africanus solltus est dicere nunquam se plus agere quam hope they will come into my house ; they have found by experience quum nihil ageret."- Cicero. that spies are bad men; the senate has confirmed the law; the

This is explained by another version of the anecdote :laws have been confirmed by the senate.

"Nunquam se minus otiosum esse quam quum esset otiosus."-Cicero. CONSTRUCTION AND USAGES OF AGO.

“Aliud est agendi tempus, aliud quiescendi."-Cicero. Ago is a verb used in a great variety of applications. So 22. To effect :various are these applications that they may serve to throw “ Nihil agis, dolor, quamvis sis molestus, nunquam te esse malom light on the nature of language. Ago must be well understood confitebor."-Cicero. by those who wish to be familiar with Latin.

"Metu nobis extorquere conantur; sed nihil agunt."-Cicero. Ago, agěre, egi, actum, of the third conjugation, has for its 23. To carry on, perform :radical or root-meaning the idea of setting in motion. Hence it " Delibera utrum colloqui malis, an per litteras agere, quas cogitas." is commonly given as denoting to lead, drive, act. But this is - Corn. Nepos. a very rough way of treating the subject. I will give the

24. To have in mind, consider :significations of the verb in the order in which they seem to have arisen.

“ Nescio quid mens mea majus agit."-Ovid. 1. To lead, as a shepherd :

25. To acknowledge a favour (with gratias) :" Agit, ut pastor, per devia rura capellas."-Ovid.

“Renunciate gratias regi me agere."-Livy. 2. To load, as a poem leads the mind :

26. To spend time, pass one's life, &c. :“ Poemata dulcia sunto et quocunque volent animum auditoris

“Pater cum esset infirmâ valetudine, hîc fere aetatem egit in litteris." agunto."-Horaçe.

-Cicero. 3. To drive, as men are driven out of a country :

So, agere custodias, to watch; agere triumphum, to triumph ; "Multis millibus armatorum actis ex ea regione in quam missus erat.”

res agere, to attend to business ; agere poenitentiam, to repent, - Livy.

&c. “Adulteram expellit domo maritus, ac per omnem vicum verbere “Quartum annum ago et octogesimum."- Cicero. agit.”—Tacitus.

27. To make war (with bellum): 4. With the reflective pronoun to betake yourself, in poetic “Qui longe alià ratione ac reliqui Galli bellum agere instituerunt."diction :

Caesar. "Quo agis te p'-- Plautus.

So agere pacem, to be at peace, 5. To march in the passive voice) :

28. To treat of (with de): "Si citius agi vellet agmen."- Livy.

" Recordare velim quae ego de te in senatu egerim."- Cicero. 6. To plunder, lay waste (with praedes) :

“Te agente de nostra dignitate."--Cicero, "Quâ pergebat urbes, agros restare, praedas agere."-Sallust. 29. To plead before, treat with, deal with (with cum):

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