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nicht tes Lasters. 13. &r pflegt nicht vor acht Uhr aufzustehen. 14. Man Es ist eine vortreff'liche Sache, feine It is an excellent affait to have pflegt nicht in Amerika, wie in Deutschland, zu sagen: „Id wünsche Ihnen Vedürf'nisse zu babe ; oter wenn no necessities; or, if now one

man nun einmal nicht umhin' cannot einen guten Appetit.“ 15. Der Mensch sorgt oft mehr, als nöthig ist, um

once avoid having

kann, ei'nige zu haben, doch we. some, nevertheless, at least, seinen Lebensunterhalt zu gewinnen. 16. Die Ameise sorgt fchon im

nigstens nicht mehr zu haben, als not to have more than one is Sommer für ihre Nahrung auf den Winter. 17. Der teutsche Kaiser

man ídlech'terrings haben muß. absolutely obliged to have. Marimilian I. trug gleich bei seinein Regierungsantritt Sorge, die innere Es thut freilich für den Au'genblick It causes prin, indeed, for the Ruye Deutschlands wieder herzustellen. 18. Fleißige Schüler gelen dit webe, eine Züchtigung zu erhal': moment, to receive a correc

ten, die wir nicht verdient' haben; tion that we have not meauf das, was ihre Lehrer vortragen, um es im Gerächtnisse zu behalten.

aber in'dem wir uns unsrer Uns rited; but while we remember 19. Wer (Sect. 70.) tas Seinige in Ucht nimmt, braucht nicht zu barben.

schuld erin'nern, lernen wir schnell our innocence, we soon learn 20. Nehmen Sie sich in Acht vor cinem Sameichler. 21. Der Schwache

tas Grlittene vergessen.

to forget what we have sufmuß fide vor dem Starfen in Acht nehmen. 22. Ich will den Schlüssel

fered. in Aitt nehmen.

Intem' er aber also gerad'te, fiere, While he thus thought, how. ba er'icien' ihm ein Engel.

ever, behold there appeared 1. Guard yourself against those who have smooth words, or bad thoughts and a treacherous heart. 2. He cares more for his

an angel unto him. soul than for his body. 3. We are accustomed to drink tea 1. Diejenigen, welche zu viel spazieren gehen, gewöhnen sich endlich an instead of coffee. 4. The Greeks fostered art and science den Müssiggang. 2. Gine halbe Stunde nach tem Gssen spazieren gehen, long before the birth of Christ. 5. He is accustomed to ist der Gesundheit sehr zuträglich. 3. In Italien fahren Viele mit Maul. rise" at six o'clock. 6. I will take care of this book, till you thieren spazieren. 4. Man sieht gewöhnlich mehe Herren (pazieren gehen, return. 7. He takes care of his health. 8 Give attention to thyself, not only when you are in society, but also when you als spazieren reiten. 5. Die Curgåste in Wisbaden reiten uit auj Viaul. are alone. 9. Good children give attention to that which their thieren auf die Platte des Taunusgebirges. 6. Reisen zu Fuß sind oft parents tell them. 10. We must guard ourselves against our angenehmer, als zu Wagen oder zu Pferd. 7. Die lappländer fahren auf enemies. 11. A German-marmot takes care in the summer of Schlitten und bedienen sich der Rennthiere anstatt der Pferte. 8. Er ver. his food for the winter. 12 Give attention to the health of

wantte beinahe fein Auge von seinen Verwandten, die er in so langer Zeit your soul and your body, for they are the noblest gifts to man and his greatest treasures.

nicht gesehen hatte, und freute sich ihrer Erzählungen. 9. Für diesen jungen

Soldaten haben sich die meisten Officire bei dem General verwendet. 10. SECTION LXV.

3 wandte mich in meiner Noth an meine Freunde; allein wo ich mich Umýin (around there) is used only in connection with können, hinwandte

, sah ich nur gleichgültige Blicke. 11. Er entwantte mir ($ 129. Ex.: Ich fonnte nicht umhin es ihm zu sagen; I could not (get) around, i. e., I could not help, or avoid, telling it to him. Ich Obs.) meine Uhr und einige antere Gegenstände, ohne daß ich es beinerfte. habe nicht umbin gefonnt es zu thun; I could not help doing it. 12. Derjenige, welcher mit seinen Senntnissen groß thut, beweist tamit, tab

