« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
to the man
§ 13.—THE ARTICLE.
Le père et la mère sont au déses. The father and mother are in de
poir, B. DE ST. PIERRE. pair. (1.) The article is a word prefixed to a noun, or to a word used substantively, to determine the extent of its signification. L'amitié dans nos caurs verse un Friendship pours a peaceful happen
ness into our hearts. (2.) Modern French grammarians recognise only one article,le. L'honneur aux grands cours
est Honour is dearer than life to necha (3.) This article, contracted with the preposition de, is often
plus cher que la vie.
hearts. used before a word in a partitive sense. 1$ 78.)
CORNEILLE. (4.) The words un, masc., une, fem., answering to the indefi- Les filles et les garçons chantèrent The boys and girls sang in choru. nite article a or on in English, are now very properly* classed en cheur. B. DE ST. PIERRE. with the numeral adjectives. We shall, however, for the sake sur les rives du Gange on voit on the banks of the Ganges ue me of convenience, devote a few lines to them under this head. fleurir l'ébène. DELILLE. the ebony in bloom
The violet conceals herself timilly in (5.) The article le, the, is la for the feminine, and les for the La violette se cache timidement au
milieu des filles de l'ombre.
the midst of the daughters of the plural.
DELEUZE. shade. (6.) The article is subject to two kinds of changes : elision Le remords se réveille au cri de la Remorse is aroused by the eyes [$ 146) and contraction.
DE BELLOY. nature. (7.) Elision is the suppression of the letters e, a, which are La moitié des humains vit aux The half of mankind lives at the replaced by an apostrophe ('] before a vowel, or an h mute
dépens de l'autre, DESTOUCHES. expense of the other. (see L. 3 (11)]: thus,
§ 14-1.—THE ADJECTIVE. l'esprit, the mind,
instead of le esprit l'amitié, the friendship,
(1.) The adjective serves to denote the quality or manner of l'homme, the man,
le homme being of the noun. l'humanité, humanity,
la humanité. (2.) Adjectives are of two sorts : qualifying adjectives and
determining adjectives. (8.) Contraction is the union of the article le, les, with one
(3.) We call qualifying odjectives those which add to the idea of the prepositions, à, de. Thus, we say by contraction :
of the object, that of a quality proper to it; as bon, goed; au livre, to the book, instead of à le livre
noble, noble ; courageux, courageous. aux fruits, to the fruits,
à les fruits du livre, of the book,
de le livre
(4.) Determining adjectives are those which add to the idea of des fruits, of the fruits,
de les fruits.
the object, that of a particular limitation or determination; 23 (9.) The contractions au, du, are not used before masculine quelque, some ; tout, all ; autre, other ; mon, my; nul, no ; un,
one ; deux, two. words commencing with a vowel, or an h mute, nor before feminine words :à l'homme,
LESSONS IN LATIN-No. XLII. à l'ami,
to the friend
By John R. BEARD, D. D.
IMPERSONAL VERBS. (10.) The article used before words taken in a partitive sense Those verbs are called impersonal, that is, without persons, [$ 78 (1)), comes in connexion or contraction with the prepo, which have not the ordinary persons. When I say pater sition de; it is rendered in English by some or any, expressed amat, father loves, I use a personal verb, of which pater
, in the or understood :
third person singular, is the subject. When I say ego rideo, du pain, m. some bread, or of the bread (a part of) sed tu fles, I laugh, but thou weepest, I use personal verbs, having de l'argent, m. money, some money, of the money
(a part of respectively the persons ego and tu, I and thou, for their subde la viande, f. meat, some meat, of the meat del'argenterie, f. silver-plate, some silver plate, of the silver-plate (a part of which has none of the ordinary persons for its subject. Yet is
la part of jects. If, however, I say gelat, it freezes, I employ a verb des livres, m. books, some books, of the books (a part of the form of she verb gelat that of the third person singular,
(11.) The English indefinite article, a or an, is rendered in Hence it appears, that impersonal verbs are found in the third French by un for the masculine, and une for the feminine ; person singulur. In some sense, then, they have one person, when those words are connected with the preposition de, the é namely, the third. They may therefore be called uni-personal of the preposition is elided :
verbs. Uni-personal is á less inaccurate designation for these Masculine.
verbs than impersonal. un homme, une femme,
From these remarks, we may define impersonal verbs as those d'un homme, of or from a man d'une femme, of or from a woman which express an action without reference to any defined à un homme, at or to a man. à une femme,
at or to a woman,
subject. Such are Résumé of the above Observations.
