Εικόνες σελίδας

Licet, it is lawful, permitted; licuit, or licitum est, licere.
Decet, it becomes, it is seemly; decuit, decere.
Dedecet, it is unseemly, improper; dedecuit, dedecere.

The person who is the subject of the feeling, or liable to the duty, is put in the accusative case; as, te oportet in litteras in cumbere, you ought to apply to literature, or to study. Besides an accusative of the person, these verbs, in general, may have a genitive of the thing, e. g., miseret me tuae calamitatis, I am sorry for thy calamity. We may exhibit their construction, thus:

Pudet me ignaviae, I am ashamed Pudet nos ignaviae, we are of idleness ashamed of idleness.

Pudet te ignaviae, thou art Pudet vos ignaviae, ye are ashamed of idleness. ashamed of idleness. Pudet illum ignaviae, he is Pudet illos ignayiae, they are ashamed of idleness, ashamed of idleness,

Oportet, however, has for its subject two accusatives, thus: oportet te hoc facere, you ought to do this. Libet and licet require a dative of the person, e.g., libet mihi, I am allowed; licet vobis, you are allowed. Of licet, there is the imperative form liceto; otherwise, the subjunctive present is used for the imperative, e. g., pudeat te, shame upon thee. For the most

art, these verbs are without participles. Yet we find the fol

owing:—Deeens, libens, licens, poenitens, liciturus, puditurus, and pigendus, pudendus, poenitendus; also, the gerunds, poenitendi, pudendo, and pigendum.

There is another class of

Personal Verbs used as Impersonal,

Interest, and refert, it concerns. Accidit, evenit, contingit, it happens. Accedit, it is added, moreover. Appåret, it appears, it is clear. Paret, liquet, it is obvious, apparent, Conducit, it is conducive to, advantageous, Expédit, prodest, it is useful. Convênit, it is suitable. Nocet, it is injurious. Fallit, fugit, praeterit (me), it escapes me, escapes my notice, I know not. I’lacet, placuit, and placitum est, it pleases. Sufficit, it is sufficient. Suppétit, there is a supply. Succurrit, aid is given. Vacat, there is a want. Stat, it stands, it is agreed. Constat, it is made out, proved, Praestat, it is better. Restat, it remains. Solet, assolet, it is customary. Attinet, pertinet, it regards, relates to. Est–licet, e.g., est videre, it is to be seen, you may see.

There may be added
Passive Impersonals.

Curritur, it is run, that is, men run, they run.

Venitur, it is come, they come ; ventum est, they have come.

Bibitur, bibitum est, they drink, drinking is going on.

Traditur, it is handed down, reported.

Scribitur, it is written,

Ridetur, men laugh.

Interest and refert take a genitive of the person, but instead of the genitive of the personal pronoun, the ablative is used, meå, tuâ, suá, nostrá, vestrå.


Demôto, demessui, demessum 3, I cut down, mow; commentarium, i, n. a note, record, a note-book, with pl. commentaria, archives, or national records; nefas, n indeclinable, that which is too wicked to be uttered (ne, not, and fari, to speak), wrong, impious; libido, libidinis, f. desire, lust; interimo, interemi, interemptum 3, I slay, take off; ignavia, ae, f. idleness sloth, cowardice; comitia, orum, n. the Comitia, or public assembly of the Roman people; interemptio, önis, f. murder; honesté, honourably; turpiter, basely.


Interest omnium recta facere; noctu magis quam interdiusine topitribus fulgurat; et jam lucescebat omniaque sub oculis orant; omnia notescunt; et vesperascit et non noverunt viam; me taedet

sermonis tui; quid nostrá refert victum esse Antonium? ubi jam vesperaverat; mea mater, tuime miseret, mei piget; praeceptoris multum interest discipulos summo studio in litteras incumbere; magnopere meå interest utte videam; ut subito, ut propere, ut valide tonuit! non ante demetuntur fructus quam gelaverit; lacte pluit; omnium magni interest feliciter wivere; in nostris commentariis scriptum habemus, Jove tomante, et fulgurante, comitia populi habere nefas; sagittis, plumbo et saxis grandinat; pluet credo hôdie; totum illud spatium quâpluituretningitur ; pluvius est dies; interdum ningit; eamus, lucescit jam ; sunt homines quos libidinis suae neque pudeat néque taedeat; taedet ipsum Pompeium vehementerque poemitet; pudet piget que mei me; fratris me quidem piget pudetgue; sapientis est, nihil quod poenitere possit facere; Alexander, quum interemisset Clitum, vix, a se manus abstinuit, tanta vis fuit poenitendi; tanquam ita fieri non solum oporteret sed etiam necesse esset; est etiam aliquid quod non oporteat etiam silicet; adde etiam, si libet, velocitatem; quod tibi lubet, idem mihi lubet.