I. , Spazieren“ (to take a walk, to take an airing) signifies, er weniger weiß, als er sich brüstet und andere glauben machen will. 13. in union with gehen, fahren, reiten, führen, to take a walk, to take Sie werden du nicht (Sect. 44. IV.) glauben, daß ich Sie vorsäglich the air in a coach, to ride out, or take the air on horseback, to beleidigt hätte? 14. Gott behüte! ich ḥabe nie so etwas Aryes (Sect. lead about, or on a walk. Ex.: Eine Stunde des Tages ausgenom. men, in welcher er seine Schwester spazieren führt, fitt er beinahe immer an 15. IV.) von Ihnen geglaubt und glauben wollen. 15. Sie werden bei reinem Schreibtische und studirt, während sein jüngerer Bruter lieber diesem schönen Wetter toch nicht zu Hause bleiben wollen? 16. O verabre! srazieren geht, spazieren reitet, oder in Gesellschaft einiger Freunde spazieren ich habe nicñt Lust, einen so schönen Tag zwisd;en den vier Winren meiner führt; one hour of the day excepted, in which he conducts his Stube zuzubringen. 17. Es haben sich mehrere im dieses Amt beworben, sister on a walk, he is almost alway sitting at his writing desk und zwar (Sect. 44. IV.) folgente. 18. Ich kann nicht umbin Ihlien zu and studying, while his younger brother prefers to go a walking, to ride on horseback, or to take a drive in company with a few sagen, daß mir tiese Vehantlung nic't gefällt. 19. Jdy fann nicht umhin, friends.

Ihnen redyt herzlich zu tunfen. 20. Als ich auf ten Wolf idioßen wollte, II. „ Thun" (to do) is in some phrases used impersonally versagte mir die Flinte. Ex.: 68 thut nichts; it does or effects nothing; i. e. it is no

1. He could not help expressing his censure.

2. Preserve us, Go thut Noth; it is necessary.

O Lord, from sin. 3. I could not help forgiving the wrongs III. Vehüte, and bewahre, or, Gott behüte, Gott bewahre, are often which I had endured. 4. While he said this he sank down used, especially in conversation, to denote aversion, abhorrence, fainting. 5. We shall ride slowly to the park. 6. The queen fear, &c., and may commonly be rendered, “God forbid.”

took an airing on horseback yesterday. 7. This merchan: boasts EXERCISE 68.

of his riches. 8. The Arabian rides on horseback with increArg, bad; Hinwen'den, to turn Taunusgebirge, n. Tau- dible rapidity. 9. When the knights of olden times rode to

war, their horses were armed with a coat of mail. 10. Kings Aus'biltung, f. culti

nusgebirge, a mounvation; Indemn, in that, while; tain near the Rhine; and princes are accustomed to take a drive with six horses.

Umhinfónnen, Behand'lung, f. treat- Italien, n. Italy;

(See

11. When he could have escaped, his strength failed him. 12. ment; Kenntniß, f. know

The wood is used for building13. He has devoted the greatest above);

ledge ; Belei'digen, to offend;

part of his youth to scientific pursuits. 14. Journeys through Unglaublich, incredi.

the Rhine valley are more agreeable on foot than on horseback.

ble ; Bemer'ten, to observe; Mie'bersinken, to sink

15. John leads his sister about the park, while her father rides Beweisen, to prove;

down ;

Versa'gen, to refuse;
Bewer'ben, to sue for; Ohnmächtig, weak, Vorfäßlid), intention on horseback.
Blict, m.look, glance; swooning, fain-

ally ; Brüsten, to be proud,

ting;

Wand, f. wall (of a LESSONS IN NATURAL HISTORY.-No. XIII, to show airs; Panzernt, to arm with

house);

THE CIVET CAT. Curgast, guest a coat of mail;

Wendent,

turn, (under cure); Platte, f. plate, crown change;

(ORDER Carnivora.) Danfen, to thank; (top);

Wissenschaftlich, scienti. The civet, of which we give an engraving, is somewhat more Ontflie'ben, to flee, Rennt hier, n. reindeer;

fically

than two feet long from the nose to the insertion of the tail, escape;

Schlitten, m. sledge, Zubringen, to spend, and its tail is upwards of a foot in length. The colour of the Ontwent'ten, to pur

sleigh;
pass away;

animal's fur is an ash grey, and is marked with large blackish loin ; Schnelligteit, f. rapi. Zuträglich, advan

or dusky spots. The hair is of a coarse texture, and along the Groß thun, to boast,

dity;

tagcous, conducive back ständs somewhat erect, like a mane. The body is rather brag;

Tadel, m. blame, cen- to.
sure;

• Would not go off, i, e, missed fire.

matter.

to;

to

m.