Impersonal Verbs relating to Atmospheric Phenomena. le, before a masculine word, Şcommencing with la, before a feminine word,
Gelat, it freezes. 1', before a word of either gen- commencing with
Fulminat, it strikes with Diluculat, it dauns. der, 1 a vowel or h mute,
Tonat, it thunders. (lightning, Lucescit, the day breaka. les, for t'ie plural, in all cases.
Grandinat, it hails.
Vesperascit, it grows dark, or, du, before a masculine word, commencing with
Pluit, it rains. de la, before a feminine word,
evening comes on.
Ningit, it snows. de l' before a word of either genos commencing with
Noctescit, the night approacher.
Connexions are rare in which these verbs have a definite subder,
a vowel or h mute, des, for the plural, in all cases.
ject, e. g., Jupiter tonat, Jupiter fulgurat; dies vesperascit
, au, before a masculine word,
coelum vesperascit ; lapides pluunt; we find, however, lapidi
commencing with à la, before a feminine woni,
bus pluit, and sanguinem fuit. Besides vesperascit, there is
a consonant, à l, before a word of either gen- scommencing with at or to the,
the form advesperascit, and the perfect vesperavit, der, a vowel or h maite,
In a wider sense, grammarians class among impersonal Ferbs aux, for the plural, in all cases,
some that denote before a masculine noun,
States of Mind, Duty, or Necessity, une, before a feminine noun, d'un, before a masculine noun,
Miseret, it occasions pity; misertum, and miseritum est d'ure before a feminine noun,
of or from a, rarely miseruit, miserere:
an, one. à un, before a masculine noun,
at or to , an,
Piget, it occasions grief ; piguit, or pigitum est, pigere, à une, before a feminine noun,
Poenitet, it occasions sorrow; poenituit, poenitere.
Pudet, it occasions shame; puduit and puditum est, pudare. No di be made in rendering English into French, be
Taedei, it occasions reariness; instead of taeduit, which is tween
at in French un homme means a man or one man, very rare, pertaesum est; taedere. The oth
Actives might with as much propriety have teen Oportet, it behores, it is proper; oportuit, oportere.
Libet (lubet), it pleases; libuit, or libitum est.
a, an, one.
Licet, it is lawful, permitted ; licuit, or licitum est, licēre. sermonis tui ; quid nostra refert victum esse Antonium? ubi jam Decet, it becomes, it is seemly; decuit, decēre.
vesperaverat; mea mater, tui me miseret, mei piget; praeceptoris Dedecet, it is unseemly, improper; dedecuit, dedecēre.
multum interest discipulos summo studio in litteras incumbere; The person who is the subject of the feeling, or liable to the valide tonuit! non ante demetuntur fructus quam gelaverit; lacte
magnopere meâ interest ut te videam; ut subito, ut propere, ut duty, is put in the accusative case; as, te oportet in litteras pluit; omnium magní interest feliciter vivere ; in nostris comcumbere, you ought to apply to literature, or to study. Besides an mentariis scriptum habemus, Jove tonante, et fulgurante, comitia accusative of the person, these verbs, in general, may have a populi habere nefas; sagittis, plumbo et saxis grandinat; pluet genitive of the thing, e, g., miseret me tuae calamitatis, I am credo hodie; totum illud spatium quâ pluitur et ningitur ; pluvius est sorry for thy calamity, We may exhibit their construction, dies; interdum ningit; eamus, sucescit jam ; sunt homines quos thus :
libidinis suae neque pudeat neque taedeat; taedet ipsum Pom
peium vehementerque poenitet; pudet piget que mei me; fratris Pudet me ignaviae, I am ashamed Pudet nog ignaviae, we me quidem piget pudetque; sapientis est, nihil quod poenitere of idleness,
ashamed of idleness.
possit facere; Alexander, quum interemisset Clitum, vix a se Pudet te ignaviae, thou art Pudet vos ignaviae, ye manus abstinuit, tanta vis fuit poenitendi; tanquam ita fieri non ashamed of idleness.
ashamed of idleness.
