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Pudet nos ignaviae, we ashamed of idleness. Pudet vos ignaviae, ye ashamed of idleness. Pudet illos ignaviae, they are ashamed of idleness,

Personal Verbs used as Impersonal. Interest, and refert, it concerns. Accidit, evěnit, contingit, it happens. Accedit, it is added, moreover. Apparet, it appears, it is clear. Paret, liquet, it is obvious, apparent. Conducit, it is conducive to, advantageous,

Expedit, prodest, it is useful.

Convenit, it is suitable.

Pudet te ignaviae, thou art ashamed of idleness. Pudet illum ignaviae, he is ashamed of idleness, Oportet, however, has for its subject two accusatives, thus: oportet te hoc facere, you ought to do this. Libet and licet require a dative of the person, e. g,, libet mihi, I am allowed; licet vobis, you are allowed. Of licet, there is the imperative form liceto; otherwise, the subjunctive present is used for the imperative, e. g., pudeat te, shame upon thee. For the most part, these verbs are without participles. Yet we find the following:-Decens, libens, licens, poenitens, liciturus, puditurus, and pigendus, pudendus, poenitendus; also, the gerunds, poenitendi, pudendo, and pigendum. There is another class of

are

are

Cani mordaci paterfamilias jussit tintinnabulum ex aere appendi, ut omnes eum cavere possent. Ille vero aeris tinnitu gaudebat, et quasi virtutis suae praemium esset, alios canes prae se contemnere coepit. Cui unus senior, "O te stolidum," inquit, "qui ignorare

Nocet, it is injurious.

sermonis tui; quid nostrâ refert victum esse Antouium? ubi jam vesperaverat; mea mater, tui me miseret, mei piget; praeceptoris multum interest discipulos summo studio in litteras incumbere; magnopere meâ interest ut te videam; ut subito, ut propere, ut valide tonuit! non ante demetuntur fructus quam gelaverit; lacte pluit; omnium magní interest feliciter vivere; in nostris commentariis scriptum habemus, Jove tonante, et fulgurante, comitia populi habere nefas; sagittis, plumbo et saxis grandinat; pluet credo hódie; totum illud spatium quâ pluitur et ningitur; pluvius est dies; interdum ningit; eamus, lucescit jam; sunt homines quos libidinis suae neque pudeat neque taedeat; taedet ipsum Pompeium vehementerque poenitet; pudet piget que mei me; fratris me quidem piget pudetque; sapientis est, nihil quod poenitere possit facere; Alexander, quum interemisset Clitum, vix a se manus abstinuit, tanta vis fuit poenitendi; tanquam ita fieri non solum oporteret sed etiam necesse esset; est etiam aliquid quod non oporteat etiam si licet; adde etiam, si libet, velocitatem ; quod tibi lubet, idem mihi lubet.

Placet, placuit, and placitum est, it pleases.

Sufficit, it is sufficient.

Suppětit, there is a supply.

Succurrit, aid is given.
Vacat, there is a want.
Stat, it stands, it is agreed.
Constat, it is made out, proved.

Praestat, it is better.

Restat, it remains.

Solet, assolet, it is customary.

Attinet, pertinet, il regards, relates to.
Est=licet, e. g., est videre, it is to be seen, you may see.
There may be added

Fallit, fugit, praeterit (me), it escapes me, escapes my notice, I videris, isto tinnitu pravitatem morum tuorum indicari ?"-Hacc fabula scripta est in eos, qui sibi insignibus flagitiorum suorum placent.

know not.

Passive Impersonals.

Curritur, it is run, that is, men run, they run.

Venitur, it is come, they come; ventum est, they have come.
Bibitur, bibitum est, they drink, drinking is going on.
Traditur, it is handed down, reported.

Scribitur, it is written.

Ridetur, men laugh.

Interest and refert take a genitive of the person, but instead of the genitive of the personal pronoun, the ablative is used, meâ, tuâ, suâ, nostrâ, vestrâ.

VOCABULARY.

Deměto, demessui, demessum 3, I cut down, mow; commentarium, i, n. a note, record, a note-book, with pl. commentaria, archives, or national records; nefas, n indeclinable, that which is too wicked to be uttered (ne, not, and fari, to speak), wrong, impious; libído, libidinis, f. desire, lust; interimo, interemi, interemptum 3, slay, take off; ignavia, ae, f. idleness sloth, cowardice; comitia, orum, n. the Comitia, or public assembly of the Roman people; interemptio, ónis, f. murder; honesté, honourably; turpiter, basely.

EXERCISES.-LATIN-ENGLISH.

