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༣ བོ; (3. "1714


preserved by a uniform extension of the contractions to all their 2. Months of the year:-
derivatives and compounds ; as, from " con,” (k,) "accom,” (uk,)
deriving " discom," "incom, "unaccom, recom,'
con," &c., by prefixing dy-ring,-1, &e., to“com' or accom;'
and from “ment,deriving " mental," “mented," "menta-

," " mentative," &c., by similar alphabetic additions to "ment.

46. The same principles will be found to be carried out through all the abbreviations that follow, so that a thorough knowledge of the alphabet will enable the student to master the majority of them at a glance. We cannot too strongly impress upon the learner the necessity of a perfect acquaintance with 3. Books of the Old Testament, In“ Exodus" and “ Lamerta. the fundamental principles of notation as explained in the first tions," the contracted prefixes and a fixes are introduced :lesson. Simple alphabetic writing should be practised until the characters come to the hand as readily as the ordinary forms of the “long-hand" letters do. The eye, too, will, by practice, become accustomed to the outlines of syllables and words, so as to decipher them as wholes, with progressively increasing facility. It will very speedily learn to recognise letters, and the reader will spell his words, that is, by sound; next, it will combine the elements of syllables at sight, and he


2 will read syllabically; and, by degrees, it will recognise the forms of entire words at a glance, and he will decipher verbally, and attain to fluent reading with facility exactly proportioned to the amount and regularity of his practice.

47. This process is an exact counterpart of the child's progress in learning to read. He first spells ;-then syllables ;then reads verbally, or pictorially, as his eye becomes accustomed to the outlines of frequently-recurring words. Ordinary fluent reading depends greatly on the pictorial principle, as may be proved by the general tendency of readers to confound such words as “commendation" and "condemnation,” tion" and "conservation," pronouncing the more familiar term instead of that to which the eye is less accustomed.

48. If our learners, then, would make rapid progress, and make stenography really a short-hand to them, in a short time, they must MASTER THE FIRST Lesson, and, by steady applica

LESSONS IN ENGLISH.-No. XXXIV. rion, acquire expertness in FULL SYLLABIC WRITING. We recommend them not to write sentences at this stage, as the next

By John R. BEARD, D.D. lesson will introduce a new principle of notation for all sub

LATIN STEMS. ordinate words; and alphabetic exercise in the writing of these LANGUAGE, in one point of view, is a silent record of human would therefore be only labour thrown away. words will form the most useful exercise in the meantime, errors. If we believed language, we should have still to believe Let the learner select the nouns, verbs, and important adjectives fixed relations, and that heaven is upwards alike at midnight and

that the sun rises and sets; that upwards and downwards denote and adverbs from any book, and gain as much facility as pos-mid-day; that good humour and bad humour are the offspring of sible in the accurate writing of these, and leave the inferior certain liquids (humr Lat., moisture) in the material frame; that classes of words to be subsequently dealt with. ungrammatical learner this direction may be translated temper and distemper were the results of the due or undue ming“ write the big words and pass over the little ones."

ling of these diverse liquids ; that a jovial man was born under the

planet Jupiter (Jovis), the emblem of a jolly god; that a man KEY TO THE EXERCISES IN LESSON II., par. 33.

of saturnine disposition owed his dull moroseness to his evil

genius, Saturn; and that a mercurial fellow jumped about and 1. First line.-Page, chapter, paragraph, knowledge, igno- frisked away, because he had in him too much of the pagan god rance, hundred, thousand, million, breakfast.