solum oporteret sed etiam necesse esset; est etiam aliquid quod Pudet illum ignaviae, he is Pudet illos ignaviae, they are non oporteat ctiam si licet; adde etiam, si libet, velocitatem ; quod ashamed of idleness,
ashamed of idleness,
tibi lubet, idem mihi lubet. Oportet, however, has for its subject two accusatives, thus :
ENGLISH-LATIN. oportet te hoc facere, you ought to do this. Libet and licet
I am sorry for my sins; he is weary of life; is he weary of life? require a dative of the person, e. g., libet mihi, I am allowed ; they are not weary of life; this interests all men; this interests thee licet vobis, you are allowed. Of licet, there is the imperative and me; does it interest us ? they are weary of our conversation; form liceto; otherwise, the subjunctive present is used for the it grows dark; it rains ; does it rain ? it hails ; lightens; it imperative, e. g., pudeat te, shame upon thee. For the most thunders; it will rain all day (totum per diem); it snows; it rains part, these verbs are without participles. Yet we find the fol. blood; go home, for it grows dark; those men repent of their lowing:-Decens, libens, licens, poenitens, liciturus, puditurus, lusts; I am ashamed of my brother; Alexander repented the murand pigendus, pudendus, poenitendus ; also, the gerunds, der of his friend Clitus; it behoves thee to repent of thy sins; to poenitendi, pudendo, and pigendum.
do good is the interest of all; my mother repents and grieves; they There is another class of
run; men laugh; are you ashamed of your idleness? they are
ashamed of their idleness; I like it pleases me) to do good; dost Personal Verbs used as Impersonal,
thou like to read ? to love father and mother is seemly; it is Interest, and rēfert, it concerns.
unbecoming (disgraceful) to lie; that escapes thy notice; it is
better to die honourably than to live basely; will that escape your Accidit, evěnit, contingit, it happens.
notice ? Accedit, it is added, moreover.
Cani mordāci paterfamilias jussit tintinnabulum ex aere appendi, Expédit, prodest, it is useful.
ut omnes eum cavere possent. Ille vero aeris tinnitu gaudebat, et Convěnit, it is suitable.
quasi virtutis suae praemium esset, alios canes prae se contemnere Nocet, it is injurious.
coepit. Cui unus senior, “O te stolidum," inquit, "qui ignorare Fallit, fugit, praeterit (me), it escapes me, escapes my notice, I videris, isto tinnitu pravitatem morum tuorum indicari ?"_Haec know not.
fabula scripta est in eos, qui sibi insignibus flagitiorum suorum Placet, placuit, and placitum est, it pleases.
CANIS ET LUPUS.
Lupus canem videns bene saginatum, "quanta est," inquit, Succurrit, aid is given.
“ felicitas tua! tu, ut videtur, laute vivis, ut ego fame eněcor. Vacat, there is a want.
Tum canis,“ licet," inquit, "mecum in urbem venias et eâdem feli
citate fruaris." Lupus conditionem accepit. Dum una eunt, Stat, it stands, it is agreed.
animadvertit lupus in collo canis attritos pilos. “ Quid hoc est ?" Constat, it is made out, proved,
inquit. “ Num jugum sustines ? cervix enim tua tota est glabra.” Praestat, it is better.
“Nibil est” canis respondit. “Sed interdiu me alligant, ut noctu Restat, it remains.
sim vigilantior; atque haec sunt vestigia collaris, quod cervici cir. Solet, assolet, it is customary.
cumdări solet." Tum lupus, " Vale," inquit, "amice! vihil nioror Attinet, pertinet, it regards, relates to.
felicitatem servitute emtan !"-Haec fabula docet, liberis nullum Est=licet, e. g., est videre, it is to be seen, you may see.
commodum tanti esse, quod servitutis calamitatem compensare
possit. There may be added
LUPUS ET GRUS.
In faucibus lupi os inhaegěrat. Mercede igitur conducit gruem, Curritur, it run, that is, men run, they run.
qui illud extrāhat. Hoc grus longitudine colli facile effecit. Quum Venitur, it is come, they come ; ventum est, they have come. autem mercedem postularet, subridens lupus et dentibus infrendens, Bibitur, bibitum est, they drink, drinking is going on.
“Num tibi," inquit, parva merces videtur, quod caput incolume ex Traditur, it is handed down, reported.
lupi faucibus extraxisti? Scribitur, it is written,
AGRICOLA ET ANGUIS. Ridetur, men laugh.
Agricola anguem reperit, frigore paene exstinctum. Misericordia Interest and refert take a genitive of the person, but instead motus, eum fovit et subter alas recondidit. Mox anguis reereatus of the genitive of the personal pronoun, the ablative is used, vires recepit, et agricolae pro beneficio letāle vulnus inflixit.ineà, tuâ, suâ, nostrâ, vestra.
Haec fabula docet qualem mercedem mali pro beneficiis redders VOCABULARY.
