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LESSONS IN PHONETIC SHORT-HAND.--No. VI.

By Alex. MELVILLE Bell, F.R.S.S.A.,

Professor of Elocution and Vocal Physiology, Member of the British Phonetic Council, Author of the “ Principles of Speech and

Elocution"-" The Elocutionary Manual "-" Steno-phonography,'--&c.

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(R.) her*

ܩܐ

68. The subordinate words given in the preceding lesson once, after all, quite so, quite as, quite enough, quite alone, were uncontracted, except in size; written with all their quite another, except that, except as, except among, except elements, only without full-sized characters. The following indeed, except only, except some, except this, except which, list contains such words as are represented by a simplification except such, little less, little (or) none, large enough, as large

as, perhaps so, perhaps always, perhaps indeed, accordingly of their alphabetic form, as ft, for after ; r ring, for round; therefore, rather than, rather far, rather near, rather better, bh, for behind; dr, for under, &c.

rather less, rather soon, rather that, rather large, rather much, 69. The letters printed in italics in the list are those used to hardly (so) much, such as, as such, as much as, as little as, denote the words. Illustrations of the different forms are given, thenceforward, thitherward, every one, very soon, very far,

altogether, together with, whichever, her own, by and bye, though, as they are all merely alphabetic, the student should

very little, very well. be able to supply them for himself from the descriptive print

II.—Write the following words, by adding the letters in ing; and he is recommended to write them from this,-cover- italics to the subordinate words, omitting the letters within ing down the marks,-as the readiest means of fixing them brackets :upon the memory.

One thing), someth(ing), same thing), someth(ing) else, (As in the preceding lesson, an asterisk (*) after s, indicates anything), justly, larger*, largesť, largely, likew’is*e, underthe hook 8; after r, the horizontal r; after m, n, or ng, a ring : far(the)r*, far(the)st, never(the)less, here(to)fore.

n*eath, somet(ime), someti ime)s*, same t(ime), oftent(ime)s*, () signifies write upwards ; and (1), write backuards).

72. Contracted letters never having vowels before them in

full alphabetic writing, the addition of a dot before any small 70. List of SUBORDINATE WORDS

character, simple or compound, will furnish a distinctive symbol

for any word to which it may be appropriated. This principle REPRESENTED BY A SIMPLIFICATION OF THEIR ALPHABETIC FORM.

is employed to distinguish the past from the present form of

the auxiliary verbs do, can, may, shall, and will. Thus. Behind

L
(N.) in or*der to


A dot before do (d) is

did.
can (k) is

could. beyon*d in order that Ly

may (m')

is

might. shall (shl)

is

should. will (wl) is

would. (D.) under*

L
Perhaps*

1

73. The same principle of distinction is applied to a few dur*ing*

other words. Let the learner supply the symbols. Thus :har*dly

2
A dot before (all)

is

let. just (dzhust]

f (off)

is

if. accor* ding *ly

h (he, him) is

who, whom. (F.) after

h s* (his)

is

whose. accor*ding* to [cour

before a ring (am, &c.,) is i.e. (id est, that is).

is (K.) can [kan]

I (ago) nected]

e.g.

2.Exempli

example). roun* a quite [kwite]

d

t (to, it)

is

th (they, them) is though. rather except (eks* ept]

)

thr* (there, their) is through. Such [s*utsh]

thr*t (thereat) is throughout. Ecross (akr*os)

w (we) is

away: uhl (while)

is Together

awhile. i'k (like) is

alike. (L.) little et cetera (ts* 1]

r, ring (round) is already ។

74. Another similar and equally simple principle of distincwhich (whit's]

n

tion is employed in the notation of the words at, thou (thee, large [lardzh)

thy), thine, us, ye, and down. These words are individualised, G betw'ixt

and preserved from confusion with to, they, then, so, &c., by the

addition of a little angular tick to the letters. Thus :

between Much [m*utsh] Thither

1 immediately

e
V.) everlasting *
thou (thee, thy)

ye ean* while

(W.) notwiths*t'and.
ing
thine

down
thn

d Y

j Exercises.

THE VERB TO HAVE. 71. I.-Write the following compound words and phrases, by uniting the subordinate symbols.