I am sorry for my sins; he is weary of life; is he weary of life? they are not weary of life; this interests all men; this interests thee and me; does it interest us? they are weary of our conversation; it grows dark; it rains; does it rain it hails; it lightens; it thunders; it will rain all day (totum per diem); it snows; it rains ; F. home, for it grows dark; those men repent of their lusts; I am ashamed of my brother; Alexander repented the murder of his friend Clitus; it behoves thee to repent of thy sins; to do good is the interest of all; my mother repents and grieves; they run ; men laugh; are you ashamed of your idleness? they are ashamed of their idleness; I like (it pleases me) to do good; dost thou like to read 2 to love father and mother is seemly; it is unbecoming (disgraceful) to lie; that escapes thy notice; it is better to die honourably than to live basely; will that escape your notice 2

Aesopii Fabulae.

CAN Is MoR D Ax.

Canimordãcipaterfamilias jussit tintinnabulum ex aere appendi, utomnes eum cavere possent. Ille vero aeristinnitu gaudebat, et quasi virtutis suae praemium esset, alios canes praese contemmere coepit. Cui unus senior, “O te stolidum,” inquit, “qui ignorare videris, is to tinnitu pravitatem morum tuerum indicari 2"—Haec fabula scripta est in eos, qui sibi insignibus flagitiorum suorum placent.


Lupus canem videns bene saginatum, “quanta est,” inquit, “felicitas tual tu, ut videtur, laute vivis, ut ego fame enécor.” Tum canis, “licet,” inquit, “mecum in urbem venias et eaden felicitate fruaris.” Lupus conditionem accepit. Dum una eunt, animadvertit lupus in collo canis attritos pilos. “Quid hoc est?” inquit. “Numjugum sustines; cervix enim tua tota est glabra.” “Nihil est” canis respondit. “Sed interdiume alligant, ut noctu sim vigilantior; atque haec sunt vestigia collaris, quod cervici circumdāri solet.” Tum lupus, “Vale,” inquit, “amice nihil moror felicitatem servitute emtam '''-Haec fabula docet, liberis nullum commodum tanti esse, quod servitutis calamitatem compensare possit.

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You have seen that all the rivers and rills which issue from the mountains, are more or less charged with earthy particles, which they have worn from the rocks over which they have flowed, and which they hold in suspension as long as their current is rapid, or their waters are agitated. In proportion to the length of their course, these streams become more and more loaded with sand and mud, according as their power of abrasion is increased or continued. These adventitious materials, taken up by the rivers, are suspended in the fluid, until they are carried onward and deposited in a lake, or in the sea. If the stream has a feeble current, much of the pebbles and gravel which they bear are thrown down in the bed of the river, and form those alluvial plains which were described in the lastlesson. But by far the greatest quantity of this detritus is carried down to the mouths of rivers; that is, to their junction with other streams, or with the waters of a lake or a sea. There they form accumulations of sand and mud which, since the days of Herodotus, are called Deltas. DELTA is the name of the fourth letter in the Greek alphabet, and is thus formed A. This designation was originally given by the Greeks to that part of Lower Egypt which extends from the Mediterranean up to the point now occupied by Cairo, and which has a triangular shape something like the

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The Delta of the Nile.

You see that the whole of this district is in the form of the Greek Delta. It is evident that this form or shape has been given to the country by the river Nile, which empties itself into the sea by different mouths, as the wood-cut represents. Hence, wherever there are found alluvial tracts at the mouths of great rivers which enter the sea by two or more diverging branches, they are called, by geologists, Deltas, though such accumulations may have nothing of the triangular shape.

