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The forms of which we have hitherto spoken have been for eye, is properly represented. Take the figure of a cube, for the most part such as may be drawn in their natural or proper instance: three of the six square faces of this solid are shown, dimensions on a flat surface, as, for instance, the square or the l but one only is seen as a square. This is a perspective view
pentagon; but, in the following Egures of solid bodies (fig. 71), ) of the cule; its faces are drawn according to the principles ar we see that only one side of each solid, viz., that nearest the that art, and so are the faces of the other solids; and, in all, VOL. II.
cases where the outline of a figure lies in more than one surface straight lines A B and Ac
were the dimensions of the origior plane-that is, where the figure is not flat,-perspective fur. nal, and A E the length of the copy, then the straight line nishes us with rules by which a perfectly correct fepresentation
DB drawn parallel to B C will give a D, the promay be given. Perspective, therefore, naturally comes in order
portionate height. Where the given or required
A as the next branch of the art of drawing; and, after the fol
dimensions are so extended as to make this lowing considerations regarding outline, we shall take up the
method troublesome in practice, the length subject of perspective, that is, in the succeeding lesson.
A B may be easily found by the rule of proB в
portion in arithmetic; for a fourth proportional Fig. 71
to the numbers expressing the engths of A E, A D, and A c, in inches, will give the
required height. The proposition here referred to is the twelfth of the sixth book of Euclid; see Cassell's edition, page 134.
Fig. 74. Octohedron. Dodecahedron. Tetrahedron. Cube. In the operations of a good draughtsman, the eye, the hand, and the judgment, act in concert; but this desirable combina. tion is never seen except as the result of very considerable practice. In order to succeed in its attainment, the student must continue exercises on outline far beyond what we have yet given him in these pages. If he has made himself acquainted with the principles of form, he will soon master every difficulty: and he may then proceed occasionally to copy from the draw ings of a master hand. In these, he has the consummation of what the eye, the hand, and the judgment can produce ; and if he copy them with spirit and accuracy, and at ihe same time with freedom, he will go through really valuable exercise, Good examples of outline are easily attainable: in Mr. Cassell's publications, “ The Illustrated Magazine of Art," and "The History of the Painters of all Nations," specimens of drawings executed by the very first masters abound. But, as diese drawings are for the most part filled up with light and shado, and made into complete pietures, if the stadent attempts to copy these, or any other drawings of the same description, he will need to exercise much care and observation ; and, with this view, the following remarks will be of æssistance to him. We shall suppose that he attempts to copy a simple subject, such as “ The Forest,” fig. 72; and, first, that he wishes to make a copy of the same size as the original. Let him imagine a perpendicular line to pass through the picture, dividing it into halves : this will pass through a point close to the fork in the upper branches of the tree, and will come downward nohy the dark spot in the principal branch, its complete course downward is then easily followed. Having noticed the leading
Having thuis determined the size of his copy, the student points through which this imaginary perpendicular passes, he will now refer to the perpendicular and horizontal line drawn, must next imagine a horizontal line to pass through the picture, or supposed to be drawn, as described above. Of course, he also dividing it into two equal parts. Two lines drawn visibly should not give my attention to the smaller details of the on the original would, of course, settle these points at once picture until an the larger parts and outlines are properly but, in accustoming the eye to observation, it is much better drawn the latter me then easily added. This, indeed, is i to have them visible only to the mind, *s this exercises general principle of procedure applicable to the whole range of the judgment also. The student should now draw two snch the art, to outline, to colour, and to effect,--to original drawlines faintly on his paper, and then proceed to make his copy, ing as well as to copying. We call the attention of the student measuring hy his eye the distance of one point from another, particularly to this principle, as there is none which he is more in which he will find these lines of great assistance,
apt to overlook. Fig. 74 is an outline of fig. 72 to a scale of Let us next suppose that his copy is not to be of the same illustrate, to some extent, the nature of the preceding observa
one-half of its linear dimensions. This will exemplify and size as the original. In order to attain greater correctness, the tions ; but this mere sketch is intended more as a hint than as student should endeavour to determine the length and breadth of his copy, so that they shall be in just proportion to those of a perfect example to the student. the original. If the dimensions of the original are taken in