Interest omnium recta facere; noctu magis quam interdiu sine tonitribus fulgurat; et jam lucescebat omniaque sub oculis erant; omnia notescunt; et vesperascit et non noverunt viam; me taedet

ENGLISH-LATIN.

I am sorry for my sins; he is weary of life; is he weary of life? they are not weary of life; this interests all men; this interests thee and me; does it interest us? they are weary of our conversation; it grows dark; it rains; does it rain? it hails; it lightens; it thunders; it will rain all day (totum per diem); it snows; it rains blood; go home, for it grows dark; those men repent of their lusts; I am ashamed of my brother; Alexander repented the mur

der of his friend Clitus; it behoves thee to repent of thy sins; to

do good is the interest of all; my mother repents and grieves; they run; men laugh; are you ashamed of your idleness? they are ashamed of their idleness; I like (it pleases me) to do good; dost thou like to read? to love father and mother is scemly; it is unbecoming (disgraceful) to lie; that escapes thy notice; it is better to die honourably than to live basely; will that escape your notice?

Aesopii Fabulae.
CANIS MORDAX.

CANIS ET LUPUS.

Lupus canem videns bene saginatum, "quanta est," inquit, "felicitas tua! tu, ut videtur, laute vivis, ut ego fame eněcor.' Tum canis, "licet," inquit, "mecum in urbem venias et eâdem felicitate fruaris." Lupus conditionem accepit. Dum una cunt, animadvertit lupus in collo canis attritos pilos. "Quid hoc est ?" inquit. "Num jugum sustines? cervix enim tua tota est glabra." "Nihil est" canis respondit. "Sed interdiu me alligant, ut noctu sim vigilantior; atque haec sunt vestigia collaris, quod cervici circumdări solet." Tum lupus, "Vale," inquit, "amice! nihil moror felicitatem servitute emtam!"-Haec fabula docet, liberis nullum commodum tanti esse, quod servitutis calamitatem compensare possit.

LUPUS ET GRUS.

In faucibus lupi os inhaeserat. Mercede igitur conducit gruem, qui illud extrahat. Hoc grus longitudine colli facile effecit. Quum autem mercedem postularet, subridens lupus et dentibus infrendens, "Num tibi," inquit, parva merces videtur, quod caput incolume ex lupi faucibus extraxisti?

AGRICOLA ET ANGUIS.

Agricola anguem reperit, frigore paene exstinctum. Misericordiâ motus, eum fovit et subter alas recondidit. Mox anguis recreatus vires recepit, et agricolae pro beneficio letale vulnus inflixit.Haec fabula docet qualem mercedem mali pro beneficiis redders soleant.

VOCABULARY,

a

Mordax, acis, biting, given to biting; aes, aeris, n. brass; tinnitus, us, m. a ringing; pravitas, atis, f. badness, vice, viciousa crime; laute, ness; insigne, is, n. a token; flagitium, i, n. well, richly; sagino 1, I fatten; eněco 1, I kill; fruor 3 dep., I enjoy (gov. abl.); una, together, together with; num, asks question, expecting an answer in the negative-num sustines? surely thou dost not bear a yoke? attritus (tero), a, um, part. rubbed, rubbed off; pius, i, m. hair; cervix, icis, f. the neck; glaber, glabra, glabrum, stript of hair, bald; vestigium, i, n. a footstep, a trace, mark; collare, is, n. a collar (colum); moror 1. dep., I delay, wait for, desire; nihil moror felic. &c., "I have no desire for a happiness which has been purchased by slavery;" fauces, ium, f. the throat; letalis, e, deadly.

ON THE FORMATION OF DELTAS.

contributions from the turbid waters of the river, till, at last LESSONS IN GEOLOGY.-No. XXVI.

the detritus deposited rises to the surface as dry ground, and By THOMAS W. JENKYN, D.D., F.R.G.S., F.G.S., &c. forms an island. No sooner is it an island, than, necessarily,

it divides the river into two streams. CHAPTER II.