thick; the forehead is broad, the muzzle acute, and black at Civet was formerly much employed in medicine, but it is the tip. There are three black stripes which proceed from the now seldom used except as a perfume, giving some smell to back of the ear, and terminate at the shoulders and throat. watery and spirituous liquors. The Italians use it for per Like all nocturnal animals, the civet is torpid and indolent fumed oils, and as oils dissolve the entire substance of the during the day, nor does it ever display much of either intelli- civet, they thus secure the whole of its scent. When genuine, gence or docility.

its value is from thirty to fifty shillings an ounce. This animal is celebrated for its musky

perfume, the product Although the animals which produce this drug are inhaof a peculiar glandulous apparatus. The name civet, first bitants of hot countries, they were long kept in great numbers, applied to the odoriferous substance, is of Arabian origin, but and with a commercial view, at Amsterdam, sometimes called the animal has received the same appellation. The civets are the Venice of the north, and which, in respect of situation, found in all the warm parts of Asia and Africa, in the island number of the canals, and the magnificence of its publie and of Madagascar, and in the East Indian islands.

private edifices,

certainly bears some resemblance to the Venice The perfume of the civet is so strong, that it infects every of the south. The practice was to feed the civets with boiled part of the creature, and so completely are the skin and hair meat, eggs, birds, small quadrupeds, and fish, and thus to penetrated with it, that they will retain the odour long after increase the amount of odorous substance. As soon as the their removal from the body. If the animal is irritated, the receptacle of any civet' was supposed to be nearly full, the scent becomes exceedingly powerful ; and were a person shut animal was put into a long cage, so narrow that it was unable up in a room with a civet, the odour would be scarcely sup- to turn round in it. The cage had a door behind, through portable.

which a small spoon was introduced into the pouches of the The peculiar substance by which it is yielded is a fatty animal, which were thus carefully scraped, and their contents secretion, about the consistence of honey or butter, of a lively deposited in a proper vessel. This operation was usually perwhite colour when fresh, but darker when it has been kept formed twice or thrice a week. for some time. It is produced by both sexes, and is contained In many parts of the East Indies and of the Levant, cirets

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every taste.

in two cavities, or pockets, placed beneath the tail ; these are reared and fed as domestic animals are with us. As, how. cavities are smooth internally, and covered with numerous ever, particularly in the Levant, they are few in number, and small pores, connected with the glands from which it is brought from a great distance, the perfume is increased by secreted.

introducing into the pouches of the animal a small quantity Civet is often noticed as a perfume by our elder dramatists, of butter, or other fatty substance. The equally strange and although long fashionable, was not even then adapted to practice is then resorted to of shaking the civet violently,

Thus Massinger makes one of his characters beating it, and, in fact, enraging it as much as possible. This say:

accelerates the secretion; and the fat, after having imbibed a “ Lady, I would descend to kiss your hand,

great portion of the perfume, is frequently used instead of the But that 'tis gloved, and civet makes me sick."

genuine substance. Adulteration is also practiced by mixing

civet with storax, and other balsamic and odoriferous subo Our poet, Cowper, gave expression to a similar feeling :

stances. "I cannot talk with civet in the room,

In its native state, the civet feeds on birds and small A fine puss-gentleman that's all perfume;

animals. Though naturally savage and ferocious, it is said to The sight's enough-no need to smell a beau

be tamed without very great difficulty. In such circumstances Who thrusts his nose into a raree-show?

it requires but little drink, and its food consists principally of His odoriferous attempts to please

boiled fish, eggs, and rice. Of fish it is particularly fond. Its Perhaps might prosper with a swarm of bees ; But we that make no honey, though we sting,

voice is stronger than that of a cat, and resembles the cry of Poets are sometimes apt to maul the thing.

an enraged dog. The civet is possessed of great agility, leaps 'Tis wrong to bring into a mix'd resort,

with all the nimbleness of a cat, and, like that animal, captures What makes some sick, and others a la mort,

its prey by pouncing upon it. In its wild state it is a prolific An argument of cogence, we may say,

creature, but in captivity it never breeds. Why such a one should keep himself away."

A person named Barbot, at Guadaloupe, had a tame eiret,

Countries.