It is propor here to remind the student of the method of inches, the halves of these numbers will be the dimensions of a points mentioned in Lessons III. and IV.; for he will find it copy one.fourth of its size ; one third of each of these numbers eminently useful in making such copies as we are now speaking will be the dimensions of a copy
one-ninth of its size ; and so of; indeed, he should mark off all the principal masses in the on : the squares of the ratios of their dimensions being the manner referred to, in whatever copy he may undertake to exact ratios of the sizes of the picture and its copy. The draw. It will be observed that, in the small outline exhibited meaning of this is, that if the ratios of the dimensions bet, in fig. 74, the effect of light and shade is given to some parts 1, &c., the ratios of the sizes will be 4 x 1, $ x }, x 1, &c.; by a thickening of the line on the shadow side ; and the effect or, simply, a, b, 1', &c. If the proposed length' is given by of distance, by making all the outlines of the more forward means of a straight line, the height or breadth may be found objects bolder than those of the more distant. This has a by the following method :-In fig. 73, draw two lines making pleasing effect when well managed; but the student must take any angle with each other; in one of them, set off with the this only as a hint at present : future examples will bring this compasses the length of the original, as a f, and in the other subject more fully under his observation. We shall conclude its height, as a D; join P. e; then, if a c be the proposed this lesson with a short account of an instrument used by length of the copy, set this length off on a E with the com- artists for copying drawings on a reduced scale, for the pur. passes, and through c draw B C parallel to De; then A B poses of copper-plate or other engravings. is the proportionate height of the copy. This diagram
The Pantograph, (from the Greek pas, pantos, all, and grapho, supposes that reduced dimensions are required; but, if the I write,) is an instrument for copying, in a continuous manner,
any figure whatever, and reducing it to any size, so that all
SIMPLE Verbs. its dimensions shall have, te those of the given copy, a given Simple verbs consist of a monosyllable, which, in general, ratio. This instrument is figuratively called singe, that is, is short in regard to quantity, and may be vocal, that is, such monkey, by the French, because it imitates in small that which as end in a vowel, or, what is more common, consonantal, or
such as terminate in one consonant or in two consonants.
In order to obtain the root or stem, we must cut off the personal ending o, e. g., 18-0, ēm-o, flu-o, frēm-0, scand-o. A short syl. lable is sometimes, for the sake of force in pronunciation, made long by the addition of a consonant, thus : lab (labium, a lip) becomes lamb-o, I lick; jug (jugum, a yoke) becomes jung-o, I join; tag (hence, tetigi) becomes tang-o, I touch ; tud (hence, tutúdi) becomes tund-0, 1 pound; scid (scidi), scind-o, I cleave; tem becomes temn-o, I despise ; sper becomes spern-o, I spurn; sig (sig-illum, a seal), sign-o, 1 sign. The number of primitive verbs is comparatively small.
DERIVATIVE VERBS. Derivative verbs are formed first from nouns, thus: from color, colour, we have colorare, to colour; from fulgur, lightning, fulgurare, to lighten ; from fulmen, thunder, fulminare, to thunder ; from monstrum, an indication, monstrare, to show (compare
moneo); from regnum, a kingdom, regnare, to rule; from pugman has done in large. The principle of this instrument will nus, a fist (compare Gr. pux, with clenched fist, pugna, a fight, be understood from fig. 75, in which m n Pa is a parallelo- E. K. pugilist), pugnare, to fight ; from fastidium, nausea (com. gram composed of four levers or rods, which are jointed at the pare fastus, pride), fastidire, to be disgusted with. In some four angles, and are moveable round the joints or pins. A cases, it may be doubted whether the noun or the verb is the crayon or pencil is placed at a, and a point or tracer at a on primitive, e. g., the prolongation of the lever x P, and these are adjusted so that the straight line A a, when produced, passes through the
Pax, pac-is, peace, pācare, to pacify; root, păc. point o, which is preserved in a fixed position. By tracing lucerna, a lamp).
Lux, lac-is, light, lac-ere, to be light; root, lúc (compare with the point or tracer at a the whole of the outline of any figure or curve, CA B, the crayon or pencil at a will produce
Finis, a boundary, finire, to bound or limit. a figure, ca b, exactly similar to the former. The levers M N
Sors, sort-is, a lot, sortiri, to cast or draw lots. and a p are furnished with holes previously numbered and
Flos, flor-is, a flower, florere, to flower or blossom. adjusted, so that the artist can at pleasure place the pins in
Foed-us, foul, foedare, to pollute or make foul. them, alter the position of the joints, and draw a copy to any
Laus, laud-is, praise, laudare, to praise or laud. determinate scale. In fig. 76, there is a representation of an
Gravis, heavy, gravare, to make heavy, to load.