VOCABULARY, Deměto, demessui, demessum 3, I cut down, mow; commentarium, i, n. a note, record, a note-book, with pl. commentaria, archives, or
Mordax, ācis, biting, given to biting ; aes, aeris, n. brass ; national records ; nefas, n indeclinable, that which is too wicked to be tinnitus, us, m. a ringing ; pravitas, ātis, f. badness, vice, vicious.
a crime; laute, utered (ne, not, and fari, to speak), wrong, impious ; libido, libidinis, ness; insigne, is, n. a token; flagitium, i, n. f. desire, lust; interimo, interemi, interemptum 3, 1 slay, take off; well, richly; sagino 1, I fatten ; eněco 1, i kill; fruor 3 dep., ignavia, ae, f. idleness sloth, cowardice; comitia, orum, n. the Comitia, I enjoy (gov. abl.); una, together, together witn; num, asks a or public assembly of the Roman people; interemptio, onis, f. murder; question, expecting an answer in the negative-num sustines ? surely honesté, honourably; turpiter, basely.
thou dost not bear & yoke? attritus (tero), a, um, part. rubbed, rubbed of";
pi us, i, m. hair ; cervix, icis, f, the neck; glaber, glabra, glabrum, EXERCISES. -LATIN-ExGLISH.
stript of hair, buld; vestigium, i, n. a footstep, a trace, mark; colläre, Interest omnium recta facere ; noctu magis quam interdiu sine is, n. a collar (colum); moror 1. dep., 1 delay, wait for, desire; nihil tooitribus fulgurat; et jam lucescebat omniaque sub oculis erant; moror felic. &c.,.“ I have no desire for a happiness which has been puromnia notescunt; et resperascit et non noverunt viam; me taedet chased by slavery;" fauces, ium, f. the throat; letalis, e, deally,
ON THE FORMATION OF DELTAS.
contributions from the turbid waters of the river, till, at last LESSONS IN GEOLOGY.-No. XXVI.
the detritus deposited rises to the surface as dry ground, and By THOMAS W. JENKYN, D.D., F.R.G.S., F.G.S., &c. forms an island. No sooner is it an island, than, necessarily,
it divides the river into two streams. CHAPTER II.
The island, thus formed by river sediments, keeps conON THE ACTION OF WATER ON THE EARTH'S CRUST. stantly increasing in length, and enlarging in breadth. What
is most remarkable in the formation of this deposit is, that the SECTION X.
enlargement, or the widening, of the island is in the portion
nearest the sea. The part which is towards the stream is You have seen that all the rivers and rills which issue from against its sides : but, in the part where it fronts the sea,
being perpetually abraded by the force of the current rushing the mountains, are more or less charged with earthy particles, there is quiet
or dead water, in which the detritus is constantly which they have worn from the rocks over which they have flowed, and which they hold in suspension as long as their subsiding and settling
The formation and the permanence of this island, make current is rapid, or their waters are agitated.
the two branches of the river on each side of it to diverge more In proportion to the length of their course, these streams and more. The result of this divergence is that the island become more and more loaded with sand and mud, according itself, between the two branches and the sea, will become as their power of abrasion is increased or continued. These more and more of the shape of Delta, or of a triangular form. adventitious materials, taken up by the rivers, are suspended in the fluid, until they are carried onward and deposited in a of these branches will be charged with detritus. As each
The river has now two branches. If the river be large, each lake, or in the sea. If the stream has a feeble current, much of the pebbles and that junction ; and, consequently, each will form a fresh delta
branch joins the sea, each will again deposit its detritus at gravel which they bear are thrown down in the bed of the of its own, upon the same principle as the main river did. By, river, and form those alluvial plains which were described in this process other islands will appear, and new branches of the last lesson. But by far the greatest quantity of this detritus the stream will be constantly formed. Some of these branch is carried down to the mouths of rivers ; that is, to their currents will be diverging, and some converging, in all direcjunction with other streams, or with the waters of a lake or a tions, until the surface will appear as a net-work of rivers, sea. There they
form accumulations of sand and mud which, inclosing numerous portions of land, all of which are, as seen since the days of Herodotus, are called Deltas. DELTA is the name of the fourth letter in the Greek alphabet, character. See fig. 56.
in the wood-cut, more or less of a deltoid or triangular and is thus formed A. This designation was originally given by the Greeks to that part of Lower Egypt which extends geography that, by the constant increase of river deposits,
It is not only a possible case, but it is a fact in physical from the Mediterranean up to the point now, occupied by and by the checks which these diverging and converging Cairo, and which has a triangular shape something like the streams receive, all the deltas described may be formed into Greek letter Delta. See fig. 56.
one large alluvial plain, that is, into one continuous delta, like Fig. 56.
that of the Thames, from near Reading down to Sheerness, or like that depicted in the last lesson (fig. 55).