Mercury, the swift-footed messenger of Olympus. However, men Second line. - Dinner, supper, sleep, labour, study, crickete.r, suffer disasters (dis, not, bad; astron, astar) withoutimputing the blame choracter, handkerchief, phlegmatic.

to their stars; though many are still under the vulgar delusions that Third line. -- Unintelligible, uproarious, improbability, paral- our lot here depends on good luck and bad luck. Portents and lelogram, reprehensible, intermeddle, hallelujah, phonetic prodigies in the skies and on the earth are words which show how short-hand writing.

men were once alarmed by any unusual phenomenon. Even so

late as the reign of Charles II., Englishmen bad faith in portents. Note.-The general error of beginners is to make the dif- During the plague, the vision of a flaming sword, reaching from ference too little manifest between letters with vowels preceding Westminster to the Tower of London, seemed nightly to be (full-size) and those that have none (contracted). To secure present to the excited fancy of many of the residents in the easy and certain legibility, observe the following proportions : metropolis, like the meteor-sword that hung over Jerusalem during When a word contains any full-sized character (any consonant the siege. The appearance of a comet, some months before, had with a vowel before it), its contracted letters cannot be made caused superstitious feelings of alarm in the weak-minded,

by too small; they should never exceed one-fourth of the full size : whom it was regarded with scarcely less terror than that with when a word contains no full-sized character, its consonant which the Anglo-Saxons had beheld the comet which visited our muy extend to, but must never exceed, half-size.

hemisphere in the year 1066, on the eve of the Norman invasion. II.-1. Days of the week :

However, these false fears and vulgar errors are rapidly disappearing. Lunacy is preserved amongst us in the close embrace of Westminster-ball, but we hence cease to believe that mental alienation is caused by the moon (luna, Lat. moon), and if we still in good Saxon speak of the moon-stricken, we do so as we speak of star-gazers, without ascribing any influence to the heavenly bodies.

Even Lancashire-witches, though they charm and enchant us, * * Tle hook-s of "sleep" has been omitted in the engraving; the b can no longer affect our reason or shorten our lives. of labour is cut thin instead of thick; and the first letter of "chapter" (6) and of “labour" (1) are too long.

• This is a wicked pun! The Dr. means bewitchers.--ED

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pene, almost


ago, I drive




Latin wards.


English words,

pendo, I hang, weigh Latin words.

pend depend, pendulum, stipend Stems. English words.

pensus, hung


pensive, compensate mel (mellis), honey melli mellifluous


peninsula melior, better melior meliorate, ameliorati on peto, I seek, aim at pet

centri petal, competition memor, mindful nor memorable, memorial centrum, a centre


central, centrifugal mens (mentis), the intellect ment mental, dementate

pictus, painted


depict picture mergo, I plunge merg immerge, emerge

piscis, a fish


piscatory, mersus, plunged

immersion, emersion

placidus, pleasing placid placid, placidly metior, I measure

mete, meter, meteyard

placo, I appease

plac placable, im placable mensus, measured

mensu commensurate, mensuration The word nonentity recalls the days of the schoolmen, or monk. mille, a thousand


millenium, millenary miror, I gaze, wonder

ish philosophers of the middle ages, who subtilly, profoundly, and mir

mirror, admire miser, wretched miser miserable, a miser

perseveringly speculated on metaphysical topics, striving to invest mitis, mild miti mitigate

the dogmas of the Church with a philosophical dress and certitude, mitto, I send

remit, commit, permit

Entity or being, and nonentity or no-being, were among the missus, sent miss missionary, missive

counters with which they played their clever intellectual game; modus, a measure

mode, modify

which, like most other games, secured little else than amusement, mola, a millstone

emolument, molar

“Fortune is no real entity, nor physical essence, but a mere relative moles, a mass

demolish, a mole

signification."-Bentley. molestus, troublesome molest molestation

“ With real munition he did fortify mollis, soft molli mollify, emollient

His heart."-Daniel, moneo, I warn


admonish monitus, warned monit monitor

* They must have the assistance of some able military man, and conmors (mortis), death morti, mort mortify, immortal

venient arms and ammunition for their defence,"-Bacon. mos (moris), a manner mor

moral, moralist

The word adoration, etymologically considered, signifies a multus, many

multi multiform, multitude kissing of the mouth to a visible object of worship-in token of munítus, fortified

munit munition, ammunition reverence and as expressive of worship. munus (muneris), a gift muner