The island, thus formed by river sediments, keeps conON THE ACTION OF WATER ON THE EARTH'S CRUST. stantly increasing in length, and enlarging in breadth. What

is most remarkable in the formation of this deposit is, that the SECTION X.

enlargement, or the widening, of the island is in the portion

nearest the sea. The part which is towards the stream is You have seen that all the rivers and rills which issue from against its sides : but, in the part where it fronts the sea,

being perpetually abraded by the force of the current rushing the mountains, are more or less charged with earthy particles, there is quiet

or dead water, in which the detritus is constantly which they have worn from the rocks over which they have flowed, and which they hold in suspension as long as their subsiding and settling

The formation and the permanence of this island, make current is rapid, or their waters are agitated.

the two branches of the river on each side of it to diverge more In proportion to the length of their course, these streams and more. The result of this divergence is that the island become more and more loaded with sand and mud, according itself, between the two branches and the sea, will become as their power of abrasion is increased or continued. These more and more of the shape of Delta, or of a triangular form. adventitious materials, taken up by the rivers, are suspended in the fluid, until they are carried onward and deposited in a of these branches will be charged with detritus. As each

The river has now two branches. If the river be large, each lake, or in the sea. If the stream has a feeble current, much of the pebbles and that junction ; and, consequently, each will form a fresh delta

branch joins the sea, each will again deposit its detritus at gravel which they bear are thrown down in the bed of the of its own, upon the same principle as the main river did. By, river, and form those alluvial plains which were described in this process other islands will appear, and new branches of the last lesson. But by far the greatest quantity of this detritus the stream will be constantly formed. Some of these branch is carried down to the mouths of rivers ; that is, to their currents will be diverging, and some converging, in all direcjunction with other streams, or with the waters of a lake or a tions, until the surface will appear as a net-work of rivers, sea. There they

form accumulations of sand and mud which, inclosing numerous portions of land, all of which are, as seen since the days of Herodotus, are called Deltas. DELTA is the name of the fourth letter in the Greek alphabet, character. See fig. 56.

in the wood-cut, more or less of a deltoid or triangular and is thus formed A. This designation was originally given by the Greeks to that part of Lower Egypt which extends geography that, by the constant increase of river deposits,

It is not only a possible case, but it is a fact in physical from the Mediterranean up to the point now, occupied by and by the checks which these diverging and converging Cairo, and which has a triangular shape something like the streams receive, all the deltas described may be formed into Greek letter Delta. See fig. 56.

one large alluvial plain, that is, into one continuous delta, like Fig. 56.

that of the Thames, from near Reading down to Sheerness, or like that depicted in the last lesson (fig. 55).

Inundations, freshets, or floods, have a great share in the THE

formation and growth of deltas. When rivers become greatly MÉDITERRANEAN

and rapidly swollen, their channels can no longer contain the

water supplied by heavy rains, or by melted snows: they, bf the souths

therefore overflow all the plains and lowlands about their mouths. The waters, which spread beyond the two banks of the river, will always run slower than those in the bed of the stream. This outspread water will soon precipitate the fine sand or mud which it holds in suspension, and the sediment, which settles down, forms a layer of a new rock.

The land, which is thus covered by a flood, is likely to have a surface that is a little indented or undulated, as is represented in fig. 57. These curves in the surface of the indented plain will produce four results. 1. The fresh layers of sand or silt deposited will not be horizontal, nor of equal thickness. 2. Wherever there is a little curying or delving

in the surface of the soil, there will be a current of moving water. 3. When the flood begins to subside, some of the upper portions of the undulating surface will appear above the sheet of water as islands. 4. The water running between these will deepen these curves or hollows, so that eventually the surface will,

after the water is gone, be more uneven than before. With The Delta of the Nile.

every fresh flood, these effects will be increased. Fresh sediYou see that the whole of this district is in the form of the ments will be deposited on the upper parts of the undulations, Greek Delta. It is evident that this form or shape has been so as to raise them higher than before. The intervening given to the country by the river Nile, which empties itself hollows also will be excavated deeper and deeper, till they into the sea by different mouths, as the wood-cut represents. become permanent branches of the main river. In the process Hence, wherever there are found alluvial tracts at the mouths of time the alluviál plain will have the same deltoid character of great rivers which enter the sea by two or more diverging or triangular shape, and the landscape will have the same netbranches, they are called, by geologists, Deltas, though such like appearance of rivers and islands, as was the case in the accumulations may have nothing of the triangular shape.

instance first mentioned. A former lesson has taught you that when a river is You now see that deltas are formed in two ways. They charged with detritus, the middle of the stream is the portion are formed by rivers precipitating, their detritus at their most loaded, because it is there that the velocity is greatest. junction with a lake or a sea, and by rivers scooping out Whenever that velocity becomes diminished, either by a plain, channels in an alluvial plain. You also see that there are two or by the waters of a lake or of a sea, the mouth of the ways in which deltas grow in magnitude. They grow by river becomes wider, and forms what is called an estuary. At extending into a lake or sea, and along 4 coast; and they its junction with the calm water of the lake, or when its grow in height or depth, as the surface rices higher with every velocity is checked by the power of the sea, the detritus sinks, new layer deposited by a flood. and a central deposit is formed. To this deposit fresh acces- The increase of deltas, by extending into the sea and along sions are made every moment, day and night, by incessant the coast, will be at once understood by a glance at the delta

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of the Nile, in fig. 56. Their increase in elevation also will food to spread over a wider and wider area, and hence the be understood by referring to fig. 55, in our last lesson, and alluvial soil encroaches on districts that were once adorned by a study of the following diagrams,

with statues and temples, which the waters never reached fig. 57.

three thousand years ago, but which are now covered to the depth of six or seven feet with the deposits of the Nile.