75. A full-sized H is used to represent the verb Have. This

character is perfectly distinctive, as it never occurs in ordinary Forasmuch, inasmuch, just so, just as, just about, just because, English notation. In the word 'ahoy the final vowel would be just like, just this, just thus, just that, just then, just one, just l indicated by a dot. VOL. II

51

out.

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at

us

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no more.

千Go

Having, had, &c., are represented by alphabetic additions, to

be not. " have.Thus:having have, ng.

not less,

1 do not.
had


have, d.
am not, &c.

not to be.
---
never(=not erer]

not to do.
to have
t, hare,

will not.
have had
hare, repeater.

shall not be.
had had -t hal, repeater.

must not be done,
having had

he
having, repeater.

82. EXERCISE.- Write the following negative phrases by Exercise.-Write the following phrases, by uniting the uniting the component symbols, omitting ihe letters within subordinate symbols :

brackets. Have been, have to be, to have been, having been, had been, Not above, not below, not bad, no better than, not good, not shall have, should have, will have, would have, may have, so far as, no greater than, not here, not [at] all

, not always, might have, can have, could have, must have, shall have been, not in the) least, may not be, might not have been, not to be should have had, to have had, will have to be, must have had, done, not many more, not mine, not any more, not until then, may have had to be, &c.

not only so, not unless, not enough, not so, no sooner there76. The verb to do is not, like be, united with other auxiliary fore, not [the] same, not as [it] was, not as if

, not so often as, verbs. It must be written to one side of the verb. This is let [it] not be, if not, not his own, did not, would not be

should not have, cannot, could not have had, not quite, not necessary to prevent confusion between had and have done.

perhaps, perhaps not, not according to, rather not have, not shall be.

will be.
di may do.

such as, not together, not to have, had not, not having had

83. The list of the subordinate classes of words is now comI should do.

would do.
• might be done.

plete. So few of the symbols are in any degree arbitrary, that

the learner can have but little difficulty in committing them per77. Exercise.-Write the following phrases, uniting the fectly to memory. They must now be familiarised to the hand words connected by hyphens :

and eye by practice. Perhaps the best exercise for this purpose To-be done, having-been done, have-to-be done, shall-be hand, for some time. This mode consists in writing the nouns,

will be to write in semi-stenography, or mixed short and long done, will-have-to-be done, do have done, to-have-been done, verbs, and other leading words in long-hand, while prefizes, might have been done, should-have-to-be done, might-have-affires, and the subordinate words—articles, prepositions, prohad-to-be done, &c.

nouns, auxiliary verbs, conjunctions, and common adverbs, THE ADVERBS More and Most.

are supplied in contracted short-hand writing.

84. This method of writing in semi-stenography, besides 78. The common sign of plus (+) is adopted to denote the being useful as a means of acquiring facility in the use of the synonymous word mure; and most and mostly are represented subordinate symbols, has a further and permanent utility as a by alphabetic additions to plus. Thus

general manuscript style, applicable, especially, to lectures,

sermons, and other compositions that are to be read from in + -e (more, l) mostly.

public, or to be printed from. It is quite as easily read-eren after only a few hours' study of the system--as full long-hand

writing; and, as it saves more than half the time and space (more, t) most.

occupied by ordinary long-hand, it possesses no mean advanThis symbol is applied to all compounds containing more and which any printer could very readily he taught to decipher and

tages to literary men, as an easily acquired composition-style, most; as

from with accuracy. ts

9
almost.

85. The following illustration exemplifies the mode of writ

ing in semi-stenography. The leading words occupy a conot

tinuous line ; they are first written, and the subordinate symbols are thrown into the interlinear space, just as we dot

the i's and stroke our t's. Subordinate words pronounced 79. Esercise.— Write the following phrases by uniting the after the leading words to which they accentually belong-as subordinate symbols. Omit the letters within brackets :

in the phrases "going on," reflect itself," &c.-are written Far-more, more-like, many-more, any-more, nothing-more, in the line of long-hand. Prefixes and affixes are drawn across less(or)-more, more (or)-less, neither-more(nor)-less, some- the lower end of the long-hand letter next them. The words more, still-more, more-than, what-more, little-more, much- and syllables within brackets in the illustration are those that more, perhaps-more, rather-more, more-so, more-immediately, are to be thus written in short-hand in the line of the writing. more-according to.