.

which, through the carelessness of the servants was allowed extremity of the land, which may be considered as the top or to be without food during the day. The consequences of such vertex of the triangular shape which it assumes when jutting neglect might have been anticipated. On the following morn- out from the continent to which it belongs. When the land ing the hungry animal gnawed through the wood of his cage, thus projecting into the sea, is elevated considerably above the and went forth in quest of prey. The civet entered a room sea-level, it is called a promontory, (from the Lat. pro, in front where M. Barbot was writing, and staring about with a spark- of; and mons, a mountain) that is, mountain-land in front of ling and ferocious eye for some time, it then made a leap at a the continent. The English term head-land is often used for beautiful American parrot, which was perched upon a piece of capes and promontories on a small scale, connected with the wood fixed in the wall about six feet from the ground. M. land ; so is also the term naze or ness, from the Saxon nese, or Barbot jumped up instantly he was aware of the danger of bis German nase, a nose, or projection from the face. With regard favourite bird, but he was too late for its rescue.

to the term strait or straits which is applied to a narrow passage

of the sea between two continents, or between a continent and LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY-No. XVII.

an island, or between two islands, it is evidently a substantive

noun derived from the adjective straight or strait, (German, THE MAP OF THE WORLD,

stracks), and bears the same relation to the water that the term

isthmus does to the land. The following are the answers to the exercises on the map

of the world, proposed in our last lesson.

In reference to the continents of Europe, and Asia, there is

also the general tendency to taper towards the south ; in the Latitudes. Longitudes. Places.

former continent, however, this tendency is greatly obstructed 38° 43' N. 9° 8'W. Lisbon,

Portugal.

by the vicinity of the African continent, so that the Iberian 14 44 N. 17 31 W. Cape Verde, Africa.

Peninsula (Spain and Portugal) does not so manifestly assume 18 56 N. 72 54 E. Bombay,

India.

the triangular form. Still this tendency is partially developed 52 14 N. 21 2 E. Warsaw,

Poland.

in various parts of the south of this continent; as in the con15 55 S. 5 45 W. St. Helena, (Atlantic.) formation of Italy and Greece, which taper, but very irregu. 32 5 N. 118 47 E. Nankin,

China. 14 7 N. 91 20 W. Guatimala,

larly, towards the south, evidently in consequence of the C. America.

feebler action of the Mediterranean or inland Sea, as compared 4 36 N. 74 14 W. S. F. de Bogota, Colombia, 29 58 N. 90 6 W. New Orleans, United States.

with the full play of the great Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. 22 54 s. 43 16 W. Rio Janeiro,

Brazil.

In the latter continent, the tendency to taper toward the 33 26 S. 70 44 W. St. Jago,

south has been divided in such a manner, as to present the

Chili. 12 2 S. 76 59 W. Lima,

Peru.

three peninsulas of Arabia, India, and Malacca, of which the NATURAL DIVISIONS OF THE EARTH'S SURFACE.

two former are pretty regular in form ; but the latter, in

combination with what is called the Eastern Peninsula, is The whole surface of the globe contains, as we have seen very irregular in this respect. The term island is well known (p. 222), about 200 millions of square miles. The land is con- to signify a portion of land, whether large or small, which is sidered to contain about 55 millions of square miles; and con- completely surrounded by water ; this word in Latin is called sequently, the water or sea to contain about 145 millions of insula (whence our adjective insular), and Johnson seems to square miles. This makes the proportion of the water to the think that the former is derived from the latter; this is proland, nearly as three to one; or the proportion of the land to bably the case with the term isle, which comes to us through the whole surface of the earth, rather more than that of one to the romance languages; and the word land seems to have been four. There is much more land in the northern hemisphere added afterwards. The term peninsula, froin the latin pene than in the southern ; and considerably more in the eastern (almost), and insula, originally signified land nearly surrounded hemisphere than in the western; this may be seen at once by by water ; that is, according to the etymology, almost an island; looking at the map of the world ; but it is more clearly seen but it is now more frequently applied to the triangular-shaped by looking at a terrestrial globe. The land in the northern portions of land, which taper in any direction, and jut out hemisphere is considered to occupy rather more than two-fifths from the great continents, as in the three cases above-menof the whole hemisphere; and the land in the southern hemi. tioned in Asia. The great European peninsulas have also been sphere about one-eighth of the whole hemisphere. The land mentioned ; viz: Greece, Italy, and Spain and Portugal compreponderates in the north-eastern quarter of the globe, and bined ; to these may be added the large peninsula of Sweden the water in the south-western quarter. Scarcely any land or Norway, and the smaller peninsula of Jutland or Denmark, has yet been discovered in the south frigid zone, and the limits the latter of which is an exception to the general rule, as it of the land in the north frigid zone have not hitherto been points northward. The continents of South America and correctly ascertained. By far the greater portion of the land Africa are justly entitled to the name of peninsulas ; the lies within the north temperate zone; the greater part of the former being attached to North America by the Isthmus of remainder lies within the torrid zone ; still less within the Panama or Darien, and the latter to Asia by the Isthmus of south temperate zone; and the least within the north frigid Suez. From the consideration of the series of islands which zone, The greater part of the sea lies within the torrid zone ; lies between the peninsula of Malacca and the great island of the greater part of the remainder within the south temperate New Holland or Australia, there is reason to believe that the zone ; still less within the north temperate zone; and the least latter was in former ages connected with Asia, as South within the north frigid zone.