Wherever deep cuttings have been made in the alluvial deposit of the Nile, it is found that the mud is thinly stratified. In each annual lamina, the upper part of the layer is of lighter coloured earth than the lower. The layers of each year separate easily from one another. The annual layers vary, of course,

in thickness, according to the quantity of mud brought down Mud deposited by a Rwver Flood, through the breadth and length of by each inundation. The mean annual thickness of a layer is, a Low Valley.

near Cairo, that of a sheet of thin pasteboard : a stratum, Here you have a section across a river bed between high therefore, of two or three feet in thickness, represents the lands. in are the high lands on each side of a valley a a, deposition of a thousand years. and x is the bed of the river when there is no flood. When The extension of the Delta, as it protrudes into the Medi. the river is flooded, the turbid waters will extend over the terranean, is easily ascertained, both by historical records and whole section, and deposit their sediments on the surface of by soundings. At a small distance from the shore of the the entire area. The amount of this deposit will be greatest Delta, the depth of the sea is about 12 fathoms. This depth on the immediate banks of the river-partly because the first is found to increase gradually to 50 fathoms, and then, at once, waters of the overflow will be on those lines, and partly the depth is 380 fathoms. This was probably the original because as the flood drains back to the bed of the river, the depth of the sca, before the Nile made it shallower by fluviatile last precipitations will be there also. By a repetition of this matter. process the banks will become so elevated as never to be The Delta of the Nile commences, as you see in fig. 56, about covered by a flood. This is explained in fig. 58.

100 miles in a direct line from the Mediterranean to above

Cairo. Its breadth on the coast is at least 230 miles. The Fig. 58.

whole area of this Delta, with the exception of a few sand-hills and artificial mounds or tumuli, is a perfectly level plain, intersected in every direction by channels from the main river. The fall of the Nile, from Cairo to the sea, is only one foot in 16,000.

The geological principles developed by the Delta of the Nile

are found, with certain modifications, in every other delta on Sediments deposited by Floods where a River has raised its Banks, the face of the globe. It would be impossible, in a lesson like

Here it is shown that when a river has, in the course of this, to detail the formation and progress of the Delta of the time, raised its bed and its banks by successive deposits, and Rhine in the German Ocean, the Delta of the Rhone in the the flood spread over the extent of the valley, the water will Mediterranean, of the Po in the Adriatic, of the Danube in be kept back in the hollows at a a, until it is evaporated, and the Black Sea, of the Ganges in the Indian Ocean, of the the whole sediment rests as a new layer on the surface. It is Orinoco in the Atlantic, and of the Mississippi in the Gulf of evident that this valley will be gradually elevated, so long as Mexico. The physical geography of all these you must read the floods continue thus to operate in adding new layers. for yourself.

I will now relate to you a few of the most remarkable facts The examination of the structure and contents of a delta is connected with the formation and extension of deltas.

a study of great importance to a geologist. This is evident, Your attention has been called to the delta of the Nile, as when you consider that in these deltas will be found imbedded, being one of the most illustrative specimens. It was a very leaves and branches of trees, remains of animals that fall into ancient saying among the Egyptians that “ Egypt was the the streams, together with shells and other exuviæ. Imagine gift of the Nile." So may the Dutch of the present day say that any large delta, say of the Nile, Ganges, or the Missis. that "Holland is the gift of the Rhine.” If you look at fig. sippi, were ever raised to a considerable elevation, by volcanic 56, representing a small map of Egypt, you will see that the agency. In that case the geologist would be able, by examining whole appearance of the lowlands shows that, at one time, the the fossil remains, to determine easily the character of the Mediterranean formed a bay up to the rocks near Memphis, animals and plants of the countries through which those some miles above where Cairo 'now stands. The present base mighty rivers had flowed. As in the present deltas of Engof these rocks is now washed by the inundations of the Nile, land, he would find the bones of the horse, the deer, and other at an elevation of 70 or 80 feet above the level of the Medi- domesticated animals, associated with the trunks of trees and terranean.