remunerate murus, a wall

The term peculation means the making of that your own which mur

immure, mural muto, I change

mutable, commute

is not your own. Peculation, as derived from peculium, prieats natus, born

native, natal

property, wears a socialist aspect, and seems to say, “la pronavis, a ship

naval, navigate

prieté, c'est le vol;" that is, “private property is plunder," a
agile, agitate

truly monstrous and anti-social doctrine. necto, I tie, bind

connect, disconnect

"A real circular motion is always accompanied with a centrifugal nexus, a bond

annex, connexion

force, arising from the tendency which a body always has to proceed in nego, I deny


negative, negation a right line.”-Maclaurin, “ Account of Newton's Philosophical Disnihil, nothing


annihilate, nihility coveries." nomen (nominis), a name nomin nominal, denominate non, not

nonentity, nonage norma, a rule

enormous, normal


novice, innovate nox (noctis), night

By Professor Louis FASQUELLE, LL.D. nox, noct

equinox, nocturnal nubo, I marry


SECOND PART, nuptus, married

nupt nuptials nudus, naked nud nudity, denude

[In commencing the SECOND Part of our Complete Course of the nugae, trifles


French tongue, we may just answer one question which has been oiten numerus, a number

numer numeration, innumerable put to us by very many of our students, viz. : “ Will the LESSONS IN nuncio, I teli nunci, nounc annunciation, renounce

FRENCH in the POPULAR EDUCATOR be sufficient to enable one to nutrio, I nourish nutri nutriment, nutritious

become master of the French language ?!" Our answer now is, that by octo, eight

octagon, octave

comparing the FIRST PART constantly with this sECOND PART, 20oculus, an eye

oculist, ocular

cording as the references direct, and studying the two parts together, oleo, I smelt


olfactory, redolent as the lessons regularly appear in the POPULAR EDUCATOR, the omnis, all

omni omnipresent, omnibus student, with the help of a good French dictionary, and the use of onus (oněris), a burden

onerous, exonerate

some good French books, for reading and translating lessons, may opto, I wish

adopt, option

become a perfect adept, a complete scholar, in this elegant language; opus (opěris), work

operose, operation

and may, with a few living instructions in pronunciation (to many orbis, a circle

orbicular, orbit

the "Lessons in French” reprinted from the “ Working Man's orno, I deck

ornament, adorn

Friend,” would be enough), be enabled to travel over the continent, oro, I beg

oration, orator

and find his way, by means of this language, through every country os (oris), the mouth

oral, adoration, orifice

in Europe.) os (ossis), a bone

ossify, osseous

$ 1.-PARTS OF SPEECH. otium, ease

otiose, negotiate

(1.) THERB are, in French, ten sorts of words or parts of ovum, an egg

oval, oviform

speech :pactus, having agreed pact

compact, pact, paction pando, I spread pand, pans expand, expanse

Nouns or Substantives, Participles, pansus (passas), spread pass cond pass, to pass


Adverbs, par, equal

parity, im parity

Prepositions, pareo, I appear


Conjunctions, pareo, I bring forth

parent, vivi parous

Interjections. vivus (vivi), alive viva

vivify, vivid

(2.) These are divided into variable words and invariable paro, I prepare par, pair reparation, repair

words. pastus, fed

repast, pasty

(3.) The variable words are those of which the termination pater, a father pater, patri paternal, patrimony

admits of various changes ; by these changes various modificaparri parricide patior, I suffer

patient, impatient

tions of meaning are expressed. The variable words are of passus, suffered

six kinds :pass

passive, passion pauci, few pauci paucity

The Noun,

The Pronoun, pax (pacis), peace paci pacify, pacific

The Article

The Verb, pecco, I sin

im peccable, peccadillo The Adjective,

The Participle.
pectus (pectoris), the breast pector expectorate
peculium, private property pecul peculation

(4.) The invariable words are those of which the termination pecunia, money pecun pecuniary

never changes :Fello, I drive

espel, impel
The Adverb,

The Conjunction, pulsus, driven

repulsion, ex pulsion The Preposition,

The Interjection


orn ora or



(5.) All variable parts of speech have two numbers: the

Masculine Nouns.