A former lesson has taught you that when a river is charged with detritus, the middle of the stream is the portion most loaded, because it is there that the velocity is greatest. Whenever that velocity becomes diminished, either by a plain, or o, the waters of a lake or of a sea, the mouth of the river becomes wider, and forms what is called an estuary. At its junction with the calm water of the lake, or when its velocity is checked by the power of the sea, the detritus sinks, and a central deposit is formed. To this deposit fresh accessions are made every moment, day and night, by incessant

contributions from the turbid waters of the river, till, at last, the detritus deposited rises to the surface as dry ground, and forms an i. No sooner is it an island, than, necessarily, it divides the river into two streams. The island, thus formed by river sediments, keeps con. stantly increasing in length, and enlarging in breadth. What is most remarkable in the formation of this deposit is, that the enlargement, or the widening, of the island is in the portion nearest the sea. The part which is towards the stream is being perpetually abraded by the force of the current rushing against its sides: but, in the part where it fronts the sea, there is quiet or dead water, in which the detritus is constantly subsiding and settlin The formation .# the permanence of this island, make the two branches of the river on each side of it to divergemore and more. The result of this divergence is that the island itself, between the two branches and the sea, will become more and more of the shape of Delta, or of a triangular form. The river has now two branches. If the river be large, each of these branches will be charged with detritus. As each branch joins the sea, each will again deposit its detritus at that junction; and, consequently, each will form a fresh delta of its own, upon the same principle as the main river did. By this process other islands will appear, and new branches of the stream will be constantly formed. Some of these branch currents will be diverging, and some converging, in all direc. tions, until the surface will appear as a net-work of rivers, inclosing numerous portions of land, all of which are, as soon in the wood-cut, more or less of a deltoid or triangulu character. See fig. 56. It is not only a possible case, but it is a fact in physical geography that, by the constant increase of river deposits and by the checks which these diverging and converging streams receive, all the deltas described may be formed into one large alluvial plain, that is, into one continuous delta, lo that of the Thames, from near Reading down to Sheerness," like that depicted in the last lesson (fig. 55). Inundations, freshets, or floods, have a great share in the formation and growth of deltas. When rivers become greatly and rapidly swollen, their channels can no longer contino water supplied by heavy rains, or by melted snows; to therefore overflow all the plains and lowlands about the mouths. The waters, which spread beyond the two banks of the river, will always run slower than those in the bed of the stream. This outspread water will soon precipitate their sand or mud which it holds in suspension, and the sedimen, which settles down, forms a layer of a new rock. The land, which is thus covered by a flood, is likely toha": surface that is a little indented or undulated, as is represen in fig. 57. These curves in the surface of the indented plain will produce four results. 1. The fresh layers of sand or silt deposited will not be horizontal, nor of equal thickno: 2. Wherever there is a little curving or delving in the * of the soil, there will be a current of moving water. 3. Woo the flood begins to subside, some of the upper portions of * undulating surface will appear above the sheet of woo." islands. 4. The water running between these will do!” these curves or hollows, so that eventually the surface will after the water is gone, be more uneven than before. wit every fresh flood, these effects will be increased. Pro ments will be deposited on the upper parts of the undulo so as to raise them higher than before. The intero: hollows also will be excavated deeper and deeper, tillo become permanent branches of the main river. In the Po of time the alluvial plain will have the same deltoid cho or triangular shape, and the landscape will have the samo. like appearance of rivers and islands, as was the case." instance first mentioned. You now see that deltas are formed in two ways. They are formed by rivers precipitating their detritus * eur junction with a lake, or a sea, and by rivers scooping on channels in an alluvial plain. You also see that there * o: ways in which deltas grow in magnitude. They go". extending into a lake or sea, and along a coast; o; grow in height or depth, as the surface rises higher with every new layer deposited by a flood. The increase of deltas, by i.; into the sea and alo the coast, will be at once understood by a glance at the delta


of the Nile, in fig. 56. Their increase in elevation also will be understood by referring to fig. 55, in our last lesson, and by a study of the following diagrams,

Fig. 57.

Here you have a section across a river bed between high lands. H H are the high lands on each side of a valley ala, and z is the bed of the river when there is no flood. When the river is flooded, the turbid waters will extend over the whole section, and deposit their sediments on the surface of the entire area. The amount of this deposit will be greatest on the immediate banks of the river—partly because the first waters of the overflow will be on those lines, and partly because as the flood drains back to the bed of the river, the last precipitations will be there also. . By a repetition of this

process the banks will become so elevated as never to be
covered by a flood. This is explained in fig. 58.
Fig. 58.