Inundations, freshets, or floods, have a great share in the THE
formation and growth of deltas. When rivers become greatly MÉDITERRANEAN
and rapidly swollen, their channels can no longer contain the
water supplied by heavy rains, or by melted snows: they, bf the souths
therefore overflow all the plains and lowlands about their mouths. The waters, which spread beyond the two banks of the river, will always run slower than those in the bed of the stream. This outspread water will soon precipitate the fine sand or mud which it holds in suspension, and the sediment, which settles down, forms a layer of a new rock.
The land, which is thus covered by a flood, is likely to have a surface that is a little indented or undulated, as is represented in fig. 57. These curves in the surface of the indented plain will produce four results. 1. The fresh layers of sand or silt deposited will not be horizontal, nor of equal thickness. 2. Wherever there is a little curying or delving
in the surface of the soil, there will be a current of moving water. 3. When the flood begins to subside, some of the upper portions of the undulating surface will appear above the sheet of water as islands. 4. The water running between these will deepen these curves or hollows, so that eventually the surface will,
after the water is gone, be more uneven than before. With The Delta of the Nile.
every fresh flood, these effects will be increased. Fresh sediYou see that the whole of this district is in the form of the ments will be deposited on the upper parts of the undulations, Greek Delta. It is evident that this form or shape has been so as to raise them higher than before. The intervening given to the country by the river Nile, which empties itself hollows also will be excavated deeper and deeper, till they into the sea by different mouths, as the wood-cut represents. become permanent branches of the main river. In the process Hence, wherever there are found alluvial tracts at the mouths of time the alluviál plain will have the same deltoid character of great rivers which enter the sea by two or more diverging or triangular shape, and the landscape will have the same netbranches, they are called, by geologists, Deltas, though such like appearance of rivers and islands, as was the case in the accumulations may have nothing of the triangular shape.
instance first mentioned. A former lesson has taught you that when a river is You now see that deltas are formed in two ways. They charged with detritus, the middle of the stream is the portion are formed by rivers precipitating, their detritus at their most loaded, because it is there that the velocity is greatest. junction with a lake or a sea, and by rivers scooping out Whenever that velocity becomes diminished, either by a plain, channels in an alluvial plain. You also see that there are two or by the waters of a lake or of a sea, the mouth of the ways in which deltas grow in magnitude. They grow by river becomes wider, and forms what is called an estuary. At extending into a lake or sea, and along 4 coast; and they its junction with the calm water of the lake, or when its grow in height or depth, as the surface rices higher with every velocity is checked by the power of the sea, the detritus sinks, new layer deposited by a flood. and a central deposit is formed. To this deposit fresh acces- The increase of deltas, by extending into the sea and along sions are made every moment, day and night, by incessant the coast, will be at once understood by a glance at the delta
of the Nile, in fig. 56. Their increase in elevation also will food to spread over a wider and wider area, and hence the be understood by referring to fig. 55, in our last lesson, and alluvial soil encroaches on districts that were once adorned by a study of the following diagrams,
with statues and temples, which the waters never reached fig. 57.
three thousand years ago, but which are now covered to the depth of six or seven feet with the deposits of the Nile.
Wherever deep cuttings have been made in the alluvial deposit of the Nile, it is found that the mud is thinly stratified. In each annual lamina, the upper part of the layer is of lighter coloured earth than the lower. The layers of each year separate easily from one another. The annual layers vary, of course,
in thickness, according to the quantity of mud brought down Mud deposited by a Rwver Flood, through the breadth and length of by each inundation. The mean annual thickness of a layer is, a Low Valley.
near Cairo, that of a sheet of thin pasteboard : a stratum, Here you have a section across a river bed between high therefore, of two or three feet in thickness, represents the lands. in are the high lands on each side of a valley a a, deposition of a thousand years. and x is the bed of the river when there is no flood. When The extension of the Delta, as it protrudes into the Medi. the river is flooded, the turbid waters will extend over the terranean, is easily ascertained, both by historical records and whole section, and deposit their sediments on the surface of by soundings. At a small distance from the shore of the the entire area. The amount of this deposit will be greatest Delta, the depth of the sea is about 12 fathoms. This depth on the immediate banks of the river-partly because the first is found to increase gradually to 50 fathoms, and then, at once, waters of the overflow will be on those lines, and partly the depth is 380 fathoms. This was probably the original because as the flood drains back to the bed of the river, the depth of the sca, before the Nile made it shallower by fluviatile last precipitations will be there also. By a repetition of this matter. process the banks will become so elevated as never to be The Delta of the Nile commences, as you see in fig. 56, about covered by a flood. This is explained in fig. 58.