the leaves of plants, and also river-shells and sea-shells mingled You are to consider that when the Nile, at a very remote with human bones and works of art,—so in that of the Ganges age, began to flow, the river met the sea at these rocks. It he would detect the animals and vegetables of India, and in immediately began to deposit its detritus on that coast, and it that of the Mississippi those of North America. has continued the process ever since. The bed of the river An ancient delta of this description, elevated by volcanic itself, and the entire valley covered by its inundations, are power, is found in England, in what is called the Wealden of daily undergoing a gradual increase of elevation, varying in Kent and Sussex. The arguments that are employed to different places, and lessening in proportion as the river account for the contents of this delta, are as clear and as satisapproaches the sea. Since thus the Nile precipitates so much factory as any that could be employed to account for the of its sediment in the inundated parts of Higher Egypt, the cables and anchors, and ships' timber, which some future alluvial deposit does not cause the delta to extend rapidly naturalist may find imbedded in the Goodwin Sands, should towards the sea. Nevertheless, some ancient cities which they ever become an elevated island. were once close to the shore, are now a mile or more inland. The earlier geographers mention several mouths of the Nile which, in the present day, are all silted up.

LESSONS IN GERMAN.-No. XXXVI. The bed of the Nile keeps rising, in pace with the general

Section LXXIV. elevation of the soil caused by annual deposition ; but the banks of the river are much higher than the flat land at a The preposition „wegen“ is often compounded with the geni. distance. These elevated banks and fat lands are represented tive of personal pronouns ($ 57. 2.), which in this connection in fig. 58.

Ex. : Meineriregeil They are consequently very seldom covered substitute ,t" or ct" for the final ,,r". by water, even during the highest inundations. That the instead of meinerwegen), on my account, for my sake (!itcrary bed of the river, and the soil of the valley of the Nile, are on account of me). Seinetwezen nur bin ich gefominen; on his gradually rising, is evident from the following facts. The in. account only have I come. crease of sediment in the bed of the river makes the annual I. The preposition gu is often used after certain verbs (an,

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Haben Sie gehört', an was für einer Krankheit der Rei'sende gestorben ist?

So viel (Sect. 35. IV.) ich weiß, ist

er an der Gho'lera gestor'ben. Aleranter der Große starb an einer Krankheit zu Babylon im drei und dreißigsten Jahre seines Le. bens.

Auf wen haben Sie Verdacht'?

Have you heard what disease
the traveller (has) died of?

As far as I know, he (has) died
of the cholera.

Alexander the great died of (a)
sickness at Babylon in the
thirty-third year of his life.

Whom do you suspect? (Upon whom have you suspicion ?) Ich habe ihn in Verdacht', mich be. I suspect him of having robbed raubt' zu haben. me. (I have him in suspicion to have robbed me.)

to

Nachbem' ich zu Nacht gespeist haben After I shall have supped I shall
werte, gehe ich aus.
go out. (After I shall have
eaten at night, I go out.)
Er ist nach zehn Uhr zu mir gekom. He came me after ten
o'clock. (He is come to me
after ten o'clock)
Er ist wegen seiner Krankheit nicht On account of his illness he did
not go (He is on account of
gegangen.
his illness not gone.)

stolen your gold watch? 8. No, but I am suspicious of that
9. At first I sus-
man who came to our house yesterday.
10. After I had performed
pected a servant of the house.
my last voyage, I applied myself to the study of the living
languages. 11. After we had dined we took an airing on
horseback. 12. After he had breakfasted, he visited his
brother-in-law. 13. This lady wants eighteen ells of muslit
for a dress. 14. That youth became a doctor. 15. That specu
16. He told me he
lation made our neighbour a rich man.
should on his own account speak to his father.

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I, Aufwarten (compounded of the particle auf and water $ 90.), signifies to wait upon, to serve, and governs the dative. Ich warte Ihnen auf; I wait upon you. Darf ich Ihnen mit einer Taffe Thee aufwarten? May I serve you with a cup of tea? Ich danke Ihnen, sometimes abbreviated to Ich tante, is the usual reply answering to our "No; I thank you." Ich bin so frei (literally, I am so free), is the usual equivalent to our "If you please." Ich mache ihm meine Aufwartung; I wait upon him, literally, make my waiting upon him. Warten, when followed by the preposition „auf" signifies "to wait for." Ex: 34 warte auf ihn; I am waiting for him.