Sediments deposited by Floods where a River has raised its ‘Banks.
" Here it is shown that when a river has, in the course of
time, raised its bed and its banks by successive deposits, and
the flood spread over the extent of the valley, the water will
be kept back in the hollows at a a, until it is evaporated, and
the whole sediment rests as a new layer on the surface. It is
evident that this valley will be gradually elevated, so long as
the floods continue thus to operate in adding new layers.
I will now relate to you a few of the most remarkable facts
connected with the formation and extension of deltas.
Your attention has been called to the delta of the Nile, as
being one of the most illustrative specimens. It was a very
ancient saying among the Egyptians that “Egypt was the
gift of the Nile.” So may the Dutch of the present day say
that “Holland is the gift of the Rhine.” If you look at fig.
56, representing a .# map of Egypt, you will see that the
whole appearance of the lowlands shows that, at one time, the
Mediterranean formed a bay up to the rocks near Memphis,
some miles above where Cairo 'now stands. The present base
of these rocks is now washed by the inundations of the Nile,
at an elevation of 70 or 80 feet obove the level of the Medi-
You are to consider that when the Nile, at a very remote
age, began to flow, the river met the sea at these rocks. It
immediately began to deposit its detritus on that coast, and it
has continued the process ever since. The bed of the river
itself, and the entire valley covered by its inundations, are
daily undergoing a gradual increase of elevation, varying in
different places, and lessening in proportion as the river
approaches the sea. . Since thus the Nile precipitates so much
o its sediment in the inundated parts of Higher Egypt, the
alluvial deposit does not cause the delta to extend rapidly
towards the sea. Nevertheless, some ancient cities which
were once close to the shore, are now a mile or more inland.
The earlier geographers mention several mouths of the Nile
which, in the present day, are all silted up.
The bed of the Nile keeps rising, in pace with the general
elevation of the soil caused by annual deposition; but the
banks of the river are much higher than the flat land at a
distance. These elevated banks and flat lands are represented
in fig. 58. They are consequently very, seldom covered
by water, even during the highest inundations. That the
bed of the river, and the soil of the valley of the Nile, are
gradually rising, is evident, from the following facts. The in:
crease of sediment in the bed of the river makes the annual

flood to spread over a wider and wider area, and hence the alluvial soil encroaches on districts that were once adorned with statues and temples, which the waters never reached three thousand years ago, but which are now covered to the depth of six or seven feet with the deposits of the Nile.

Wherever deep cuttings have been made in the alluvial deposit of the Nile, it is found that the mud is thinly stratified. In each annual lamina, the upper part of the layer is of lighter coloured earth than the lower. The layers of each year separate easily from one another. The annual layers vary, of course in thickness, i. i* to the quantity of mud brought down by each inundation. The mean annual thickness of a layer is near Cairo, that of a sheet of thin pasteboard: a stratum, therefore, of two or three feet in thickness, represents the do of a thousand years.

he extension of the Delta, as it protrudes into the Medi

terranean, is easily ascertained, both by historical records and by soundings. At a small distance from the shore of the Delta, the depth of the sea, is about 12 fathoms. This depth is found to increase gradually to 50 fathoms, and then, at once the depth is 380 fathoms. This was probably the original . of the sea, before the Nile made it shallower by fluviatile matter.