Feminine Nouns. singular, which denotes but one, and the plural, which denotes (8.) Colours : le vert, green; le more than one.

jaune, yellow. (6.) All variable parts of speech, except the verb, have two (9.) The names of empires and (5.) The names of countries when genders ; the masculine and the feminine.

kingdoms when ending with a con- ending in e mute: la France ; l'Es

sonant: le Danemarc, Denmark ; pagne, l'Amériq ue, &c. $ 2,-CASES OF Nouns.

le Brésil, Brazil.

Exceptions: Bengale, Hanovre, The cases of nouns adopted by French grammarians are :

Mexique, Péloponèse. (1.) The nominatif or sujet : answering to the nominative or Jura;''le Puy-de-Dome, (*) the plural: les Alpes, the Alps ; les

(10.) Mountains : le Jura, Mount (6.) Chains of mountains in the subject of the English, and to the nominative of the Latin. (2.) The régime direct, or direct object of the English, accu. nard, Mount Cenis, Mount St. Ber- les Cévennes, &c.

Puy de Dome ; le Cénis, le St. Ber- Pyrenées, the Pyrenees; les Voges, sative of the Latin.

nard. (3.) The régime indirect, indirect object of the English, (11.) The names of rivers when (7.) The names of rivers when answers to the oblique cases of the Latin, the genitive, dative, ending with a consonant: le Rhin, ending with e mute; la Seine, the and ablative.

the Rhine; le Nil, the Nile.

Seine; la Loire, the Loire. § 3.--THE NOUN OR SUBSTANTIVE.

Exceptions; Le Rhône, the Rhone;

le Danube, le Tibre, le Cocyte, masc. (1.) The noun or substantive is a word which serves to name (12.) Trees, shrubs : le chêne, (8.) Aubépine, hawthorn; boura person or a thing; as Jean, John ; maison, house,

the oak ; le frêne, the ash; le rosier, daine, black der; épine thorn; (2.) There are two sorts of nouns : proper and common.

the rose-bush. [Exceptions oppo- hièble, dwarf-e zder; ronce, brier ; (3.) A proper noun is applied to a particular person, or


yeuse, iler. thing; as, Napoléon, Napoleon ; Paris, Paris,

(13.) The name of a language:

as, (4.) A common noun belongs to a whole class of objects ; German, &c.

le français, French ; l'allemand, as, livre, book ; homme, man.

(14.) The letters of the alpha(5.) Some common nouns, although singular in number, bet : un a, an,a; un z, a z. present to the mind the idea of several persons or things, (15.) Compound words formed (9.) Garde-robe, wardrobe; forming a collection : they are for this reason denominated of a verb and of a noun, either perce-neige, spring-crocus ; percecollective nouns; as, troupe, troop; peuple, people.

masculine or feminine, or of a feuille, hare's-ear. (6.) Collective nouns are general, or partitive : general

, when pronoun and a verb: porte-feuille, they represent an entire collection; as, l'armée des Français, pocket-book ; rendez-vous, rendezthe army of the French : partitive, when they represent a partial collection; as, une troupe de soldats Français, a troop of French

(16.) Nouns, pronouns, verbs, soldiers.

&c., used substantively : le boire et (7.) A common noun composed of several words, as, chef-d'.

le manger, eating and drinking.

(17.) Numbers-cardinal, ordiauvre, masterpiece, avant-coureur, forerunner, is called a com- nal, and proportional-used sub-bers ending with aine : douzaine,

(10.) Moitié, halt; and all numpound noun.

stantatively : le dix, the tenth ; le dozen ; centaine, hundred, &c. (8.) Of the two properties of nouns, gender and number, we neuvième, the ninth; le tiers, the shall commence with the first.

third. (Exceptions opposite.] § 4.-GENDER OF NOUNs.

§ 6.-GENDER, BY THE TERMINATION. (1.) There are, in the French language, only two genders : the masculine and the feminine.

(1.) The exceptions to the masculine will be found opposite (2.) The masculine gender belongs to men, and animals of the termination, in the feminine column ; and the exceptions the male kind: as, Charles, Charles; lion, lion.

to the feminine, in the masculine column, also opposite :(3.) The feminine gender belongs to women, and animals of the female kind : as, Sophie, Sophia ; lionne, lioness.