9. angous

1 SL THE NEGATIVES No and Not.

world going [on]

know notice. 80. The negative particles no and not are represented by a

Events very small oblique cross, written either constructively or separately. Thus:> X! things attain certain size assume certain

aspect No, not in the least, I tell you, no! A

hap

attract att(enti in] win place nota[bilities] oge. 81. The negatives no or not may be joined to any subordinate word-as in and un were indicated with prefixes-by crossing the end of the contraction, or the ring, if it is a ring letter. Thus:

Principle Cover]turn institustions! falsehood

more.

"get

moreover.

evermore.

77 foremost.

men

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historic page,

10

х

men

१.

| place), because the second (or third) noun is simply put or subE->

joined to the first, e. g., feci[itself) vivid (con)viestions millions, inaugurated TOMYRIS, REGINA Scytharum, CYRUM, REGEM Persarum devicit;

TOMERIS, THE QUEEN of the Scythians, conquered CYRUS, THE KING OF P )

the Persians ;

where, observe that regira, being in apposition with Tomyris, grin recogriltion] right[ful] honours. agrees with it in gender, number, and case. The same relation

exists between Cyrum and regem. In this, as in the preceding instance of a noun agreeing with a noun, a departure is allow

able in gender and in number, but not in case. Thus we may work doing done, [con]summastion] progress substitute decus or deliciae for regina. The essential point,

then, in this construction is, that A noun as an attribute must w N

agree in case with its predicate, ond a noun in apposition must agree

in case with the noun to which it is appended, [con]quest triumph (conflict

appreciate

VOCABULARY.
Athenae, arum, f. Athens; Bactra, orum, n. Bactria; Lon.

dinium, i, n. London; Anglia, ae, f. England; situs, a, um applaud.

(from sino), placed, situated; Leonidas, ae, m. Leonidas; cogo,

cogere, coegi, coactum 3, I bring together, compel, drive, restrain, 86. KEY TO THE ABOVE.- How much is there always going lead; cultor, oris, m. a cultivator, one who attends to; blandus, a, um, on in the world which men either do not know or do not notice. sofi, winning; adulator, óris 3, a fotterer ; incito 1, I urge on, impel; Events, as well as things, must attain a certain size, and Corinthus, i, f. 2, Corinth ; Cari hago, Carthaginis, f. 3, Carthage; assume a certain aspect, before they will attract attention and inventrix, trícis, f. 3, a discoverer ; Cithaeron, onis, m. 3, Mount win a place among the notabilities of the age. A principle Cithaeron ; Scythae, arum, m. 3, the Scythians ; domicilium, i, n. an must overturn the institutions of falsehood, and reflect itself abode ; nutrix, nutrícis, f. 3, a nurse. in the vivid convictions of millions, before it can be inaugurated

EXERCISES. LATIN-ENGLISH. on the historic page, or gain a recognition of its rightful honours. It is work not doing but done, consummation not

Athenae fuerunt urbs; Romulus fuit rex; Bactra, regionis progress, conquest and triumph rather than conflict, which caput, sita sunt sub monte Parapamiso; Leonidas rex 'fuit Spar. men appreciate and applaud.

tanorum ; Jugurtha cogebat exercitum, agri et pecoris magis quam belli cultorem ; regina est pecunia ; voluptates blandissimae sunt dominae ; adulatores sunt pessimum genus hominum ;

viginti naves, classis Romanorum, reniis incitantur; Pompeius, LESSONS IN LATIN.-No. XLV. nostri amores, veniet; Corinthus, lumen totius Graeciae, est

deleta; mors omnium rerum est extremum; Carthago atque By John R. BEARD, D. D.