America now is with North America ; but Australia, although On looking at a globe or map of the world, the student will reckoned an island, is from its magnitude, more entitled to the perceive that all the great and continuous tracts of land, com- name of a continent; and the island of Van Dieman's Land to the monly called continents, (from Lat. continens, holding together) south of it (and no doubt originally forming a part of it), then become pointed as they stretch towards the south, by which most probably constituted the apex of the great triangular-shaped they are made to assume a pyramidal or triangular form at the peninsula (tapering to the south according to the general law), extremity. The continents of north and south America and of in which this vast Southern Continent once terminated. It is Africa are the most remarkable illustrations of this fact. In further worthy of remark, in speaking of the great continents conscquence of this tendency to taper towards the south, so which become pointed as they approach the south, that their narrow is the connecting link or neck of land, commonly called projections most generally terminate abruptly in lofty moun. an isthmus, (from Gr. isthmos, a neck, or narrow-passage) tain chains, which there dip beneath the waters of the ocean. between North America and South America, that little more In regard to the divisions of the land on the surface of the than 40 miles of land separate Panama from Porto Bello, on globe, we find in the older books on geography, that is was opposite sides of the Isthmus of Darien. The southern points of divided into four great parts, called quarters of the world;

This division, the other two continents are well known; Cape Horn must be namely, Europe, Asia, Africa, and America. considered as that of South America, notwithstanding the however, is very incorrect, inasmuch as it leaves out large straits of Magellan : and the Cape of Good Hope that of Africa. islands nearly equal to continents, such as Australia, Borneo, Here, it may be useful to remark that when a tapering point &c., and vast groups of smaller islands scattered through the

А of land projects into the sea, it is called a cape, (from Lat. ocean, and valuable for their population and produce. caput, a head) a figurative, but very natural, expression for the more common and more accurate division is that of Europe,

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Asia, Africa, North America, South America, and Oceanica, six distance between the Cape of Good Hope and Van Dieman's greit portions of which the first five are continental, and the Land. sixth insular; or, if the latter be subdivided into two parts, The ocean which rolls between Asia and America, called

commonly done by writers in this country, namely, the Pacific, from the smoothness of its waves, and the Great Australasia, and Polynesia, then there are five continental divi- South Sea, from its vast extent, exceeds the whole surface of sions of the earth, and two insular divisions.

the dry land. It is bounded on the east by the Western and Without regarding artificial divisions, the land on the sur. North-western shores of America, and on the west by the face of the globe is naturally divided into three great sections, Eastern coasts of Asia and Australasia. Towards the eastern viz. Ist. The Old World, in the Eastern hemisphere, compre- side, and in the Torrid zone, the face of this ocean is studded hending the vast, united, triple continent of Europe, Asia, with innumerable groups of islands, all remarkably small; and Africa, which extends from Cape Severovostochnoi in the these consist generally of coral reefs, rising up like a wall Northern Ocean, to the Cape of Good Hope in the South from unfathomed depths, and emerging but a little way abore Atlantic Ocean, a distance of 8400 miles; and from Cape Verde the level of the sea. The most noted of these groups is that in the North Atlantic across the isthmus of Suez to the east called the Tahitian, or Society Islands; but all of them are coast of China on the Pacific, a distance of about 9000 miles. the works of insects, both minute and innumerable, whose 2nd. The New World, in the Western hemisphere, compre- incessant labours are gradually forming new groups at the hending the great, united, double continent of North and South bottom of the ocean. The situation of these islands is such America, with the interjacent and circumjacent islands, which that although lying between the tropics, the temperature of extends from still undefined limits in the Arctic Ocean to Cape their atmosphere is so moderated by the circumambient ocean, Horn, a distance of about 9000 miles; and, from the western that they enjoy the most delightful climate in the world. On shores of the Atlantic to the eastern shores of the Pacific, a the western side, the Pacific communicates with the inland distance varying in breadth from 25 to 3500 miles. 3d. The seas of Japan and Ochotsk, and the Yellow and Chinese seas; groups of islands, called Oceanica, comprehending the East and on the eastern side, it has the inlets of California and Indian ấrchipelago, Australasia and Polynesia, the principal of Queen Charlotte's Sound. which are the Sunda Isles, the Phillippines, New Holland or The ocean which rolls between Europe and America and Australia, including New South Wales and Van Dieman's also between Africa and America, is usually divided into two Land, and New Guinea, with the clusters of isles scattered parts by the equator, the one being called the north Atlantic, far and wide over the Pacific.

