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1. It would be very agreeable to me if you could leave me to myself. 2. It was very satisfactory to me to see my brother well. 3., I am very glad to hear that your undertaking has succeeded. 5. He is angry at the conduct of his brother. 6. My brother introduced me to Mr. G. 7. Has your sister already become acquainted with my brother ? 8. Yes, she became acquainted with him at the last coneert. 9. Do you know why your brother is so angry; 10. He is angry at me because I laughed at him. 11. The actor personated Henry IV. very well. 12. That government has introduced good laws. 13. This fashion has been introduced by the French olá. The import of wine from France is very great.

LESSONS IN ENGLISH.—No. XXXVII. By John R. BEARD, D.D.

LATIN STEMS,

I may now give an instance or two of curious etymologies. Husband is said to be house-band, the band and bond of the house This view is indicated in the couplet– “The name of the husband what is it to say? of wife, and the household, the band and the stay.” " - Tusser, “Points of Husbandry.”

Tariff, a fixed scale of duties levied on imports, comes, it would seem, from Tarifa, the Moorish name of a fortress standing on a promontory, on which, as it commanded the entrance of the Mediterranean, a custom-house was erected. A saunterer is one who whiled away his time in La Sainte Terre, the Holy Land, after the first enthusiasm of the crusades had gone off, and pilgrimages became a sort of religious fashion for the idlers of the day. A poltroon, from the Latin, pollice truncus, deprived of his thumb, is one who through fear has cut off his thumb rather than go to war: such mutilations are still not unknown. From poltroon, in French poltron, some derive to palter and paltry. The word post may well claim a place among etymological curiosities, Post coming from the Latin, positus, placed, may signify a stock placed in the ground, a past; or such a stock (or something like a post), with a hole in it to receive letters; hence, a post or post-office : it may also be applied to a military station, because a person or persons are posted, that is, placed at the particular spot to keep and defend it. Hence it is easy to see how the epithet may be applied to horses or carriages, as post-horses, post-chaise, and posting-house, because at that house horses and carriages were placed for hire. And as persons travelling from posting-house to posting-house would naturally, as being away from home, and intent on some business, probably business of an urgent nature, make all possible speed, so to post and to travel post-haste, came to signify rapid travelling. And thus a post, a wholly stationary and immoveable thing, came by natural deviation and easy steps to represent the utmost speed in travelling known before the laying down of railways.

If we fix our eye on the etymology of words we shall in some cases become aware of marked incongruities. What for instance shall we say of calling a weekly newspaper a Journal (jour, F. a day)? Nay, here is lying before me a Journal of Sacred Literature which makes its appearance every three months. So a journeyman is one who works under a master, though to appearance he is a day-labourer. To adjourn, is properly to hold meetings from day to day, whereas now it signifies to break up an assembly, or to fix some time in the future for coming together again.

“An adjournment is no more than a continuance of the session from one day to another, as the word itself signifies.”—Blackstone.

False spelling has been the parent of false etymology. A country-dance is not a dance in the country, but a contre danse, a dance where each one stands opposite to his partner in the long line of couples; the French term contre signifying opposite. Shamefacedness and shamefaced, have properly nothing to do with the face or countenance, but are misspellings under a false notion for shamefastness and shamesast, like steadfast and steadfastness, Hurricane is, in origin, whatever it may be in fact, totally innocent of hurrying away the canes of the sugar plantations in the West Indies, and comes to as from our Gallic neighbours, who, borrowing an oriental term uracan, to describe an oriental storm or tornado, designate it ouragan.

The alligator, or crocodile of the New World, was very appropriately designated by the Spaniards who first saw it, el largato, that is, the lizard, the lizard, the largest lizard, the type of the to await their resurrection or rising again.

lizard species

In time the article el, the, blended with the noun

life, naturally led to the discontinuance of burning dead bodies, and to their being inhumed or interred, put into the earth, then

Umbrella, from umbra a shade, is etymologically a little size.

and formed alligator. We have a similar combination in Eldorado, Umbrella is a mediaeval word used to represent a Greek word

the gold country. word in the

process of its transformation.

Johnson could find no etymology, and Sir T. Herbert made it to
- head and face from the heat of the sun.

be a compound of German and S

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vetus (veteris), old

via, a way video, I see visus, seen vigil, watchful teneo, I hold tentus, held tenuis, thin tepeo, I am warm terra, the earth testio, a witness textus, troven tollo, Ilift up tortus, twisted traho, I draw tracous, drawn tritus, rubbed trudo, I thrust trusus, thrust tueor, I lookat tutus, protected turba, a crowd turpis, base ~ uber, fertile umbra, a shadow unda, a wave ungo, I anoint unctus, anointed winco, I conquer victus, conquered vita, life vivo, I live victum, to lire voco, I call volo, I will, wish volo, I fly volvo, I roll volutus, rolled voro, I devour vulgus, the rabble vulsus, pulled, torn

LATIN STEMs

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rad, tade, ras
tag, togr
tal, rail

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For this word, Dr.