100 miles in a direct line from the Mediterranean to above
Cairo. Its breadth on the coast is at least 230 miles. The Fig. 58.
whole area of this Delta, with the exception of a few sand-hills and artificial mounds or tumuli, is a perfectly level plain, intersected in every direction by channels from the main river. The fall of the Nile, from Cairo to the sea, is only one foot in 16,000.
The geological principles developed by the Delta of the Nile
are found, with certain modifications, in every other delta on Sediments deposited by Floods where a River has raised its Banks, the face of the globe. It would be impossible, in a lesson like
Here it is shown that when a river has, in the course of this, to detail the formation and progress of the Delta of the time, raised its bed and its banks by successive deposits, and Rhine in the German Ocean, the Delta of the Rhone in the the flood spread over the extent of the valley, the water will Mediterranean, of the Po in the Adriatic, of the Danube in be kept back in the hollows at a a, until it is evaporated, and the Black Sea, of the Ganges in the Indian Ocean, of the the whole sediment rests as a new layer on the surface. It is Orinoco in the Atlantic, and of the Mississippi in the Gulf of evident that this valley will be gradually elevated, so long as Mexico. The physical geography of all these you must read the floods continue thus to operate in adding new layers. for yourself.
I will now relate to you a few of the most remarkable facts The examination of the structure and contents of a delta is connected with the formation and extension of deltas.
a study of great importance to a geologist. This is evident, Your attention has been called to the delta of the Nile, as when you consider that in these deltas will be found imbedded, being one of the most illustrative specimens. It was a very leaves and branches of trees, remains of animals that fall into ancient saying among the Egyptians that “ Egypt was the the streams, together with shells and other exuviæ. Imagine gift of the Nile." So may the Dutch of the present day say that any large delta, say of the Nile, Ganges, or the Missis. that "Holland is the gift of the Rhine.” If you look at fig. sippi, were ever raised to a considerable elevation, by volcanic 56, representing a small map of Egypt, you will see that the agency. In that case the geologist would be able, by examining whole appearance of the lowlands shows that, at one time, the the fossil remains, to determine easily the character of the Mediterranean formed a bay up to the rocks near Memphis, animals and plants of the countries through which those some miles above where Cairo 'now stands. The present base mighty rivers had flowed. As in the present deltas of Engof these rocks is now washed by the inundations of the Nile, land, he would find the bones of the horse, the deer, and other at an elevation of 70 or 80 feet above the level of the Medi- domesticated animals, associated with the trunks of trees and terranean.
the leaves of plants, and also river-shells and sea-shells mingled You are to consider that when the Nile, at a very remote with human bones and works of art,—so in that of the Ganges age, began to flow, the river met the sea at these rocks. It he would detect the animals and vegetables of India, and in immediately began to deposit its detritus on that coast, and it that of the Mississippi those of North America. has continued the process ever since. The bed of the river An ancient delta of this description, elevated by volcanic itself, and the entire valley covered by its inundations, are power, is found in England, in what is called the Wealden of daily undergoing a gradual increase of elevation, varying in Kent and Sussex. The arguments that are employed to different places, and lessening in proportion as the river account for the contents of this delta, are as clear and as satisapproaches the sea. Since thus the Nile precipitates so much factory as any that could be employed to account for the of its sediment in the inundated parts of Higher Egypt, the cables and anchors, and ships' timber, which some future alluvial deposit does not cause the delta to extend rapidly naturalist may find imbedded in the Goodwin Sands, should towards the sea. Nevertheless, some ancient cities which they ever become an elevated island. were once close to the shore, are now a mile or more inland. The earlier geographers mention several mouths of the Nile which, in the present day, are all silted up.
LESSONS IN GERMAN.-No. XXXVI. The bed of the Nile keeps rising, in pace with the general
Section LXXIV. elevation of the soil caused by annual deposition ; but the banks of the river are much higher than the flat land at a The preposition „wegen“ is often compounded with the geni. distance. These elevated banks and fat lands are represented tive of personal pronouns ($ 57. 2.), which in this connection in fig. 58.
