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When,

first met the sea. This diagram is sufficient to explain how other substances, which rest there, towards the land. It is the beaches are always formed according to the course of the difficult to tell the exact depth to which the moving action of prevailing winds and currents.

waves reaches vertically. It is supposed that ninety feet or The progressive growth of beaches is far from rapid. They fifteen fathom is the limit to which it extends. It has, how. can grow only in proportion to the greater power or duration ever, been lately ascertained that sea currents, or large bodies of one wind ove another.

of water in motion, disturb mud and sand at the depth of even On the eastern coast of England their strike is generally 450 feet. This is warranted by the fact that around coasts towards the south. These are occasioned by the powerful and shores which are not deeper than ten or twelve fathom, the north-west winds and corresponding currents in the German action of the waves is very apparent in the discoloration of Ocean which sweep along that coast, charged with the frag- the water during heavy gales. This turbidness of the water is ments of the cliffs which they have wasted.

due to the moving power of the waves on the bottom of sand or On the south coast of our island, when the prevailing winds clay, and not to the muddiness of the returning tide. are west and south-west, the shingles strike eastward, until The second instance of the reconstructive agency of the sea they are arrested by some projecting land. For illustration, I is the formation of beaches of sand and dunes. The question might point you to the Slapton Sands, in Devonshire, or to is often asked, where does all this sand come from? The Chesil Bank, which connects the Isle of Portland with the answer is, that it comes from detritus worn down by rivers, mainland; but I shall limit myself to Hurst Castle Bank, from the friction of sea-shore pebbles against each other, and near Lymington, in Hampshire, and opposite to the north from the soils and sandstones of the neighbouring land, coast of the Isle of Wight,

When the force of breakers comes to be applied to light Hurst Castle Bank is formed from west to east. The force particles of sand, they will, of course, and especially when of the waves at the entrance of the Solent Sea gives motion to aided by a gale, drive it on the land to a far greater distance the pebbles, which are rounded chalk flints, derived from the than they could impel shingle. The spray that could not hurl waste of Hordwell and other cliffs to the west. By this bank a pebble can project sand to a distance far inland. of shingle the Solent is crossed for more than two-thirds of its also, the tide is out and the

sand is dried by the sun and the air, breadth. The bank itself is seventy yards wide, and twelve the sand is taken up and transported by the wind to such an feet high, with an inclined plane to the west.

extent as that districts once fertile are overwhelmed by it. In these phenomena of the reconstructive agency of the These sands sometimes accumulate in sufficient quantities to ocean, it is necessary to consider the power of the waves. form hills, which are called dunes. These dunes are almost The amount of this power is indicated by the great size and everywhere formed behind a sandy shore. The advance of weight of fragments and blocks which the waves can move. dunes inland is almost irresistible.

Lakes of fresh water, I referred you to this power of moving water in my Lesson cultivated lands, dense forests, and populous villages disappear upon Floods, where it was shown that the weight of blocks in before them. The average of their progress is supposed to be water is not much more than half their weight in air, and that from sixty to seventy feet per annum. On the shores of the consequently a much less force would remove them. The Bay of Biscay, for instance, immense quantities of sand are knowledge of this wave-power will help you to account for the annually drifting inland. They have already overwhelmed very large boulders and masses which you sometimes find in many villages, and they continue to cover extensive tracts of beaches of shingle,

land. Instances analogous to this are found in our own coun. During heavy gales, loose blocks of many tons in weight try on the coasts of Norfolk and Suffolk, on the western coast have been moved from their places, and even enormous stones, of Cornwall, and on the shores of Lancashire. squared, jointed, and bolted together in the form of piers and It is obvious that when the wind from the sea drives the sand jetties, have been with ease torn asunder. In the storm of before it, the sand will be drifted onward until it meet with November, 1824, at Lyme Regis, in Dorsetshire, a square something to obstruct it, such as stones, bushes, or grass. It block nearly two tons in weight, and strongly trenailed down in there accumulates in little heaps, which, in their turn, offer a jetty, was torn away and tossed about like a plaything; So greater resistance to the wind and check the drifted 'sands, at Plymouth Breakwater, during the same storm, large blocks which cause the previous heaps gradually to rise into mounds of limestone, weighing respectively from two to five tons, were

or hills of considerable elevation. It seems that when these washed about like pebbles, and would give one the idea dunes have reached a certain height the wind has no power to of old Neptune playing at marbles. Even 300 tons in blocks increase their elevation, but drives the sand over their summits, of these weights were carried to a distance of 200 feet, and which settles down to form a new ridge behind the other. It that up the inclined plane of the Breakwater, and thrown over is in this way that the wind urges forward several ridges of to the other side. “At another place, a block of limestone dunes upon the land. It takes place thus : on the windward weighing seven tons was washed from the western end of the side of the hillock the grains of sand are forced up, from which Breakwater, and carried 150 feet.