Corinthus, opulentissimae urbes, eversae sunt; Lacedaemonios, SYNTAX.

fortissimos mortalium, non ferrum sed aurum vicit; Philosophia,

veritatis inventrix, morum quoque et disciplinae magistra est. HAVING given these general explanations, I proceed now to take up each of the general divisions into which I have

ENGLISH-LATIN. divided the subject of Latin syntax, And first I shall

Thebes, the capital (caput) of Beotia, was (were) situated under treat of

Mount Cithaeron; London is the capital of England, London is AGREEMENT.

the mistress of England; frugality is the producer of the other Agreement, also, bears the name of concord. Agreement men, the Scythians are the most warlike; the Roman people is the

virtues; the Scythians, very warlike men, live on flesh; of all may take place variously, as between

conqueror of all nations; Rone was the capital (head) of the 1. A noun and a noun.

world; Athens was of old the abode of the arts, the nurse of 2. A noun and a pronoun.

philosophy and eloquence. 3. A pronoun and a pronoun.

In regard to the sentence mors omnium rerum est extremum, 4. A noun and an adjective or a participle.

death is the end of all things, a remark may be desirable. Here 5. A noun with a verb.

mors, the subject, is in the feminine gender, and extremum, 6. A pronoun with a verb.

the attribute, in the neuter. The rule, therefore, seems to be 1. A noun agrees with a noun, e. g.,

broken. The sentence, however, observes the usual law of

Latin construction. In instances of this kind, negotium, thing,
Tomyris fuit regina.
Tomyris was queen.

is generally said to be understood or implied. The simple fact

is, that regard is here paid to the sense rather than the gramHere ob-erve the two nouns are subject and attribute. Tomyris mar; the grammar would require extremum to agree in gender is the subject, and regina is the attribute, and they are both with mors, and so to be extrema; but the sense, declaring that in the nominative case, singular number, and feminine gender. no gender 'is contemplated or concerned, puts the attribute into We muy then say, as a general rule, that a noun as an attribute the neuter. Other examples are given here :agrees with its subject in gender, number, and case. The sentence before us presents an instance of another fact in Latin

Turpe senex miles, turpe senilis amor.--Ovid.

Triste lupus est stabulis.-Virgil. syntax, namely, that the verb esse (with some others) has the

Varium et mutabile semper (est) femina.--Virgil. same case after it as before it.

Aliud est actio bona, aliud est oratio.--Pliny. Sometimes the attribute, though agreeing in sense with the subject, departs from it in gender alone, or in both gender and It is in the same way, that is, by reference to the sense, that number, e. g., first as to gender,

such phrases as the following are to be explained :-Excisa

ferro est Pergamum, Pergamun has been cut down by the sword, Tomyris fuit patriae

decus ;

where excisa is feminine to agree with urbs, city, though PerTomyris was the honour of her country:

gamum is of the neuter gender. Explain thus, Eunuchus bis where decus, though referring to a feminine noun, is in the die acta est (that is, fabula or comedia). neuter gender.

In the sentence Athenae fuerunt urbs, Athens was a city, In number, also, the attribute may vary from the sub. Athens is in the Latin of the plural number, and urbs of the ject, e. g.,

singular. Here, again, the sense is regarded more than the TOVYRIS fecit Scytharun.

sound; for Athenae, though plural in form, is singular in TOMYRIS was TIIE DELIGHT of the Scythiani.

meaning. The sense must always have predominance, In this A noun, moreover, agrees with a noun when one noun is sentence :added to another to explain its meaning or application. This

Amantium irae amoris integratio est; construction is called apposition (from ad, to, and pono, I

Lovers' quarrels are the restoration of love;

DELICIAE

where the plural subject irae is identified with the singular 6. LIBRI Quos ad te misi optimi sunt. attribute integratio, ihe sense causes a departure from the

The BOOKS Which I have sent to thee are very good.

7. Est mihi FILIUS QUEM valde amo. strict grammatical rule; and an attempt to put the grammar

I have a sox WHOM I greatly love. right might issue in a change of the sense ; for instance, for

8. Optima est FILIA tua, mater, EAM diligas. irae read ira, a lovers' quarrel is the restoration of love, one

Thy DAUGHTER is excellent, O mother, love HER, quarrel inight not have the alleged effect; besides, what was general has now become particular.