The Delta of the Nile commences, as you see in fig. 56 100 miles in a direct line from the M. to' . Cairo. Its breadth on the coast is at least 230 miles. "The whole area of this Delta, with the exception of a few sand-hills and artificial mounds or tumuli, is a perfectly level plain intersected in every direction by channels from the main river. The fall of the Nile, from Cairo to the sea, is only one foot in 16,000. The geological principles developed by the Delta of the Nile are found, with certain modifications, in every other delta on the face of the globe. It would be impossible, in a lesson like this, to detail the formation and progress of the Delta of the Rhine in the German Ocean, the Delta of the Rhone in the Mediterranean, of the Po in the Adriatic, of the Danube in the Black Sea, of the Ganges in the Indian Ocean, of the Qrinoco in the Atlantic, and of the Mississippi in the Gulf of Mexico. The physical geography of all these you must read for yourself. The examination of the structure and contents of a delta is a study of great importance to a geologist. This is evident, when you consider that in these deltas will be found imbedded, leaves and branches of trees, remains of animals that fall into the streams, together with shells and other exuviae. Imagine that any large delta, say of the Nile, Ganges, or the Mississippi, were ever raised to a considerable elevation, by volcanic agency. In that case the geologist would be able, by examining the fossil remains, to determine easily the character of the animals and plants of the countries through which those mighty rivers had flowed. As in the present deltas of England, he would find the bones of the horse, the deer, and other domesticated animals, associated with the trunks of trees and the leaves of F. and also river-shells and sea-shells mingled with human bones and works of art, so in that of the Ganges he would detect the animals and vegetables of India, and in that of the Mississippi those of North America.

An ancient delta of this description, elevated by volcanic power, is found in England, in what is called the Wealden of Kent and Sussex. The arguments that are employed to account for the contents of this delta, are as clear and as satisfactory as any that could be employed to account for the cables and anchors, and ships' timber, which some future naturalist may find imbedded in the Goodwin Sands, should they ever become an elevated island.

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1. Your friend whom we saw the day before yesterday is sick; is he not? 2. It was an agreeable evening; was it not, my friend? 3. Yes, it was, ...i shall never forget the pleasure we had. 4. Your brother was also there; was he not? 5. It is yet early; is it not? 6. No, it is very late, and we must go. 7. I have waited already an hour for my friend, but still he has not come. 8. I am waiting for our servant. 9. Do not wait for him, I have just sent him out. 10. After I arrived in London I went directly and waited upon my friend, for whom I had letters of recommendation. 11. May I serve you with a cup of chocolate. 12. No, I thank you. 13 Will you, not visit us before you go to the continent? 14. Ye, I shall pay you a visit. 15. May I help you to a glass of ale * 16. I thank you, I never drink it. 17. I have heard the news, but I do not know what to say to it. 18. You speak French and German, don't you?


Of all the islands which belong to Europe, the most imF." in political and commercial importance are the British les. Under this head are included Great Britain, anciently called Albion or Britannia, and divided into the two countries of * and Scotland; and Ireland, anciently called Hibernia; with various interjacent (lying between) and circumjacent (lying around) islands of much smaller dimensions. The principal of the latter are the Isle of Man, in the Irish Sea, situated at nearly an equal distance from the three countries, England, Scotland, and Ireland; the Isle of Anglesea, which is separated from the mainland in Wales (a part of England by the Menai Strait; the Scilly Isles, anciently calle Cassiterides or the Islands of Tin, adjacent to Cornwall, the real tin region; the Isle of Wight, south of and forming part of Hampshire; the Hebrides, or western islands of Scotland; the Orkney and Shetland Islands, north of Scotland; and the Channel Islands, Guernsey, Jersey, Alderney, and Sark, which lie to the north-west of France. Next to the British Islands, the most important in the north of Europe are those which belong to and form part of the kingdom of Denmark, and lie in the channel or passage to the Baltic, called the Kattegat, viz., Zealand, which contains the capital of that kingdom; with Funen, Laaland, Falster, Moen, Fermern, Langland, Alsen, and various others. In other parts of the Baltic, are the islands of Rugen, Bornholm, Oland, Gothland, Aland, Oesel, and Dago. The islands called the Azores, or Western Islands, which are generally considered to belong to Europe, and of which Terceira and St. Michael are the principal, are situated about 800 miles W. of Portugal, to which they belong. The Island of Iceland, which belongs to Denmark, and is celebrated for its hot springs and its volcanoes, is situated on the edge of the arctic circle, and having its northern point within the Arctic Ocean; the Faroe Isles, which belong to the same kingdom, and are situated N.W. of the Shetland Isles, once formed the site of the first meridian,