II. Sollen (See § 83. 6. Rem.) with an infinitive is often answered, in English, by the infinitive only, preceded by the preposition "to" as, Ich weiß nicht, was ich thun foll; I do not know what to do.

III. Nicht zum Worte, or, zu Worte kommen, signifies literally, not to come to the word, or to words, that is, not effectually, not in a manner to be heard and understood.

- EXERCISE 78. Ebenfalls, also, too, Umsonst, in raia, likewise; vainly; Entschultigung, f. ex- Vergebens, in vain, cuse, apology; vainly; cheerful, Kellner, m. waiter, Vergnügt, bar-keeper; merry, delightful; Krönung, f. corona- Bertre'ter, m. repre tion; sentative;

Aachen, n. Aix-la-
Chapelle;
Anfläger, m. accuser,
impleader;
Aufwarten, (See I.);
Beschuldigung, f. accu-
sation, imputation;
Bier, n. beer, ale;

men.

1. Wissen Sie nicht, an was für einer Krankheit ihre Nichte gestorben ist? 2. So viel ich gehört habe, ist sie an der Auszehrung gestorben. 3. Viele sind in diesem Jahre an der Cholera gestorben. 4. Weiß man nicht, wer die silbernen Löffel gestohlen hat? 5. Nein, aber man hat Vertacht auf einen Bedienten des Hauses. 6. Man hatte zuerst eine alte Auswärterin in Bertacht. 7. Er hat mich in Verdacht, ihn vorsäglich beleidigt zu haben. 8. Ich weiß wirklich nicht, auf wen ich meinen Verdacht werfen, und worauf ich ihn stüßen soll. 9. Nachtem ich mich angekleitet, und nachtem ich gefrühstückt haben werke, will ich ihn besuchen. 10. Nach, dem er zu Mittag gefreist hatte, las er die Zeitung. 11. Nachdem er sich gebaret hatte, machte er einen Spaziergang. 12. Nach zehn Uhr des Abends besuchte er mich noch. 13. Nach Mitternacht werden wir unsere Reise weiter fortsegen. 14. Es giebt Menschen, welche nach diesem Leben fein anderes erwarten 15. Ich freue mich seinetwegen mehr als meinet. wegen. 16. 3hretwegen habe ich die Reise unternommen. 17. Curet wegen ist der Vater so betrübt. 18. Unsertwegen brauchen sie sich nicht zu schämen. 19. Mein Bruder war seiner selbst nicht mehr mächtig. 20

Hast Du Herrn N. selbst, oder seine Frau gesehen? 21. Ich habe ihn selbst nicht nur gesehen, sondern auch gesprochen. 22. Ein treuer Soltat fibt lieber, als daß er zum Verräther wird.

Drtnen, to regulate, Witerfahren, to hap

pen, befall; Bunge, f. tongue. Your father is sick; isn't he?

Ghecolate, f. choco

late;

order;
Tasse, f. cup, dish;
Ihr Herr Vater ist krank, nicht

wahr?

Ich wartete eine Stunde auf Sie,
tann ging ich und machte tem
Fremten meine Aufwartung.
Er machte mich darauf aufmerksam,
daß die Zeit vorbei' war.

Er wußte nicht, was er thun sollte.
Die Meisten Monarchen lassen ihrem
Willen freien Lauf.

Der Lärm ließ mich nicht zum Worte

fommen.

I waited an hour for you; then
I went and waited upon
(called upon) the stranger.
He reminded me (made me on-
servant) that the time w
past.

He did not know what to do.
(The) most monarchs allow their
wills free scope (course).
The noise did not permit me to
be understood. (See III.)

1. Es war eine schöne Stunde, nicht wahr, mein Freund? 2. 34 del war sie, und nicht so bald werte ich sie vergessen. 3. Nicht waht, t Nachbar war ebenfalls auf dem šeste? 4. Ja, er war tort und sehr vit. gnügt. 5. Nicht wahr, es ist schon sehr svät ? 6. Nein, es in noch jem lich früh. 7. Nicht wahr, es ist nicht alles wahr was rie Leute jagen? 8. Nein, nicht Alles darf man ihnen glauben. 9. Ich habe schon n

tunte auf ihn gewarten, und immer läßt er sich noch nicht seben. 10 Wir warten auf den aufwartenden Kellner. 11. Wenn Sie es erlandes werte ich Ihnen heute Nachmittag meine Aufwartung machen. 12. Var

1. Are we obliged to wait for our friend? 2. No, not on his

account. 3. This man is detested on account of his perfidy. 4 Do not grieve on account of us! 5 On my account you may do what you like. 6. My brother died of consumption

in the nineteenth year of his age. 7. Do you know who has ich Ihnen mit einer Lasse Thee oter Kaffee aufwarten. 18. Sch tante

which all nations referred the longitude, and it is to be regretted that this did not retain its position as the universal meridian for the world at large, and for the simplification of the islands which lie in the most northern regions of Europe, are mode of reckoning the longitude in different countries. The the Loffoden Isles, W. of Norway; Spitzbergen, and Nova Zembla, in the Arctic Ocean; and Greenland, which lies chiefly in the same ocean.