By studying these examples, particularly 1, 2, 3, and 4, you In these two sentences,

will see that in general

A pronoun agrees with its noun in gender, number, and case. 1. Athenae fuerunt urbs;

A relative pronoun and a demonstrative pronoun may agree 2. Amantium irae amoris integratio est ;

with its noun only in gender and in number, as appears from we find the subjects and the predicates of different numbers: 6,7, and 8. There are cases in which the relative agrees with The general rule in such cases is, that the verb should agree with its noun or pronoun in person only, e. g., the subject; accordingly, in number 1, fuerunt is connected

I'le EGO, QUI quondam, gracili modulatus avena. with Athenae; but in number 2, the subject irae is plural,

I, that well-known poet, who, &c. whereas the verb est is singular. This is a cise of attraction,

Nunc horrentia Martis arma CANO. est is made singular by the proximity of the singular noun

Now sing of the frightful arms of Mars. integratio.

The general rule may be given thus:--The relative pronoun 2. A noun agrees with a pronoun, e. g.,

agrees with its antecedent in gender and number. The antecedent 1. Trucidate eum, patriae proditorem.

is the word, noun, or pronoun, which goes before, and to which Slay him, the betrayer of his country.

in sense the relative refers. In number 5, coloniam is the 2. l'os, Quirites, veneramini Jovem.

antecedent to quam; and in number 6 libri, is the antecedent You, o Quirites, venerate Jupiter.

to quos. A proposition may be the antecedent, as, ego cuin 3. Meus frater est divigens.

Pompeio in sermonibus versatus sum ; quae nec possunt scribi My brother is industrious.

nec scribenda sunt. I hare discoursed with Pompey; which 4. Quae ego consul dixi vera sunt. The things are true which I said rchen I 113 consul.

things (that is, the things which were then spoken) can neither

be written nor must be written. When the reference is made to In number 1, the pronoun eum agrees with the noun to which a fact, the neuter quod is used commonly, having id before it, it refers in gender, number, and case, both being in the mas.

e. g., Timoleon, id quod difficilius putatur, multo sapientius culine gender, the singular number, and the accusative case. tulit secundam quam adversam fortunam; Timoleon bore good In number 2, the noun Quirites agrees with the pronoun vos fortune much more wisely than bad, a thing (that is, to do so) in number and person, both being in the second person plural ; ['which is thought more difficult (that is, it is thought more dificult they do not agree in case, for vos is in the nominative, while to bear good fortune wisely than bad fortune). In regard to genQuirites is in the vocative case. In number 3, the possessive der, the same rules prevail between the relative and antecedent pronoun meus, like other adjectives, agrees with its noun frater as between the subject and the attribuie. In point of place, in gender, number, and case, both being in the masculine the relative is often put before the noun to which it refers, e.g., gender, singular number, and nominative case, In number 4, the poun consul agrees with the pronoun ego in gender, num

Cecidere manu, quas legerat HERBAS. ber, and case, both being in the masculine gender, singular

The HERBS Wilicu she had gathered fell from her hands. number, and nominative case. From these instances comes The demonstrative pronoun must occasionally be supplied, e..., forth the rule that

Quos cum Matio pueros miseram (ii) epistolam mihi attulerunt; A noun agrees with a pronoun in gender, number, and case, or Those boys whom I had sent with Matium brought the letter to me; gender and number.

where, observe the marked difference of idiom, for boys, which The pronoun may be implied, e. g.,

is in the nominative case, and forms a part of the subject in Hostis hostem occidere volui.

English, is in Latin (pueros) in the accusative case, and forms (1) an enemy wished to kill an enemy.

part of the object. Hostis is in the first person singular, in concord with the

The demonstrative pronoun is added to the relative for the

sake of emphasis, e. g., pronoun ego implied in volui, a verb of the first person singular, perfect tense.

Quam quisque novit artem, in hâc se exerceat. The pronoun ille is used to mark out a person or thing

Lit. Trans.:—What each one knows art, in that himselý let him exercise. emphatically, and generally in a good sense ; iste, employed

Id. Trans. :-Let each exercise himself in that art with schick he is

acquainted. also for emphasis, conveys reproach, e. g., Magno ILLI Alexandro est simillimus.

The antecedent noun is sometimes repeated with the relatire.
He is very like TUE CELEBRATED Alexander the Great.