(2.) Consonantal Terminations. (4.) Through imitation-often on account of derivation,

B often without any real motive-the masculine and feminine


Feminine. genders have been given, in French, to the names of inanimate Termin. Nouns. English.

Terminobjects: thus, papier, paper, is masculine, and plume, pen, is


ations. feminine.

Horeb, Mount Horeb.

radoub, refitting a ship. § 5.-RULES FOR DETERMINING GENDER BY THE MEANING. MB plomb, Masculine Nouns.

Feminine Nouns. (1.) Male beings; as homme, (1.) Female beings ; as, femme, ac sac,

sack. man; lion, lion. woman ; lionne, lioness.

bec, beak, (2.) Objects to which male qua- (2.) Objects to which female quali- 10 mastic, putty. lities are attributed : ange, angel; ties are attributed: fée, fairy; lune, oc

ploughshare. génie, genius (a spirit); soleil, sun.

duc, duke, (3.) The names of the seasons : (3.) Virtues : la charité, charity ; NC tronc, trunk. le printemps, the spring, &c.; and except cour:ge, courage; mérite, RC clerc, clerk. of the months, janvier, January; merit, which are masc.

fiso, février, February, &c.

(4.) The days of the week, lundi, (4.) Vices: la méchanceté, wickedMonday; mardi, Tuesday, &c. ness ; except l'orgueil, pride, maso.

pied, foot.
(5.) Festivals : la Saint Jean, i.e.

nid, nest.
la tête de St. Jean, St. John's-day; OD tripod, tripod.
la Chandeleur, Candlemus: except UD Talmud, Talmud.
Noël, Christmas, masc.

marchand, merchant, (5.) The names of the cardinal Bise, a poetical term for North wind.

bord, border. points and the wiuds: as, l'est, the Tramontane, a term applied on the East; l'ouest, the West, &c. (See Mediterannean to the North wind, exceptions opposite.] Brise, breeze; moussons, trade-winds.


Exc.--clef, key; nef, ship, (6.) The names used in the


nave; soif, thirst. French decimal system : as, cen


egg. time (hundredth part of a franc);

cerf, stag, kilogramme (1000 grammes, about two pounds); mètre, Sc. (7.) Metals: le fer, iron; l'acier,

• The word Puy, from the Celtic puech, mountain,

is applied to a num steal, &c.

ber of places in France: Puy-en-Velay, Puy-notre-Dame, do.

ation. (Noun.
















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Masculine Nouns.
Faninine Nouns.
Masculine Nouns.

Feminine Soru.

AX climax, ran


silen. alec K

prix, price.

EXC.-croix, coas; pois, arack, arrack. |

nut; paix, peace: voix, roice; perdrix, partridge ;

poix, pitch. bal, ball.

courroux, anger.

Exc.- chaux, lime ; faux, gel, salt.

NX lynx, lynt.

scythe ; toux, cough soleil, Sun. pol, soil.

Z calcul, calculation.

AZ gaz, gas.

nez. nose.

rice. Adam, Adam.

nz, harem, harem. daim, deer.

Exc --faim, hunger ; maleLom,

faim, excessive hunger.


J. HAMILTON (Glasgow): We shall be glad to answer his question, but it N

is not sufficiently definite to us; we are not sawyers, and can't tell what

things are understood in it; if he were beside us, we might settle the matter cadran, diul.

in one minule.-J. S. SILSDEX: We do not know the price of “The Peots. examen, examination,

leuch and its Assailants ;" inquire in the Row.-W. Hogg (Cargyereery): raisin, grape.

Exc.-fin, end ; main, hand. We advise him to stick to the Arithmetic, and to study Dr. Beard's Lessuas not preceded by is or gi, si, ti, Exc.-chanson, song; cuis- in English ; he may take to Drawing hearily as a relief from the weight of

the vther studies. There are some mispelt words in bis Dole.WALLACE ri.