Europe, and which lie in the Mediterranean Sea, are the The islands of the greatest importance in the south of following:-Corsica, which belongs to France, lying in the Tuscan Sea; Sardinia, S. of Corsica, and separated from it by the Strait of Bonifacio; the Balearic Isles, viz., Majorca, Minorca, Ivica, and Formentera, E. of Spain; Sicily, S.W. of Naples, and separated from it by the Strait of Messina; Malta, S. of Sicily and belonging to Britain; the Ionian Islands, viz., Corfu, Cephalonia, Zante, Sta. Maura, Thiaki or Ithaca, Cerigo, Paxo, &c., W. of Greece, and S. W. of Turkey in the Ionian sea; Candia or Crete, S.E. of Greece; the islands of the Archipelago, viz., Negropont (anciently Eubœa), Andro, Syra, Naxia, Paros, Antiparos, Hydra, Spezzia, Egina, &c., lying E. and S.E. of Greece; and Lemnos or Stalimene, Lesbos or Mitilini, Scio or Chios, Samos, Patmos, Rhodes, and many others, lying to the E. of Turkey in Asia, or rather Asia Minor; Cyprus, situated in the Levant, which belongs to Egypt, and whose chief town is Nicosia.

to

für Thee, aber ich bin so frei, eine Lasse Kaffee anzunehmen. 14. Bei der Krönung der Deutschen Kaiser zu Aachen warteten die anwesenden Fürften auf. 15. Umsonst habe ich ihn darauf aufmerksam gemacht, er folgt nur seinem Kopfe. 16. Der Lehrer machte die Schüler darauf aufmerksam, wie wohl und gut Gott Alles in der Welt geordnet habe. 17. Der Richter fragte ihn vergebens, warum er dieses Verbrechen begangen habe; ver Au. geschuldigte hatte nichts darauf zu antworten. 18. Ich habe das Schreiben erhalten; allein ich weiß nicht, was ich darauf antworten soll. 19. 3 wüste schon, was ich darauf antworten würte, wenn ich an ihrer Stelle wäre. 20. Die Männer, von denen Sie sprechen, sind eben nicht die besten Vertreter des Landes. 21. Ich ließ meiner Zunge freien Lauf und erzählte das mir witerfahrene Unrecht. 22. Er ließ seiner Rede freien Lauf und sagte in seiner Begeisterung mehr, als er hätte thun sollen. 23. Der An. kläger ließ den Angeklagten nicht zu Worte kommen, sondern fuhr immer mit seinen Beschuldigungen fort, ohne auf die Entschuldigungen zu hören. 24. Der Kärm übertönte die Stimme des Retenden und ließ ihn nicht zu

Worte kommen.

1. Your friend whom we saw the day before yesterday is sick; is he not? 2. It was an agreeable evening; was it not, my friend? 3. Yes, it was, and I shall never forget the plea. sure we had. 4. Your brother was also there; was he not? 5. It is yet early; is it not? 6. No, it is very late, and we must go. 7. I have waited already an hour for my friend, but still he has not come. 8. I am waiting for our servant. 9. Do not wait for him, I have just sent him out. 10. After I arrived in London I went directly and waited upon my friend, for whom I had letters of recommendation. 11. May I serve you with a cup of chocolate. 12. No, I thank you. 13 Will you not visit us before you go to the continent? 14. Ye, I shall pay you a visit. 15. May help you to a glass of ale? 16. I thank you, I never drink it. 17. I have heard the news, but I do not know what to say to it. 18. You speak French

and German, don't you?