and the other the south Atlantic Ocean. The whole ocean The Old World, so called because its history is known for a receives the name Atlantic, from its washing the shores of that period of more than 7000 years, is composed of the three great part of Africa where the mountains of Atlas (-antis) were sections denominated continents, viz: Europe in the north- situated, which the poets feigned were employed to support west, Asia in the north-east, and Africa in the south-west, the heavens. The Atlantic is bounded on the east by Europe taking Jerusalem as the central point. Europe is separated and Africa, and on the west by America; that part of it between from Asia by a boundary composed of a chain of mountains, Europe and America is called, from ancient times, the western the Uralian: a series of rivers, of which the principal are the Ocean. The Atlantic Ocean taken between the limits of the Wolga and the Don; and a chain of inland seas, Azoph, the the Artic circle and the latitudes of 35° S. on the one side and Euxine, Marmora, and the Archipelago, branching from the 55° S. on the other, is only about half the size of the Pacific Mediterranean and connected by the straits of the Hellespont, Ocean. The south Atlantic contains few islands of any size, and Constantinople and Jenikale. Asia is separated from Africa no inlets of consequence. The north Atlantic abounds in by the Arabian Gulf and the Isthmus of Suez, Europe is large islands, of which Albion (England) and Hibernia (Irelaní) separated from Africa by the Mediterranean,

are the most noted; and in deep and numerous inland seks, The New World, so called because its history is known only which penetrate far into the interior of both the old and new for a period of about 200 years, is composed of two great worlds, and which have adapted it for the most extensive commersections denominated continents, viz: North America and South cial enterprises on the face of the globe. The Mediterranean and America, which are connected with each other at the isthmus the Baltic are but arms of the north Atlantic, on the east; and the of Darien or Panama. Between these continents, on the Carribbean sea, the Gulf of Mexico, Hudson's bay and Davis' eastern side, north of the equator and within the torrid zone, straits, arms of the same on the west. On the eastern shores, fer are situated the West Indies, a range of islands stretching in a large rivers, except the Niger, discharge their waters into its curve line from the Gulf of Florida to the mouth of the bosom; but on the western shores, it receives those of La Plata, Orinoco. South of Asia, and east of the Arabian sea, con- the Orinoco, the Marānon or Amazon, and the Mississippi, che sisting partly of the continent and partly of the islands south largest rivers on the surface of the globe. of it, are situated the Eust Indies, lying almost wholly within The Indian Ocean, rolls between the Atlantic and Pacifie, the torrid zone, and comprehending the peninsulas of India washing the eastern shores of Africa, the southern shores of and Chin-India, or India within and India without the Ganges, Asia, and the western shores of Australasia ; whence, its with the island of Ceylon and the group of islands denomi- western, northern and eastern boundaries are manifest; on the nated the East Indian Archipelago. Sumatra, Borneo, and south, it is bounded by the Pacific and Antarctic Oceans. Celebes, the principal of these islands, are situated directly This ocean contains many islands, the most important of which under the burning line.