they are swept off as they arise, and fall by their own weight Another peculiarity in this reproductive agency of the sea on the opposite slope ; while this mass is invading the land is, the wedging power of the waves by which they give firm- fresh materials are constantly brought from the sea by the ness to beaches. These shingles are found to consist of large winds. The inhabitants of dune districts have found that a blocks or boulders mixed with smaller stones. Such is the species of plant called arundo arenaria thrives well in these solidity and firmness which these beaches acquire, that the sands, and prevents the winds from drifting them. Every smaller pieces are often forced among the larger masses so hillock which becomes thus fixed will form an effectual barrier tightly as to need very great force to disturb or take them out against the incursion of fresh sand from the sea.

In terminating these remarks on the formation of shingle In circumstances favourable to the process, sands, which beaches, I may mention that, though coast fragments, consist- have been transported inland, become consolidated into hard ing of boulders, pebbles, and gravel, are removed in the rock. Of this we have an instance on the north-west coast of direction of the predominating and strongest breakers, yet Cornwall, where the matter thrown up consists of comminuted there is no evidence that retreating waves transport any of shells which are consolidated chiefly by oxide of iron, As them outwards or into the depth of the ocean. On the con- these sands have been drifted at different periods in succession, trary, the waves invariably strive to throw the pebbles, held in each drift forms a layer, and the whole of the beds are strati. temporary suspension, upon the land. This has been found to 'fied and interposed with vegetable remains. Even human be the case not only in stones and fragments from the land,, remains are entombed in this calcareous sandstone ; for the but also in coral shells and marine plants produced in the sea rock is formed over an ancient churchyard. This sand becomes itself. In tropical climates, large masses of coral rock are torn exceedingly firm. It is used for building houses and chu ches. up from a depth of ten fathoms, and are thrown up and piled Holes are drilled in it for securing vessels to the cliff in upon reefs to form beaches of coral shingles.

Fistrel Bay high cliffs of this rock extend several miles and This explanation of the power of the ocean to act landwards along that shore the beach is covered with disjointed fragmelis, accounts for the many beaches found on various shores which weighing two or three tons, which have been disintegrad are composed entirely of comminuted marine shells. The from the cliffs above. action of waves around a coast tends to disturb the bottom of It was in a rock of this kind that, at Guadaloupe, hum. the sea to a certain depth, so as to move the shells, sands, and remains were found some years ago. At that spot the rock.

our

noster

notre

nuestro

che

es
in

es au

que estas en

in

ne
cieli

sia

sen

name

tuum
nomen
tuum

ton
nom
ton

nome il tuo

come

tua

la tua

tu

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an indurated beach composed of comminuted shells and coral. English is indebted. Hence it becomes both interesting and imThe coral reefs which surround the island of Guadaloupe are portant to see how they are related one to another; and that the abraded by the incessant action of the waves. The detritus rather, because with coinparison much may be learnt of the origin thus produced is drifted to the shore in the state of coralline and propagation of languages. I therefore place before you a sand, or mud, where, by the action of the atmosphere, or tabular view of streams holding carbonate of lime in solution, the whole drifted

THE LORD'S PRAYER IN mass becomes indurated, and forms a hard and compact limestone. It is evident that this rock was in a loose, soft, or plastic English. Latin,

French,

Italiun. Spanish. state, when this human being fell into it or was placed in it.

nostro This skeleton may be seen in the British Museum.

father
pater père

padre padre

who The third instance that I shall give you of the reconstructive

qai

qui art

sei
agency of the ocean is the silting up of estuaries. The action
of waves on coasts is exhibited both by piling up detritus in

heaven coelo
ciel

los cielos the direction of their greatest force on the shore, by which the

hallowed
santificetur

s sanctitié mouths of rivers are deflected on one side, and also by heaping be

sanctificato sanctiticado

soit up bars, even at their mouths, by which navigation is ren- thy

il tuo

el tu dered not only dangerous, but in some instances utterly im

nombre practicable.