English words.

unanimous, uniform
urban, suburb
combustion
utility
urorious
vaccination
racation, racancy, evacuate,

tortiuna
wade, invade, inrosion
ragabond, ragrant
valid, prevalent, pretail
devastation, waste
vehicle, convey
convene, contravene
advent, content
vernal
revert, convert, dirert
diverse, reverse, versatile
verity, aver
vestment, invest
teteran, inveterate
obviate, obvious
provide, invidious
visible, vision
vigilant
tenant, contain, continent
detention, content
tenuity, attenuate
tepid, tepefaction
terraqueous, inter, disinter
testify, attest
text, texture, context
extol
tortuous, extort, distort
subtrahend
tractable, subtract
trituration, attrition
intrude, detrude
obtrusion
tuition, intuition
tutor
turbulent, disturb
turpitude
exuberant
umbrageous, umbrella
undulate, inundate
unguent
unction
invincible
victory, Victoria
vital, vitality
vivid, survive
victuals
vocative, invoke, revoke
voluntary, benevolent
volatile
revolve, devolve
revolution, involution
voracious, carnivorous
vulgar, divulge
convulsion

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In Ben Jonson, who writes aligarta, we see the (skiadion) of the same import. Umbrellas are of Eastern origin.

In Constantinople, under the Greek empire, they were used forts same purpose as our ladies now use parasols, namely, to shade the Such a protection wa

less needful in our cold moist climate, and doubtless the rough and sturdy manners of our old English forefathers were averset,

a foreign fashion, and so (to them) effeminate. The use of to
umbrella in the shape of a parasol found a home in France, and
was made prevalent in this country probably by Catherine of
Braganza, though it was known here before her time, as may
appear from the following quotations:-
“I saw in the court of Spain once
A lady falling in the king's sight, along;
And there she lay, flat spread, as an -
B. Jonson.

“Are you at ease now, is your heart at rest,
Now you have got a shadow, an umbrella,
To keep the scorching world's opinion

From your fair credit?”
Beaumont and Fletcher,

The latter passage makes it very clear that the umbrella at the time it was written was intended not as now to keep of the rain, but to cover the face from the sun. But what are we to say of the description in the former quotation, in which it clearly appears that the umbrella was “flat” when “spread?” The explanation is offered in the fact that the first kind of parasols were a largesan. I cite a few words from Miss Strickland's “Queens of England" (vol. 8, p. 355). “The courtly belles used the gigantic gro shading-fans which had been introduced by the Queen (Catherino and her Portuguese ladies, to shield their complexion from the sun, when they did not wish wholly to obscure their charmsby putting on their masks. Both the mask and the fan, or umbrello, were in general use in this reign. The green shading-san is of Moorish origin; and far more than a century after the marriage of Catharine of Braganza, was considered an indispensable luxury h our fair and stately ancestral dames, who used them in open to riages, in the promenade, and at prayers, when they ostentations'; screened their devotions from public view, by spreading to before their faces when they knelt. The India trade, opened by Catherine's marriage treaty, soon supplied the ladies of Englan: with fans better adapted, by their lightness and elegance, to be us" as weapons of coquetry at balls and plays. Addison has devoto several papers in the “Spectator' to playful satire on these to from whence the now general terms of flirt and flirtation ha" been derived.” -- -

Undoubtedly the practice of flirtation grew and prevailed in and before the days of Addison; but as to the origin of the word in Miss Strickland is in error. Derived from to fleer, flirt of furt, signifying a light and silly tossing, is of Saxon origin, and my * found in some of our earliest writers. This flirting of the so termed by Addison, flutter. The piece in which he describes” flutter is in his best style for quiet satire, and I shall thero" transcribe it as your lesson in composition, requesting you!” to some friend an account both of the ensuing and of my observotions on the umbrella, the parasol, and the fan.

COMPOSITION, MR. SPECTATolt.—Women are armed with fans, as men with swords, and sometimes do more execution with them. To the end therefore that ladies may be entire mistresses of the weapoo which they bear, I have erected an academy for the training up of young women in “the exercise of the fan,” according to the no fashionable airs and motions that are now practised at court, The ladies who “carry" fans under me, are drawn up twice a-day in m great hall, where they are instructed in the use of their arms,” exercised by the following words of command: Handle your fans. Unfurl your fans. Discharge your fans Ground your fans Recover your fans. Flutter your fans.