The principal Capes (Lat. caput, a head) in Europe are the
following:-The North Cape, on the Island of Mageroe, in lat.
71 10', and long. 269 1' E., is commonly reckoned the most
northern point of Europe, but this, according to some authors,
is in lat. 77° 4' N., and long. 77° 5' E.; the Naze (German,
is Nordkün, in lat. 719 6' N.; the north point of Nova Zembla
the nose or beak), the most northern point of Norway, on the
Skager-rack; the Skaw, or most northern point of Jutland,
and Finisterre, in Spain,
of which the latter, as the name
in Denmark; Cape La Hogue, in France; Capes Ortegal
indicates, (Lat. finis, the end, terræ, of the earth,) was deemed
by the ancients the end or uttermost extremity of the
world; Cape Roca, near Lisbon, and Cape St. Vincent, in
Portugal; Cape Trafalgar and Europa Point, lat. 36° 6' N.,
long. 59 21′ W., in Spain, of which the latter is the most
southerly point in Europe, although Tarifa Point, lat. 36° 1′
N., long. 5° 36′ W., is often considered as this point; Cape
Spartivento and Cape di Leuca in Italy, and Cape Matapan,
in Greece (the Morea), the latter cape being in lat. 36° 22′ N.,
and long. 22° 28′ E.; Cape Passaro, in Sicily; and others of
less importance. In the British Islands, Dunnet Head, and
not Cape Wrath, is the most northerly point of Great Britain;
also, Lizard Point, and not Land's End, is the most southerly
point; the most northerly point of Ireland is Mullin or Malin
Head, and the most southerly point Mizen Head, and not Cape
Clear, which is on an island, called Clare Island.

LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY-No. XIX.
MAP OF EUROPE.

Or all the islands which belong to Europe, the most im-
portant in political and commercial importance are the British
Isles. Under this head are included Great Britain, anciently
called Albion or Britannia, and divided into the two countries of
England and Scotland; and Ireland, anciently called Hibernia;
with various interjacent (lying between) and circumjacent
(lying around) islands of much smaller dimensions. The
principal of the latter are the Isle of Man, in the Irish Sea,
situated at nearly an equal distance from the three countries,
England, Scotland, and Ireland; the Isle of Anglesea, which The northern Highlands of Europe are those which contain
is separated from the mainland in Wales (a part of England) the Scandinavian chain of mountains, extending from the
by the Menai Strait; the Scilly Isles, anciently called Naze to the North Cape, and consisting of the Lang-field, the
Cassiterides or the Islands of Tin, adjacent to Cornwall, the Dovre-field, and the Kölen ranges, of which the highest point
real tin region; the Isle of Wight, south of and forming part is Snechätten in the middle range, about 8,120 feet above the
of Hampshire; the Hebrides, or western islands of Scotland; level of the sea; and the Uralian or Ouralian chain, extend-
the Orkney and Shetland Islands, north of Scotland; and the ing from the shores of the Arctic Ocean to beyond the source
Channel Islands, Guernsey, Jersey, Alderney, and Sark, of the Ural river, which falls into the Caspian Sea, and forms,
which lie to the north-west of France. Next to the British with both, the boundary between Europe and Asia. The
Islands, the most important in the north of Europe are those south-eastern Highlands of Europe are the Caucasian chain of
which belong to and form part of the kingdom of Denmark, mountains, between the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea, of
and lie in the channel or passage to the Baltic, called the which the highest peak is Mount Elburz, about 18,500 feet
Kattegat, viz., Zealand, which contains the capital of that above the level of the sea, and the highest mountain in Europe.
kingdom; with Funen, Laaland, Falster, Moen, Fermern, The southern Highlands of Europe consist of the Balkan (an-
Langland, Alsen, and various others. In other parts of the ciently Hamus) mountains in Turkey, the highest points being
Baltic, are the islands of Rugen, Bornholm, Oland, Gothland, about 10,000 feet above the level of the sea; the Eastern Alps
Aland, Oesel, and Dago. The islands called the Azores, or (German, mountains), stretching from the Balkan range to the
Western Islands, which are generally considered to belong to commencement of the Western Alps, north of the Adriatic, of
Europe, and of which Terceira and St. Michael are the prin- which the highest summits are Mont Blanc and Mont Rosa,
cipal, are situated about 800 miles W. of Portugal, to which each more than 15,000 feet above the level of the sea, and
they belong. The Island of Iceland, which belongs to which border Switzerland on the south, and Italy on the
Denmark, and is celebrated for its hot springs and its volca- north; the Carpathian Mountains in the north of Hungary;
noes, is situated on the edge of the arctic circle, and having the Hercynian Mountains, in Germany; the Cevennes and the
its northern point within the Arctic Ocean; the Faroe Isles, Vosges, in France; the Pyrenees, between France and Spain,
which belong to the same kingdom, and are situated N. W. of which the highest points or peaks are Mont Perdu and
of the Shetland Isles, once formed the site of the first meridian, | Maladetta, each more than 11,000 feet high; Venletta and

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