Largus, abundant, largiri, to give abundantly.
Those, also, are derivative verbs which indicate a repetition of the act indicated by the verbs. They are formed by the insertion of t or it, and are called frequentatives. They follow the first conjugation, thus :
Verbs formed by t: From dicere, to say, dictare, to repeat ; from cano, I sing, can-tare, to chant ; from capere, to take, captare, to snatch ; from salire, to leap, sal-tare, to dance; from trahere, to draw, trac-tare, to drag; root, trah; from specére, to look, spec-tare, to look at, to view.
Verbs formed by it : From ago, to do, ag-itare, to be always doing ; from cogere, to drive, cog-itare, to revolve ; from clamare, to cry, clam-itare, to shout; from rogare, to ask, rögitare, to entreat ; fluěre, to flow, flă-itare, to float ; volare, to fly,
vờl-itare, to flutter ; quaerěre, to seek, quaer-itare, to look for ; instrument of this kind carefully constructed in brass, and fear, păv-itare, to fear greatly ; latēre, to be hid, låt-itare, to lie
noscere, to knowo, nosc-itare, to be acquainted with ; pavēre, to having its sides decimally divided. In this figure, you see the 'hid often ; minari, to hang over, min-itari, to threaten ; polliceri, to fixed point or centre, and the extremities of the pencil or crayon, offer, pollic-itari, to promise; nego, to deny, nèg-itare, to deny and of the tracer, all placed in the same straight line, which is often; sciscère, to learn, scisc-itari, to inquire. represented as dotted. The instrument rests upon the centre
Verbs formed by t and it: From dictare, to repeat, dict-itare, and tracer at opposite extremities of two parallel lerers, and to repeat often; cantare, to chant, cant-itare, to chant often; upon small wheels at their two other opposite extremities. The ventare, to come often, vent-itarc, to frequent ; legěre, to read, pantograph was described in a book published at Rome in lect-itare, to read often; vivěre, to live
, vict-itare, to feed upon ; 1631, entitled Pantographia, seu Ars delineandi res quaslibet, &c.
scribo, to vcrite, script-itare, to write often; the three latter The principle on which the operation of the preceding instru- verbs are, as it were, derived from lectare, victare, scriptare, ment is founded is the same as that on which the construction which were not in use. of fig. 73 depends, and is contained in the second proposition of the sixth book of Euclid, page 125, Cassell's edition; or, rather,
DESIDERATIVE VERBS. under a more extended view in the fourth proposition of the There is, also, a class of derivative verbs named desideratives, same book, at page 128, Cassell's edition.
inasmuch as they express a desire (desiderium). They are
formed first by the suffix tur, and are of the fourth conjugation; LESSONS IN LATIN.-No. XLIII.
the full termination of the present is in turio, e. g., coenaturio,
I desire a meal, from coena, a meal ; empturio, I desire to pur By Joux R. BEARD, D.D.
chase; parturio, I wish to bring forth. The t is in some cases VARIOUS KINDS OF VERBS.
dropped, e. g., esurio, I wish to eat, from edo, I eat. Another
way of forming desideratives is by means of ss with the conAs there are several kinds of verbs in Latin, it seems desirable necting vowel e, or, in the older forms of the language, i; as, to take a brief notice of the more important. The most com-lac-esso, I excite, from lacio, I entice; cap-esso, I seize, from prehensive division is formed by considering verbs as either capio, I take ; fac-esso, I perform, from facio, I do; pet-isso, also simple or derivative.
pet-esso, I strive after, from peto, I seek; incip-isso, I attempt,
from incipio, I begin. From the idea of repetition, these verbs become frequentatives; as, incesso, I assault, from incedo, I approach. Arcesso, for accesso (from accedo, I come to), has a causal force; ag, I cause to come, I send for.
Another class of derivative verbs bear the name of diminutives: they express the idea of diminution, what is little, or what is contemptible. They are formed by the suffix ill, and follow the first conjugation, e. g., cant-illare, to sing small, from cantare, and that from cano; conscrib-illare (from scribo), to scribble together; sorb-illare, to sip, from sobere, to sup.
Verbs are compound as well as primitive and derivative. Compound verbs are made up of two or more parts. These parts may be verbs, and then compound verbs are said to be formed of
Are-facio (from arère, to be dry), I make dry. Cale-facio (from calere, to be hot), I make hot. Made-facio (from madere, to be wet), I make wet. Pate-facio (from patere, to be open), I make open. Assue-facio (from assuere, not in use), assuescere,) I grow Consue-facio (from consuere, not in use), consuescère,
Condoce-facio (from condocêre, to instruct), I instruct, or train up.