are Madagascar and Ceylon; and several bays and gulfs, such With regard to the natural divisions of the water, the Sea as the Bay of Bengal, the Arabian Sea, the Persian Guif, the which surrounds the land, is divided into three great sections, Red sea or Arabian Gulf, &c. The ocean (from Gr. okeanos, the called oceans, exclusive of the comparatively small portions lying great outward sea surrounding the world,) means collectively, al! within the polar circles, which are denominated the Northern the water which surrounds the earth; or, individually, ans and Southern Oceans ; viz. 1st, The Atlantic Ocean, extending very large expanse of water. The term sea (from Saxon, se) from the Arctic to the Antartic circle, a distance of 9188 miles, is used in the same sense, both collectively and individually; and from the western coasts of the Old World to the eastern but it is also applied to a smaller portion of water, and is often coasts of the New World, varying in breadth from 1818 miles, synonymous with the term gulf, (from Ital. golfo) which is a the distance between Sierra Leone and Cape Roque, to 4135 bay, or opening of the sea into the land, either by a wide or s miles, the distance between the Cape of Good Hope and Cape narrow opening. When the mouth of the opening into the Horn. 2nd. The Pacific Ocean, also extending from the Arctic land is wide, it is more usually called a bay (from Fr. bais); to the Antartic circle, and from the eastern coasts of the Old and when narrow, a gulf. When the sea penetrates far and World to the western coasts of the New World, varying in wide into the land, the collection of water is then called a breadth from 60 miles at Bhering's straits, to about 11000 miles Mediterranean (from Lat. medius, middle; and terra, the land) at the equator, and then tapering to 5277 miles, the distance be- or inland sea; such are the Mediterranean Sea, and the Balik tween Cape Horn and Van Dieman's Land. 3d. The Indian Sea, the one in the south and the other in the north of Europe. Ocean, extending from the tropic of Cancer to the Antartic The Arctic Ocean is the sea that surrounds the north pole, circle, a distance of 6214 miles, and from the eastern coasts or rather that lies within the arctic circle; its boundaries are of Africa to the western coasts of Australasia, varying in not exactly known, that is, it is not yet ascertained how much breadth from 3491 miles at the equator, to 6126 miles, the land lies within this zone, and consequently, the, extent of sea is equally unascertained. Whether Greenland extends to or | Book 1, Euclid, the triangle raw is equal the triangle A RC falls short of the north pole has not yet been discovered; and Again, in the triangles A FX, A C B, we have side af equal to the side the limits of North America have not quite been determined. A c and the angle A F x equal to the angle a CB; and because the This sea, besides the greater part of Greenland, contains Nova angle Fac is a right angle and that the angle x A B is also a right Zembla, north of Europe, the isles of New Siberia, the islands angle, take away the common angle x A c and the remaining angle lately discovered by Capt. Parry and others, and some north of Fax is equal to the remaining angle c AB; then by Prop. 26, Ax is Baffin's Bay, The White Ses is on the borders of the Arctic equal to A B; but A B is equal to w k, therefore a x equal w K, and Ocean. The Antar:tic Ocean, though considered to be more because G C, C B are in the same straight line, F A is parallel to BC, free of land, is stui less known than the Arctic Ocean; and if and that K o has been drawn parallel to B C, therefore k o is parallel both were equally free of land, they would be of the same size to F A, and because w n has been drawn parallel to c A, and that w K within the Arctic and Antarctic circles. Lakes are large or has been drawn parallel to x H, therefore the angles O W K, OK W, are small portions of water wholly surrounded by water ; some of equal to the angles FXA, FA X each to each ; therefore the remaining these are so large as to be called seas, such as the Caspian sea, sides of the one, viz., 0 K, o w, are equal to the remaining sides of the the Sea of Ar 1, &c. A channel is a narrow passage between other, viz., FA, Fx, and the remaining angle k o w of the one is equal two seas, or tw parts of the same sea; as, the English channel, to the remaining angle A Fx of the other, and the triangle k o w to the between the Neth Sea, or the German Ocean, and the Atlantic. triangle aFx; and because K o has been shown to be equal and

parallel to AF, it is therefore equal and parallel toc g, and because c K SOLUTIONS OF PROBLEMS AND QUERIES.

has been drawn parallel to R , and r с parallel to i K, therefore i K

is equal to R c, and the angle n x o is equal to the angle r cg; and beNEW GEOMETRICAL DEMONSTRATION OF THE PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM.