Caesar is fond of this construction:-
Non erit ISTA amicitia sed mercatura,

Erant omnino itinera duo, QUIBUS ITINERIBUS domo exire possent.
That would not be friendship but traffic.

There were in all tuo roads, by WHICH ROADS they were able to quit

their home. Observe that in the last example ista agrees with amicitia, though in a similar case the pronoun in English is in the neuter

There are forms in which the relative is cmployed with the gender. The general fact may be stated thus, that in Latin force of the demonstrative, e.g., quae tua est prudentia, which pronouns referring to something gone before, agree with the noun to is equivalent to eā prudentia, quae tua est; or, quá tu es pruwhich they are prefixed; what has gone before may be a sen- dentiâ, for prudentia quâ es :tence, or a statement, or a fact, or even a noun, e. g.,

Quâ es prudentia, nibil te fugiet. Pompeio, quod populi Romani lumen fuit, exstincto.

Such is your forethought that nothing will escape your notice. Pompey, who was the Ligir of the Roman people, being dead.

VOCABULARY. We may invert our proposition ; for, as a noun may agree with a pronoun, so may a pronoun agree with a noun, e. g.,

Obfero, offerre, obtuli, oblatus 3, I offer; suscipio 3, I wida.

take; hebeto 1, I make dull, heary; Epaminondas, ae, se, 1. Haec ext nobilis ad Trasimenum PUGNA.

am, a, a, Epaminondas, a Grecian General; honeste, homurally; This is the famous BATTLE near Trasimenum.

jucunde, pleasantly; morior, mori, mortuus sum 3, I die; gigno. 2. QUI CANTUS dulcior inveniri potest?

gignere, genui, genitum 3, I beget; metior, metiri, mensus sum 4, What sweeter SONG can be found?

dep. I measure, measure out ; Wellingtonus, i, m. Wellington. 3. Quod CARMEN est aptius ? WHAT VERSE is more suitable ?

EXERCISES.-Latin-ENGLISH. 4. Virgo, quae patria est TUA ?

Quae prima mihi defensio est oblata (eam), suscepi; hae sunt O VIRGIN, what is THY country?

de amicitiâ sententiae; hoc tibi juventus Romana indicimus bellum; 6. COLONIAM QUAM Fregellas appellant.

tam mihi mea vita quam tibi tua cara est; medici ipsi se curare The COLONY WHIch they call Fregellae.

non possunt; quamdiu furor iste tuus nos eludel i confidi: bis meis litteris se apud te, hominem benevolentem, fore gratinsum; | the agency of coral in the formation of sea reefs, or of sea jacet ille (Catilina) nunc prostratus; Marcellus hic noster huic currents in the construction of sea banks and shoals. sermoni intererat; Catullus non antiquo illo more sed hoc nostro The beaches of shingle which you find on the sea shore, show fuit eruditus ; melior est. certa pax quam sperata victoria; haec that, during a gale, the breakers of every tide are more or less (pax) in tuâ, illa (victoria) in deorum manu est; ignavia corpus charged with gravel, pebbles, and boulders, which are forced lescentiam reddit ; quem nostram illa moriens' apud Mantineam land-ward as far as the broken wave can reach. That this is Epaminondas non cum quâdam admiratione delectat? e suo regno the case with every wave, is evident from facis which transsic Mithridates profugit, ut ex eodem Ponto Medea illa quondam pire every day on our southern and south-eastern coasts, profugisse dicitur; tricenti conjuravimus; haec morum vitia sunt Wherever a pier or groin is erected to stop the progress of the seneciutis ; negat Epicurus, hoc enim vestrum lumen est, quem beach, a heap of shingle soon collects on the western side of quam qui honeste non vivat, jucunde posse vivere ; Thebae, quod such an artificial barrier. The gravel and pebbles continue to Baeotiae caput est, in magno tumultu erant; domicilia conjuncta, accumulate till they rise as high as the pier or groin ; when quas urbes dicimus; arma, virumque cano, Trojae qui primus the pebbles have risen to this height, the waves pour them Italiam venit; loquimur de iis amicis quos novit vita communis ; over to the eastern side of the groin in great numbers. ex eo numero (for ex numero eorum) qui per eos annos consules fuerant, multi mortui sunt; si nos, id quod maxime debet, nostra formed on the shore, the pebbles of the breakers drive the peb