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exercise for the space of but one half-year, shall be able to give her fan all the graces that can possibly enter into that little modish machine. But to the end that my readers may form to themselves a right notion of this exercise, I beg leave to explain it to them in all its parts. When my female regiment is drawn up in array, with every one her weapon in her hand, upon my giving the word “to handle their fans,” each of them shakes her fan at me with a smile, then gives her right hand woman a tap upon the shoulder, then presses her lips with the extremity of her fan, then lets her arms fall in an easy motion, and stands in a readiness to receive the next word of command. All this is done with a close fan, and is generally learned in the first week. The next motion is that of “unfurling the fan,” in which are comprehended several little flirts and vibrations, as also gradual and deliberate openings, with many voluntary fallings asunder in the fan itself, that are seldom learned under a month's practice. This art of the exercise pleases the spectators more than any other, as it discovers on a sudden an infinite number of cupids, garlands, altars, birds, beasts, rainbows, and the like agreeable figures, that display themselves to view, whilst every one in the regiment holds a picture in her hand. Upon my giving the word to “discharge their fans,” they give one general crack that may be heard at a considerable distance when the wind sets fair. This is one of the most difficult parts of the exercise; but I have several ladies with me, who at their first entrance could not give a pop loud enough to be heard at the farther end of the room, who can now “discharge a fan” in such a manner that it shall make a report like a pocket-pistol. I have likewise taken care, in order to hinder young women from letting off their fans in wrong places or unsuitable occasions, to show upon what subject the crack of a fan may come in properly : I have likewise invented a fan with which a girl of sixteen, by the help of a little wind which is inclosed about one of the largest sticks, can make as loud a crack as a woman of fifty, with an ordinary fan. When the fans are thus “discharged” the word of command in course is to “ground their fans.” This teaches a lady to quit her fun gracefully when she throws it aside in order take up a pack of cards, adjust a curl of hair, replace a fallen pin, or apply herself to any other matter of importance. This part of the exercise, as it ...', consists in tossing a fan with an air upon a long table (which stands by for that purpose) may be learned in two days’ time as well as in a twelvemonth. When my female regiment is thus disarmed, I generally let them walk about the room for some time; when on a sudden, like ladies that look upon their watches after a long visit, they all of them hasten to their arms, catch them up in a hurry, and place themselves in their proper stations upon my calling out-" recover your fans!" This part of the exercise is not difficult, provided a woman applies her thoughts to it. The “fluttering of the fan” is the last, and indeed the masterpiece of the whole exercise; but if a lady does not mis-spend her time, she may make herself mistress of it in three months. I generally lay aside the dog-days and the hot time of the summer for the teaching this part of the exercise, for assoon as ever I pronounce—“flutter your fans,” the place is filled with so many zephyrs and gentle breezes as are very refreshing in that season of the year, though they might be dangerous to ladies of a tender constitution in any other. There is an infinite variety of motions to be made use of in the “flutter of a fan:” there is the angry flutter, the modish flutter, the timorous flutter, the confused flutter, the merry flutter, and the amorous flutter. Not to be tedious, there is scarce any emotion in the mind which dose not produce a suitable agitation in the fan; insomuch that if I only see the fan of a disciplined lady, I know very well whether she laughs, frowns, or blushes. I have seen a fan so very angry, that it would have been dangerous for the absent lover who provoked it to have come within the wind of it; and at other times so very languishing, that I have been glad, for the lady's sake, the lover was at a sufficient distance from it... I need not add that a fan is either a prude or a coquette, accordin to the name of the person, who bears it. To conclude my o must acquaint you that I have from my own observations compiled a little treatise for the use of my scholars, intitled “the Passions of the Fan;” which I will communicate to you, if you think it may be of use to the public. I shall have a general review on Thursday next; to which you shall be very welcome, if you will honour it with your presence. I am, &c.

P.S.. I teach young gentlemen the whole art of gallanting a

N.B. I have several little plain fans made for this u e, to avoid expense.

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* In French, adjectives cannot be compared, as in English, by means of changes in the termination: with the exception of meilleur, better; moindre, less; and pire, worse, all comparisons must be formed by means of adverbs.

+ Mieux, better; pis, worse; moins, less. The English words better, worse, less, are sometimes adverbs, and when they are so, should be rendered by the several words placed at the commencement of this note. A practical way of determining the nature of those words in English is:

1. To change the word better into the expression “in a better manner." If this change may be made without changing the sense the word better is an adverb, and must be rendered by mieur:

He reads better (in a better manner) || Illit mieux que son frère. than his brother.

2. If you change worse into “in a worse manner," it should be translated pis, or more elegantly, plus mas:He reads worse (in a worse manner) || Illit pis (plus mal) que son frère.

than his brother.

3. When you may substitute “a smaller amount or quantity" for the word less, it should be rendered moins :

He reads less (a smaller annount) || Illit moins que tou frere.

than his brother.

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