Bon, laking ; contrefaçon,

ROBERTS (Exeter) : The History of Greece by Keightley is very good, and bâton, stick. counterfeiting; façon, will repay perusal

. We can't tell how long it will take to learn short-basd Razon, turs.

mode; moisson, harvest; 90 as to be able to write it with ease and rapidity.-M. R.: We do not blason, Vluczon,

moussons, trade-ucinds; know any remedy for stammering, except speaking very slowly till the rançon, ransom.

defect be overcome.-G. CHEMICUS (Chester) should study the Lessons in bison, bison; horizon, hori- ISON maison, house.

French in the P. E. in preference to any other.-SCHOLASTICUS (Fuitam) zon ; oison, gosling : poi. Exceptions opposite.

will find no manual for the study of etymology equal to Dr. Beard's Lessons

in English in the P. E. Tropes will come in course. The best books to son, poison ; tison, fire

read for school managment and teaching are the Reports of the Privy brand, GION région, region.

Council of Education, where the experience of hundreds is detailed. SION pension, pension.

JAMES BELL(Linlithgow):In reference to the query of multiplyiog 6. G. bastion, bastion; bestion, TION question, question.

by 2s. 6d., let us hear what Dr. James Thomson says in his very excellent Jigure-head of a ship. XION réflexion, reflection,

treatise on Arithmetic: “ It may be proper to caution learners against we

absurdity of attempting to multiply money by money, This caution will oot Р

appear unnecessary, if it be considered that whole pages have been filled

with instructions how to perform this problem ; and it has been attempted drap, cloth.

to be shown, even with the semblance of geometrical demonstration, that if galop, gallop.

23. 60. be multiplied by 2s.6d., the product may be either 3 fd. or 6s. 3d! Let it coup, blowo.

be considered, however, that iu multiplication, a quantity is simply repeated a given number of times; thus, if 25. 6d. be repealed 4 times, the a count is 108.; if 5 times, 128. 6d., &c. To talk, therefore, of multiplying 23. 60. by

2s.6d., or, which is precisely the same, of repeating 2s. 6. 2s.6d, times is coq-d'Inde, turkey.

absolute nonsense.” After this dictum of Dr. Thomson, late Professor of Mathematics in the University of Glasgow, and one of the most clear-beaded

writers on mathematical subjects who has appeared within the last century. char, car,

it would seem presumption on our humble part to say one word. But we fer, iron,

Exc.-cuiller, spoon ; mer, shall give our own opinion, and speaking unto the operatives of this cous

try, as unto wise men, they will at once judge what we say, Well, then, us plaisir, pleasure.

chair, flesh.

we have said before, in innumerable cases of the application of Proporucu

we have to multiply money by money, and obtain a sensible result. For es. or, gold.

ample, take this question," if £l gain 25. 6d. in a certain time, how mach not preceded by e,

Exc.--tour, tower.

will 28. 6d. gain in the same time?" The answer to this question will be di azur,

for, as £!: £}::£*: £133, the answer. Again, take this question, bonheur, happiness; caur, EUR chaleur, heat.

“ ir 1s. gain 2s.6d. in a certain time, how much will 23. 60. gain in the same heart; cheur, chorus; dé- hauteur, height.

time?" The answer to this question will be 63. 3d.; for, as Is. : 2s. 6d. :: nominateur, denominator ; Exceptions opposite. 23. 60: 63. 34. the answer. In both these cases, 2s. 6d. has ir be multiplied déshonneur, dishonor ; équa

by 2s.6d.; but the result is very different; and why? because in the first trur, equalor; extérieur,

case, the gain 23. 6d. is considered, and really is of a pound; whereas in exterior ; honneur, honour ;

the other case the gain 25. Gd. is considered, and really is aj times one skillisg: intérieur, interior ; labeur,

a pound being the standard of comparison in the one question, and a shule labour; malheur, misfor

ling the standard in the other question. It is not, therefore, absurd to mul.

tiply money by money, provided that the factors are considered as parts or tune; multiplicateur, mul

multiples of a certain unit of money, and that in the multiplication the multitiplier ; pleurs, tears ; ré

plier is considered an abstract number, or a number of times, or a fraction gulateur, regulator; venti

of a time, according to the nature of the question; while the multiplicand lateur, ventilator.