cause x R, R A, arein the same straight line, and the angle A Rc is a right

angle, therefore the angle x rc is also a right angle; hence the At the request of the " Mathematical Society in Manchester," angle nuk is equal to the angle x R c; and because x A has been forwarded to us by W. H. Squire, Esq., Sutton (under date of proved equal to a bit is also equal to a H, and part R A has been shown Jan. 5th, 1853), we insert the following new geometrical demon- 1 to be equal to part a N, therefore remaining part r x is equal to stration of the Pythagorean theorem, of which a palpable or remaining part i n, and because N w has been drawn parallel to ocular demonstration was given by Mr. Henry Dugdale, of Slaid-PG, and that un, RX, are in the same straight line, therefore the burn, in vol. I., p. 239, col. 1. This demonstration would have angle hno is equal to the angle R XG, and because N w has been proved been inserted before this time, but for an idea which occurred to us equal to A c, it is also equal to F G, and part o w has been shown that it might be very considerably abridged. As, bowever, the to be equal to part Fx, therefore remaining part n o is equal to reauthor then informed us (July 27th, 1852) that it was placed before maining part xG; and because N 0,0 w, are in the same straight line, his valued and learned friend Dr. Henderson (astronomer), of and that the anglewo kis a right angle, therefore the angle nok is a Liverpool, for his approval, and that he expressed himself highly right angle equal to the anglex G C which is also a right angle, theregratified and pleased with it, we here insert it entire, as it was sent fore in the trapeziums X RCG, NHK 0, since all the lines and angles to us; and we hope that all our mathematical readers will duly of the one are equal to all the lines and angles of the other each to appreciate the author's ingenuity. For our own part, we prefer the each, therefore they must coincide, hence the trapezium X RCG is ocular demonstration sent by Mr. Robinson, of Sheerness, and equal to the trapezium N H K 0; and since the triangle a R cis equal inserted at p. 319, col. 2, vol. I., and we consider that it will be to the triangle Naw, and the triangle XF A equal to the triangle but justice to insert bis geometrical demonstration too, when it is wok and the trapezium XR CG to the trapezium NHK 0, forwarded to us.

therefore the square AG is equal to the rectangle Ak. Again THE 47th. PROP., Book I, EUCLID.

the same reasoning which proved the triangle Arc equal to the In any right-angled triangle the square which is described upon triangle naw will also prove the triangle cs B equal to the the side subtending the right angle is equal to the squares described triangle w BM, and since Ac, CD are in the same straight upon the sides which contain the right angle.

line, and R s has been drawn parallel to u I, as also kL has been drawn parallel to A c, and hence llel to CD, therefore cs is equal to k i and the angles L KI, LIK, equal to the angles T CS, T SC;

hence the remaining two sides K L, L 1, of the one are equal *o the D

remaining two sides o T, Ts of the other each to each, and the triangle T

cts to the triangle KLI; and because c d is equal to B E and the part U

ve to the part T D, therefore the remaining part B v is equal to R S

the remaining part cr; but c t is equal to K L, therefore B v is equal E

to K L, and since the trapezium X RCG has been proved to coincide

with trapezium N I K O, therefore similar reasoning will prove the А B

figure T DU V B to coincide with and therefore be equal to P Q ML K; Q

and since the lines wc, CB, are parallel to the lines M B, MW, Р

therefore wm is equal to c B, and hence equal and parallel to DE; W VAL

but since part 2 m is equal to part Du, therefore remaining part U E

equal remaining part w Q, and because o v has been drawn parallel L

to it, it is also parallel to pw; therefore the angles P WQ, P Q W

are equal to the angles V U E,VE U ; hence the triangle P W Q is H н R

equal to the triangle VUE; therefore since the triangle PwQ I

is equal to the triangle VU E, and the triangle w B M equal to the On A B describe the square a # I B, and on AC, o B, the squares triangle cs B, the triangle c 1 s equal to the triangle K L 1, and the

square GA,D B, produce u A to x and 1 B to T; from c'draw c k parallel figure T DU V B equal to the figure p QM LK; therefore the

B D is equal to the rectangle B K. Therefore the squares upon to xu or T I, through c draw R s parallel to A B Or 1, from CB cut off a part E v equal to do and draw v u parallel to it; shown.-Henry DUGDALE, Slaidburn.

A C, C B, are together equal to the square on A B, which was to be from point w, on the line A B, draw w N, w m, parallel to ca, CB, or GF, DE; from point K, on the line u i, draw KO, BL parallel to BC, AC; from k w cut off a part k p equal to B 7, and Un Mor DU MARECHAL DE VENDOME,-Le maréchal de draw P Q at-right angles to wm.

Vendôme fut un des plus grands capitaines que la France Then because the angle a cb is a right angle, and the angle ait produits. A son lit de mort, on lui parlait des batailBCD is also a right angle, the two straight lines A c, CD, upon the les qu'il avait gagnées, il répondit : "À cette heure, je opposite sides of C B make with it at the point c, the adjacent angles me rapellerais avec plus de joie un verre d'eau donné pour equal to two right angles, therefore cd is in the same straight line l'amour de Jésus-Christ que toutes mes victoires, fussentwith AC; for the same reason G c and C B are in the same straight elles aussi nombreuses que celles d'Alexandre." Quand line ; and because RC has been drawn parallel to a w, and that nous faisons quelque chose d'important à nos yeux, demanNW has been drawn parallel to a c, therefore R a equal a n, and dons-nous ce que nous en penserons au moment ou nous because o K has been drawn parallel to R N, therefore by Prop. 38, serons sur le point de quitter cette terre.

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