As the pebbles held by the waves strike against the shingle patria delectat; ego qui te confirmo, ipse me non possum; in quem bles of the shingles farther inland. It is in this way that primum egressi sunt locum, Troja vocatur ; quas ad me dedisti litteras accepi; quas res violentissimas natura genuit, earum shingles are projected and piled on the land so far, as you often moderationem nos soli habemus; eodem anno a Campanis Cumae, find them, beyond the reach of the retiring wave. When these quain Graeci tum urbem tenebant, capiuntur ; accidit ut luna plena beaches are high, they are always the result of the combined esset, qui dies maritimos aestus maximos in Oceano efficere con- forces of heavy gales and high tides. suevit ; Caesar intellexit diem instare quo die frumentum militibus Shingle beaches are always formed in the direction of the metiri opporteret; spero, quae tua prudentia et temperantia est, te prevalent winds, which, of course, produce the largest jam, ut volumus, valere.

Ereakers. We have instances of this on almost every coast in ENGLISH-LATIN.

the world. The most striking illustrations of sea agency in

the formation of beaches are found on the southern shores of Thirty (of them) conspired; London, which is the capital of the Baltic. Into this sea some of the most magnificent rivers England, Nourishes; Athens, which was the capital of Greece, was of northern Germany, such as the Oder, the Vistula, and the destroyed; I took the first stone that was offered me; that (great Niemen, pour their accumulated waters. The discharge at man) Wellington now lies in the earth; he lives pleasantly who the mouths of these rivers is checked by the strong west lives honourably; I give thee all my money, such is thy honour; and north-west winds, and corresponding currents which come the war which was declared, brought many evils, a thing that (id from the Atlantic.

These western currents tear down the quod) might be expected; the day is near in which you must die ; thou who teachest others canst not teach thyself; men alone have southern coasts, and, with their ruins, throw up beaches at the power over those animals which God has created ; very many are mouths of rivers. This is the case below Stettin on the Oder, the animals which have been created by God; I hope that I shall near Dantzic on the Vistula, and between Königsberg and be acceptable to (with) thee, a very honourable man; hast thou Memel, where several rivers discharge their waters. received the letter which I sent to thee? the letter which my The annexed diagram represents the action of currents in the mother sent has been received by my father.

Baltic, see fig. 62. The waves of the sea do not conform to the

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THE BALTIC.

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ON THE RECONSTRUCTIVE AGENCY OF THE OCEAN. You have seen that coasts, cliffs, and shores, whatever may be the mineral character of their rocks, are exposed to destruction from the action of the waves, and from the encroachments of the sea. The cliffs, which are undermined by the breakers, at length, fall down and cover the shore with their ruins. When the softer parts of the fallen materials have been

Rossut rapidly disintegrated and washed away, the more solid fragments are broken and rounded, and remain within the influence of the tides. Along this line they are rolled and agitated, and, at last, are worked up into a beach of shingle, or of sand, to skirt the base of the cliffs, and to exert a conservative influence on the neighbouring land.

If the coast be low and sandy, the waves drive the lighter pebbles and gravel towards the land, As the drifted sand

Tischausert

Konigsberg becomes dry at the reflux of the tide, it is carried inland by the wind ; and, in some situations, it becomes accumulated in such quantities as to form a range of hills, which in their progress overwhelin fertile tracts of land, and engulph churches, castles, and even entire villages. These sand banks are called dunes.

It is also found that at the mouths of rivers the estuaries are silted up by the combined influence of rivers and tides. At a river's mouth, a bar of sand or mud is formed at points where the velocity of the turbid river is checked by the sea.

A Beach throun up by the Baltic. Hence it is obvious that the reconstructive agency of the ocean is developed in the formation of shingle banks, in the delving bays of the shore, but pile up a beach, behind which growth of sandy beaches and dunes, and in the silting up of a kind of lake of brackish water is formed, and the rivers disthe estuaries of rivers. This is not the piace to consider either charge their water at a point far north ward of that in which they

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