Ex. : Meineriregeil They are consequently very seldom covered substitute ,t" or ct" for the final ,,r". by water, even during the highest inundations. That the instead of meinerwegen), on my account, for my sake (!itcrary bed of the river, and the soil of the valley of the Nile, are on account of me). Seinetwezen nur bin ich gefominen; on his gradually rising, is evident from the following facts. The in. account only have I come. crease of sediment in the bed of the river makes the annual I. The preposition gu is often used after certain verbs (an,
machen, werten, brauchen, 2.,) to mark the result of an action, stolen your gold watch? 8. No, but I am suspicious of that or the end or destination of a thing. Ex: Sie haben ihn zum man who came to our house yesterday. 9. At first I susFeind gemacht; you have made him (to) an enemy, or, you pected a servant of the house. 10. After I had performed made an enemy of him. Das Gis wird zu Wasier; the ice my last voyage, I applied myself to the study of the living becomes (to) water, Gr braucht fünf Gllen Tuch zu einem Mantct; languages. 11. After we had dined we took an airing oa he needs five ells of cloth for a cloak.
horseback. 12. Aster he had breakfasted, he visited his II. Verdacht auf Semant haben, or, Jemand in Verdacht haben (li- brother-in-law. 13. This lady wants eighteen ells of muslik
15. That specuterally, to have suspicion upon one, or, to hold one in sus. for a dress. 14. That youth became a doctor. picion,) answers to our " to suspect.” Ex.: 3 Þabe Verdacht lation made our neighbour a rich man. 16. He told me he auf ihn, or, ich habe ihn in Verdacht; I suspect him, or, I have should on his own account speak to his father. suspicion of (upon) him.
Nicht wahr? literally, not true? (it is not true), answers to Alu'fleiten, to dress, Kranfheit, f, sickness, Vertacht, suspi
our phrases "isn't it? wasn't it? don't they :" &c, after an attire ; illness ; cion ;
assertion; as, Gr ist faltes Wetter, nicht wahr? It is cold weather, Aufwärterin, f.female. Mittag, m. noon,mid. Weiter, farther; servant ; waiting.
isn't it? Sie kennen ihn, nidt wahr? You know him, don't day; Werfen, throw,
you? Sometimes , nicht wahr?“ precedes the assertion; as, Midt woman; Mitternacht, f. mid.
cast; Au@zehrung, f. con
wahr, Sie sind müte? You are tired, are you not: night;
Worauf, whereupon, sumption; Speisen, to eat; zu on which ;
I, Auswarten (compounded of the particle auf and warten Baten, to bathe; Mittag sveisen, to Zuerst, at first, for $ 90.), signifies to wait upon, to serve, and governs the dative. Frühstüden, to break
Ich warte Ihnen auf; I wait upon you. Dari ich Ihnea mit einer
Tasse Tyce auswarten? May I serve you with a cup of tea? Haben Sie gehört', an was für einer Have you heard what disease Ich tanfe Ihnen, sometimes abbreviated to Ich range, is the usual Krankheit der Rei'sende gestorben the traveller (has) died of?
reply answering to our “No; I thank you.” So bin To irri
(literally, I am so free), is the usual equivalent to our "li So viel (Sect. 35. IV.) ich weiß, ist As far as I know, he (has) died you please.", Ich mache ihm meine pujvartung ; I wait upon him, er an der Cho'lera gestor'ben.
of the cholera.
literally, make my waiting upon him. Warten, when followed Alerantcr ter Große starb an einer Alexander the great died of (a) by the preposition auf“ signifies "to wait for." Ex: 35
Krankheit zu Va'bylon im drei sickness at Babylon in the warte auf ihn; I am waiting for him. und trei figsten Jahre seines See thirty-third year of his life. II. Sollen (See $ 83. 6. Rem.) with an infinitive is often an. bene.
swered, in English, by the infinitive only, preceded by the preAuf wen haben Sie Vertacht'? Whom do you suspect? (Upon position" to," as, Ich weiß nicht, was id thun soll; I do not
whom have you suspicion ?)
know what to do. Ich habe ihn in Verdacht', mich be. I suspect him of having robbed III. Nicht zum Worte, or, zu Worte kommen, signifies literally, raubt zu haben.
me. (I have him in suspicion not to come to the word, or to words, that is, not effectually, to have robbed me.)
not in a manner to be heard and understood. Nachdem ich zu Macht gespeist haben After I shall have supped I shall
EXERCISE 78. werte, gehe ich aus.