Of these compounds, the four which stand first are composed of two verbs. The four last have each a preposition besides. Thus, assue is made up of ad and sue. Facio is the second verb in all the instances. The specific meaning is in each case given by the first verb, which is for the most part an
Finally, there are the inchoative verbs, so called because SE they denote a beginning (from inchoo, I begin). The suffix is here sc, which is united to the root by means of a, e, i. Their inflexions are after the third conjugation, e. g., from labāre, to totter or fall, is formed the inchoative (called also, inceptive, from incipio, I begin) labasco, I begin to fall or totter; from pallere, to be pale, comes pallesco, I grow pale; from gemere, to groan, gemisco, I sob; from dormire, to sleep, obdormisco, 1 fall asleep.
tomed. Commone-facio (from commonere, to remind), I remind,
Satis-facere (from satis, enough), to satisfy (E. R).
(from male, ill) to speak ill of.
(from prae, before), to foresee.
from the Greek amphi, around (ambo, in Latin), on both sides, is found in ambigo (ago), I drive hither and thither, I doubt; amburo (uro), I set on fire all round; anquiro (ambquiro, quaero), I investigate.
DI, DIF, denoting division and negation, e. g., discedo, I part from; dimitto, I send away; dissipo (sipo, or rather, supo, I cast), I scatter; diruo (ruo, I fall), I pull down, destroy; diffido (fido, I trust), I distrust.
not, e. g., nescire, to be ignorant; nequire, to be
back, again, away, e. g., revertor, I return; redeo, I go back; revello, I tear away; resěco, I cut off; resisto, I stand against, resist.
(sine, without), denoting separation, appears in secedo, I withdraw (E. R. secede, secession); sepono, I lay aside, sejungo, I separate.
su (sub, under), denoting from under, that is, upwards, as
VERBS TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE,
Here, you see, amat has a subject, a verb, and an object, but dormit has no object. Having an object after it, the verb amat is a transitive verb. Observe that the act implied in the verb passes from pater to filium, from the subject to the object. A transition of this nature is the characteristic of a transitive verb. The absence of that transition is the characteristic of an intransitive verb; and, accordingly, in the use of dormit, there is no such transition.
By a sort of poetic license, indeed, some intransitive verbs have an object after them, but only an object of the same meaning, or of similar import with the verb, e. g., sommari somnium, I have dreamt a dream.
without an object; as, quid agis? lego; what art thou doing Occasions there are where a really transitive verb stands I am reading. Here no object is expressed; yet is lega transitive verb, for it is by the idea, not the mere form of expression, that these things are determined, and in the idea of reading an object is of necessity involved. If I read, I read something; you may ask: What do you read? but you cannot ask, What do you sleep?
Transitive verbs are subdivided into two sorts-the active and the passive.
Pater amat filium,
The father loves the son
The father is loved by the son
These distinctions are called voices; we speak of the active voice and the passive voice. It is only transitive verbs that admit the distinction of active and passive. The passive voice is the counterpart of the active voice, and, when the latter does not exist, the former cannot be found. Hence it appears that there are verbs which are neither active nor passive; such verbs being neither the one nor the other, are called neater (neither). Thus dormit, he sleeps, is a neuter verb. Dormit you see, denotes a certain state; and, in general, intransitive or neuter verbs denote a state, e. g., currit, he runs; volat
avis, the bird flies. A transitive verb, however, has action for its essence, c. g.,
Object. adversarium their opponent
You see the blow given by the hand. Feriunt is a transitive verb, because the action which it conveys passes from the subject to the object. It is also a transitive verb in the active voice. Transitive verbs are in the active voice when they have the terminations of the active voice. Or, to define the matter according to the sense, transitive verbs are in the active voice when they have an object, as feriunt, the object of which is adversarium. The same sense may be expressed by a passive voice, thus:
Verb. feriunt strike
It is the essential feature of the passive voice that the action of the verb, instead of passing over to an object, either turns back on the subject, or remains with the subject. In amor, I am loved, the act of loving turns back on the subject I. Hence a reflex action is involved in many passive verbs. Moveor, I am moved, may signify I move myself, or simply, I move. This peculiarity of meaning in Latin, is in Greek denoted by a peculiarity of form which is called the middle
A much more definite peculiarity is that by which verbs, which, being passive in form, have an active signification. These are already known to the student as the class of deponent verbs. Minute accuracy would require a division to be made of deponent verbs into transitive and intransitive, for while hortor, I encourage, has an object, proficiscor, I go, is without an object.