retains its concrete value, and the divisor is also deemed an abstract number. S bras,

LITERARY NOTICES. grès, sandstone. souris, smile.

amaryllis, amaryllis ; bre- THB AUTOGRAPHS FOR FREEDOM: being the contributions of Mrs. Harriet os, bone. bir, sheep; fois, time; sou

Beecher stowe, and 35 other eminent writers, to the great cause of Negro blocus, Ulockade.

ris, mouse ; vis, screw; 04- Emancipation; to which the Autograph of each writer is appended.-Nov temps. weather. sis, oasis.


man Beecher (father of Mrs. Beecher Stowe). Dedicated to the Working T

Men of the United States.-Preparing for immediate publication, price

28. 6d. bound. climat, clima'e.


forêt, forest.

II, are now ready, price 1s. each. lit, bed.

nuit, night.

THE LADIES DRAWING-Room Book, in which are introduced the cachot, dungeon.


choicest Engravings from the " Illustrated-Exhibitor and Magazine of Art,"

and the " Ladies Work Book ;" the whole forming a beautiful Volume for bout, end.

the Lrawing-room. The work is printed on fine Plate Paper, and got up is pont, bridge.

dent, tooth ; gent, people ; | the first style of Art. Price 108.64.

jument, mare. tort, wrong.

part, share; la plupart, the Printed and Published by John CASSBLL, 9, La Belle Sauvage-sard, most,

Ludgate-hul.-Februiry 5, 1853,

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Fig. 63.

iged as

COUNTLESS variety of Fig. 62 is an outline showing the character of the oak leaf.
symmetrical forms suit. It is to be drawn by first describing an ellipse.
able for the application
of the preceding lessons, and a drawing.

The pupil will here observe the difference between an outline

Any arrangement of lines will form an is found in the leaves and flowers of plants and trees. With the excep. tion of crystallized bodies, there is, perhaps no ciass of natural figures, in which geometrical characters are more strongly developed, or more readily detected. Leaves, flowers and shells, have formed the elements of decoration from the earliest period. They are used by civilwell as

barbarous nations ;

and during the progress of architecture and the imitative arts, they have held a large place in that of ornamentation. These natural productions may

outline: but a drawing is a representation of the actual be represented with per

appearance of any real object. Fig. 63 is a drawing, exhibit. fect geometrical symmetry, without impairing their natural ing oak leaves in several positions. characteristics ; and this property has recommended them to the architect, as elements for beautifying structures raised

Fig. 64,

You will of course draw according to the strictest rule. “Knops and flowers," as well

the representation of any as “ Palm trees and open flowers" find their places in the

object with more certainty, ornamentation of the tabernacle and in the beautifying of

when you are able to refer Solomon's Temple; and however stiffly they may have imi

its leading traits or charac. tated their graceful forms, the lotus and the palm were to the

teristics to an outline. An Egyptian architects what the acanthus was afterwards to the

acorn, for instance, presents Greek, the standard of symmetry and elegance. The beauti

a very simple outline; but ful adaptations of the acanthus in the ornamentation of Greek

when considered, as in fig. architecture have descended to us, and seem incapable of

64, to be compounded of a improvement. The capital of the Corinthian column is still

circle and an ellipse, it is unmatched in architecture as a combination of beauty and

more readily understood, richness. There needed, indeed, but a glance through the

and much easier to draw.
Great Exhibition of 1851 to show that the acanthus is still
used for ornamental purposes precisely as the Greeks left it.

Fig. 63.
When we take up the subject of ornament in these lessons, we
shall have more to say on this head. It will be sufficient for
the present to observe that successful rivalry in these exquisite



Fig. 62.

results of ancient art, must be based on the same principles,
and that “trees, plants, and flowers," wide-spread and viewed
as they exist in their natural forms, offer to the modern, as to
the ancient architect, the great store for decorative art, un-
exhausted and inexhaustible.


Fig 65 is a branch of an ash-tree. Here you will observe that the outline of the leaf is formed from an ellipse, with additions giving pointed extremities.


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