to which all nations referred the longitude, and it is to be

regretted that this did not retain its position as the universal meridian for the world at large, and for the simplification of the mode of reckoning the longitude in different countries. The islands which lie in the most northern regions of Europe, are the Loffoden Isles, W. of Norway; Spitzbergen, and Nova Zembla, in the Arctic Ocean; and 3. which lies chiefly in the same ocean. The islands of the greatest importance in the south of Europe, and which lie in the Mediterranean Sea, are the following:—Corsica, which belongs to France, lying in the Tuscan ś, Sardinia, S. of Corsica, and separated from it by the Strait of Bonifacio; the Balearic Isles, viz., Majorca, Minorca, Ivica, and Formentera, E. of Spain; Sicily, S.W. of Naples, and separated from it by the Strait of Messina; Malta, S. of Sicily and belonging to Britain; the Ionian Islands, viz., Corfu, Cephalonia, Zante, Sta. Maura, Thiaki or Ithaca, Cerigo, Paxo, &c., W. of Greece, and S.W. of Turkey in the Ionian sea; Candia or Crete, S.E. of Greece; the islands of the Archipelago, viz., Negropont (anciently Eubaea), Andro, Syra, Naxia, Paros, Antiparos, Hydra, Spezzia, Egina, &c., lying E. and S.E. of Greece; and Lemnos or Stalimene, sbos or Mitilini, Scio or Chios, Samos, Patmos, Rhodes, and many others, lying to the E. of Turkey in Asia, or rather Asia Minor; Cyprus, situated in the Levant, which belongs to Fo and whose chief town is Nicosia. The principal Capes (Lat, caput, a head) in Europe are the following:—The North Cape, on the Island of Mageroe, in lat. 71° 10', and long. 268 1" E., is commonly reckoned the most northern point of Europe, but this, according to some authors, is Nordkün, in lat. 71* 6' N.; the north point of Nova Zembla is in lat. 77° 4'N, and long. 77° 5' E.; the Naze (German, the nose or beak), the most northern point of Norway, on the Skager-rack; the Skaw, or most northern point of Jutland, in Denmark; Cape La Hogue, in France; Capes Ortegal and Finisterre, in Spain, of which the latter, as the name indicates, (Lat., finis, the end, terrae, of the earth,) was deemed by the ancients the end or uttermost extremity of the world; Cape Roca, near Lisbon, and Cape St. Vincent, in Portugal; Cape Trafalgar and Europa Point, lat. 36° 6' N., long. 5° 21' W., in Spain, of which the latter is the most southerly point, in Europe, although Tarifa Point, lat. 36° 1' N., long. 5° 36' W., is often considered as this point; Cape Spartivento and Cape di Leuca in Italy, and Cape Matapan, in Greece (the Morea), the latter cape being in lat. 36° 22' N., and long. 22° 28′E.; Cape Passaro, in Sicily; and others of less importance. In the British Islands, Dunnet Head, and not Cape Wrath, is the most northerly point of Great Britain ; also, Lizard Point, and not Land's End, is the most southerly oint; the most northerly point of Ireland is Mullin or Malin ead, and the most southerly point Mizen Head, and not Cape Clear, which is on an island, called Clare Island. The northern Highlands of Europe are those which contain the Scandinavian chain of mountains, extending from the Naze to the North Cape, and consisting of the Lang-field, the Dovre-field, and the Kölen ranges, of which the highest point is Sneehātten in the middle range, about 8,120 feet above the level of the sea; and the Uralian or Ouralian chain, extending from the shores of the Arctic Ocean to beyond the source of the Ural river, which falls into the Caspian Sea, and forms, with both, the boundary between Europe and Asia. The south-eastern Highlands of Europe are the Caucasian chain of mountains, between the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea, of which the highest peak is Mount Elburz, about 18,500 feet above the level of the sea, and the highest mountain in Europe. The southern Highlands of Europe consist of the Balkan (anciently Haemus) mountains in Turkey, the highest points being about 10,000 feet above the level of the sea; the Eastern Alps (German, mountains), stretching from the Balkan range to the commencement of the Western Alps, north of the Adriatic, of which the highest summits are Mont Blanc and Mont Rosa, each more than 15,000 feet above the level of the sea, and which border Switzerland on the south, and Italy on the north; the Carpathian Mountains in the north of Hungary; the Hercynian Mountains, in Germany; the Cevennes and the Vosges, in France; the Pyrenees, between France and Spain, of which the highest points or peaks are Mont Perdu and Maladetta, each more than 11,000 feet high; Wenletta and

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