go out. (After I shall have
eaten at night, I go out.) Aachen, Aix-la. Gbenfalls, also, too, Umsonst, in vain, Er ist nachy zehn llhr zu mir gefom. He came to me after ten Chapelle;
vainly; Er ist wegen seiner Kranfveit nicht On account of his illness he did Aufwarten, (See I.); Kellner, m. waiter, Vergnügt, cheerful, gegangen.
not go (He is on account of Beschuldigung, f. accu- bar-keeper; merry, delightful; his illness not gone.)
sation, imputation; Kronung, f. corona. Vertre'ter, m. repre
Vier, n, beer, ale; tion; 1. Wissen Sie nicht, an was für einer Krankheit ihre Nichte gestorben
sentative; ift? 2. So viel id; gehört habe, ist sie an rer Ausschrung gestorben. 3. Glypeolate
, f. choco- Dronen, to regulate, Witeriahren,' to hap. late; order;
pen, befall; Viele sind in diesem Jahre an der Cholera gestorben. 4. Weiß man nicht,
Tasje, f. cup, dish ; Zunge, f. tongue. wer die silbernen Löffel gestohlen hat? 5. Nein, aber man hat Bertachyt 3hr Herr Vater ist tranf, nicht Your father is sick ; isn't he? auf einen Berienten 108 Baujes. 6. Man hatte zuerst eine alte Kuswirs wabr ? terin in Vertacht. 7. &r hat mich in Verdacht, ihn vorsäßlich beleidigt Ich wartete eine Stunde auf Sie, I waited an hour for you ; then zt: haben. 8. Ich weiß wirklich nicht, auf wen ich meinen Vertacht werfen,
tann ging ich und machte tom I went and waited upon und worauf ich ihn süßen soll. 9. Nachdem ich mich angefleitet, und er mad te nich darauf auřnterffam, He reminded me (made me ob
Fremton meine Alufivartuny. (called upon) the stranger. nachtem ich gefrühstüdt haben werde, will ich ihn besuchen. 10. Nach,
daß die Zeit vorbei' war.
servant) that the time was tem er zu Mittag gespeist hatte, las er die Zeitung. 11. Nachdem er sich
past. gebatet hatte, machte er einen Spaziergang. 12. Nach zehn lhr des Er wußte nicht, was er thun (ellte. He did not know what to do. Abends besuchte er mich noch. 13. Nach Mitternacht werden wir unsere Die Meisten Monarchen lassen ihrem (The) most monarchs allowtoeir Reise weiter fortsegen. 14. Es giebt Menschen, welche nach diesem ecben Der Lärm ließ mich nicht zum Worte The noise did not permit me to
Willen freien Lauf.
wills free scope (course). fein anderes erwarten 15. Ich freue mich seinetwegen mehr als meinet,
be understood. (See III.) wegen. 16. Ihretwegen Şabe ich die Reise unternonimen. 17. Guret, wegen ist der Vater so betrübt. 18. Insertwegen brauchen sie sich nicht zu
1. Go war eine schöne Stunde, nicht wahr, mein Freund? 2. 52, da idamen. 19. Mein Bruter war seiner selbst nicht mehr mächtig. 20
war fic, und nicht so bald werte ich sie vergessen. 8. Midtt rikt, ter Hast Du Herrn N. selbst, ober seine Frau geschen? 21. Ich habe ihni
Machbar war ebenfalls auf dem Beste ? 4. Ja, er war dert und jebe st) selbit nicht nur geichen, sontern auch gesprochen. 22. Ein treuer Suitat i gnugi. 5. Nicht waút, ci ift (chon sehr svät? 6. Nein, et ifi net items, Pirbt licber, als daß er zum Vorräther wird.
lich früh. 7. Nicht wahr, es ist nicht alles wahr was die Leute ja yra !
8. Nein, nicht alles darf man ihnen glauben. 9. So şabe it on es 1. Are we obliged to wait for our friend? 2. No, not on his Stunde auf ihn gewarten, und immer låst er sich noch nicht folen. 10. account. 3. This man is detested on account of his perfidy. Wir warten aus den aufwartenten Rellner. 11. Wenn Sie sá erlauben, 4 Do not grieve on account of us! 5. On my account you may do what you like. 6. My brother died of consumption werde ich Ihnen heute Nachmittag meine Auswartung machen. 12. Dar in the nineteenth year of his age. 7. Do you know who has ich Ihnen mit einer Tasse Thee eter Kaisee auswurten. 13. 3 tante