Here, while the present tenses are of the active voice, the perfect tenses are in the passive voice. These verbs, then, are active and passive in form, and in signification intransitive; or, verbs are
There are, also, verbs which, though active in form, have a neuter signification; for vapulo signifies I am beaten, and veneo, I am sold.
In some verbs the two forms, the active and the passive, are blended together, and that without a passive meaning. As these verbs have not a passive import, so are they intransitive or neuter, and, for the sake of a name, are called neuter pas-Abweichen, to deviate;
sives, e. g.,
Abermals, again, once
Begegnen, to en
Elephas, ntis, m. (also, elephantus, i, m.) an elephant; ventilo 1, 1 hesitate, delay; quadrigae, arum, f. a chariot drawn by four horses. EXERCISES.-LATIN-ENGLISH.
Pictura ornat domum; salutamus parentes nostros; postulav1 librum meum; stellae superant terram magnitudine; homines cibo satiantur; hic passer necatus est ab accipitre; corpus humanum optime duratur labore; amamur a Deo, et ab eo semper amati sumus; saepe exercitus servatur virtute unius militis; reges olim creati sunt a populo; miseri consolantur se spe meliorum temporum; maximi elephantes vagantur in silvis et montibus Indiae; agitantur quadrigae; Coelius, ut dictitabat, ad Caesarem pervenit; animus, qui ex inflammatâ animâ constat, superiora capessit; solus coenitabat apud me pater; solet accipiter trepidas agitare columbas; spes est nos esurituros esse; omnes imperio laeti parent ac jussa facessunt; ipse metuere incipies ne innocenti periculum facesseris; ex legionibus fabros delegit, et ex continenti alios arcessiri jubet; cui maledixit unquam bono? benedixit? tus?' cupio te ad me venire; ventum in insulam est; quam stultum imo; quem fortem et bonum civem non petulantissime est insectaest, quum signum pugnae acceperis, ventilare! volitat ante oculos istorum juba regis filius; pennis volare haud facile est homini.
The house is ornamented with pictures; the birds fly; the birds fit; I can fly with wings; he has caused danger to me, an innocent man; he spoke well of his general; is there any hope of eating? he drives the enemy about; an elephant wanders in the forest; God loves good men; good men are loved by God; the earth is surpassed in magnitude by the stars; we are saluted by our parents; the boy saluted his mother; I have been sent for by the king; the king sent for the general; the general saved the army by his valour; by the wisdom of good men the world is saved (preserved); the young man executes his uncle's commands; thou art satisfied with food; labour strengthens the husbandman; husbandmen are strengthened by labour; the hawk killed the sparrow; of old, the people created kings.
LESSONS IN GERMAN.-No. XXXVII.
Schmerzen, to pain, is used like the corresponding English word. Ex.: Der Gedanke schmerzt mich; the thought pains me. Die Wunde schmerzt ihn; the wound pains him.
I. Weh, (pain) joined with thun, (to do, to make) forms the phrase, Weh thun, to pain, to grieve; literally, to make, or cause pain. Ex.: Das thut mir web; that grieves me (it causes me pain). Er hat dem Kinde weh gethan; he has hurt the child. Das Kind hat sich Die Hand thut ihm weh; the hand pains him. weh gethan; the child has hurt itself.
II. Leid thun, (literally, to make, or cause pain,) is employed to denote mental sufferings; sorrow; as, Es thut ihm leid, daß er es gethan hat; he is sorry, that he has done it. Gs thut mir leid, ihn nicht gesehen zu haben; I am sorry not to have seen him.
III. Fehlen, to fail, to miss, to lack, is often used impersonally. Ex.: Es fehlt ihm an Verstand; he was lacking in understanding. So also, Was fehlt tem Manne? What ails the man? Was fehlt Shnen? What ails you? or what is the matter with you?
Gereu'en, to cause to Niederschlagen, to de
ject, discourage, dishearten; Pfat, m. path;
agen to say, tell; Scheiten, to part from another;
counter; Hinzufügen, to add to, Ding, n. a thing; to join, adjoin; Erwerben, to earn, Leit, (See II.); get, obtain; Meiten, to avoid, Schmerzen, (see above); to go Fehl'gehen, shun, to abstain Sce'lenruhe, ƒ from; wrong, to miss the quillity, peace of mind; way;