thy

el tu Very frequently rivers are deflected from their course to the kingdom regnum règne

regno

reino sea by beaches which, as we have seen in the Baltic, extend

veniat
vienne

venga

venga írom one side, and which have been produced entirely by winds thy

wil and tides. An instance of this may be seen at Shoreham,

voluntas volonté

volonta voluntad

sois near Brighton. In some cases rivers, which have been thus

fiat

siaa done

faite

fatta

hagaso deflected, find a way of escape into the sea by the sides of

in cliffs, which seem to aid their current in effecting a free channel

earth
terra
la terre

terra

la tierra for their waters. On our eastern coast the mouths of rivers are generally it

sicut deflected towards the south. The marine current, which sweeps is from the north along that coast, is charged with the pebbles in

in and gravel derived from wasting cliffs. The materials held in heaven coelo

ciel

cielo

el cielo da

donne suspension by such a current are ready to form a bar at any give

dacci

nobis spot where its course is interrupted by an opposing stream.

ogyi

this Thus, at Yarmouth, the mouth of the Yare has been, within

}hodie aujourd'hui the last five centuries, diverted about five miles to the south of day

nostrum notre

il nostro nuestro its ancient embouchure.

daily quotidianum quotidien quotidiano de cada dia In our own country, one of the most remarkable instances of

bread
panem pain

pane this silting agency of the sea is found on one side of the Isle of and Thanet, in Kent. This portion of Kent was, in the time of forgive remitte pardonne remettici perdona the Romans, separated from the mainland by a navigable

nobis channel, through which the fleets of Cæsar sailed on their way

i nostri nuestras to London. Bede says that in the eighth century this small

debts
debita

debiti

deudas estuary was three furlongs, or nearly half a mile, wide. It is supposed that this channel began to grow shallow about the

remittimus time of the Norman Conquest. In 1485 it was so much silted forgive

pardonnons rimattiamo perdonamos

nostris à ceux qui up that an act was obtained to build a bridge across it. Since

debtors debitoribus nous ont offensé debitori deudores that period it has become marsh land abounding with small

and

et streams, and now the Isle of Thanet is no longer insulated.

Iead
inducito indui

indurre metas Egypt furnishes an extraordinary instance of the gain of land from the sea. At the head of the Red Sea the Isthmus

ne point of Suez has been doubled in breadth since the age in which into Herodotus described it. The town of Heroopolis was then, temptation tentationem tentation tentatione la tentacion and down to the time of Arrian, on the coast of the Red Sea, but

sed

mais deliver libera

delivre but now it is midway between the Red Sea and the Mediter

liberaci libra ranean. The opposite land, called Tehama, in Arabia, has in

from

du

dal creased from three to six miles since the Christian era, by

evil
malo
mal

male

mal sand contributions from the Red Sea.

This reconstructive agency of the ocean has led some to Now to study this tabular view properly, take each English think that by its action in throwing up shingles, in fcrining word in turn, and compare it with the same word, first in Latin, sand-banks and dures, and in silting up estuaries, it makes a then in French, then in Italian, and then in Spanish. You will full compensation for the waste which its destructive agency gain instruction if you also alter the order, taking the Italian produces on different coasts. It has been conjectured that before the French, or the Spanish immediately after the Latin. on our eastern coasts the loss is more than compensated by the Now look at these words father, pater, padre, padre, père. They gain of land. In all estimates of this kind the amount of the are, you see, the same term under small modifications. The same loss has not been accurately calculated. The amount of the is the case with several other words. And if you omit the English, acquisition is manifest and palpable, but the coasts furnish no as belonging to a different family of tongues, and compare the rest true index to the extent of land that has been destroyed. together, you will find with a few exceptions an almost identity. In Hence, it appears that the compensation of the reconstructive the comparison you must make some allowance for idiom; for inagency of the ocean is scarcely equal to the waste of its de- stance, the article appears in French where it is not placed in Italian, structive ction.

and so you have a terre, the earth, for terrâ, earth, of the Latin,

and terra of the Italian. The Spanish carries the article so far as LESSONS IN ENGLISH.--No. XL.

to place it before possessive pronouns, thus, el tu nombre, the thy By Join R. BEARD, D.D.

name. The inferiority ton, of the French is seen in that it is

unable to render word for word " forgive our debtors," and is DIVERSE STEMS.

obliged to employ a circumlocution as "pardon those who have I HAVE intimated that the French, Italian, and Spanish (and offended us." I offer these remarks merely as suggestions relative . one or two others might be added), are, under the name of the to the manner in which the table may be studied. Romance languages, very similar to each other, and similar also to I subjoin a few instances of words in our tongue borrowed from their common mother the Latin. To all these languages the ) the Italian and the Spanish:

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nous nos offenses comme nous

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a little song

a statue

our

oure

unser

unser

uuseer

who art

art

10

len gehyl'iget wihi

be

name

naine

name

namun

Dato

come

come to

to coinine

ENGLISH WORDS FROM THE ITALIAN,

The word cabal has two origins. In one sense, and generally, basso-relievo, bass-relief

cabala, is Hebrew, and denotes the science (falsely so called) of bravo, one who murders for hire

the Jewish rabbis. In another, it designates a political intrigue, buffalo, a kind of wild ox

and owes its existence to the initials of the names of Clifford, canzonet,

Ashley, Buckingham, Arlington, and Lauderdale-C. A. B. A, L., capuccio, a capuchin or hood

the five celebrated cabinet ministers of Charles II. busto, canto, a section of a poem

We have in English words the names of natural objects, taken burletta, a musical farce

from the names of the places where the objects were produced ; brocoli, a kind of cabbage

e. g., peach, Fr. pêche, that is Persh, or Persian; Berga notte belladonna, deadly nightshade

(Bergamum), Indigo, Mocha, Champagne, Burgundy, Madeira, camisado, an attack in the dark

Port, and other names of wine. We have names of the products piano-forte, a we'l-known musical instrument

of art taken from the places where they were fabricated e. g., adagio, slow time in music

bayonet, invented at Bayonne, in France ; cachemir (shawls), from tenore, middle sound

Cachemir, in India ; cambric, from Cambria, in France ; cordoran, soprano, a soít sound

leather prepared at Cordova, in Spain; damask, from Damascus, violin, a ficelle

in Syria ; muslin, from Mossul, in Asiatic Turkey; nankeen, from violincello, a bass riolin

Nankin, in China; pistol, from Pistoia, in Tuscany; mTOCCO pantaloon,

the bufoon in pantomime harlequin, an outloor buffoon

(leather), from Morocco, in Barbary. fondula, a small boat

Having shown the connexion of the English with the Romance gondolier, the boatmum of a goruba

languages, I subjoin another table, showing its connexion with the gonfalon, u standard

Teutonic languages. The latter is the more needful, because the gonfalonier, a standard bearer

latter are our cousin-germans. doge,

the chief magistrale in Venice cardinal, the order next the Pupe

THE LORD'S PRAYER IN TEUTONIC LANGUAGES. mezzotinto,

engraring resembling painting bandit, and banditto, one outland, a rubber

Common English of German of Louer German Gotic of bagnio, u bathing house

English. Wiclif (1350). Luther. Suron (1451). (1 20 A.D). L'ipåslas (30) sonata, a lume

unsar father fadir

fater

failer fatter atta piano, soft in music

that

de di thee thu forte, strong in music

bist pist piazza, aut under a roof supported by pillars. in

İN

in Strikingly and painfully does the Italian language by certain heaven

dem him.

den hyme. herene

himic himinam

incl words betray the character of the Italian people.

What shall we hallowed balowid

geheiliget

Treihnai say of a nation with which a lover of art (virtuoso) is the virtuous be

w rde werde thi

deia man; which makes the opera (work) the work of their lives ; thy

dyu

dinan thein which finds in a loquacious and ignorant guide (cicerone) their re

na ng
thy

dein
dyn
din

theins presentative of Cicero; and which identifies a cut-throat with a kingdom kyngdom reich ryke ribi thiudiuassas brave man (braro)?

komine

chweme quimai thy thi dein dyn din

theios ENGLISH WORDS FROM THE SPANISH.

will wille

willo
wille

willo

be mirador, a balcony

geschehe de werde werde wainthal

done don
matadore,
a principal card

in
auf
in

in
mulatio,
one of mixed breed

earth erthe erden

der erde erdu airthai siesta,

an after-dinner nup tobacco, a plant used for smoking

also

se jah guitar, a slringet instrum re' of music

ip
in
im
in
in

in fandango,

a lively dance hidalgo, one of woble birth heaven heavene himmel

bimnina

cle cortes, the states assembled in Madrid gire give

kip

gif
gala,
feasting anul m rriment

ung
108

Uus
armadı,
a sea-armament

this this
heute hyte

himia

hiutu brocade, silk interwoven with gold, &c. day day

Caga olio, a medley

daily

täglich degelike emezhie palisade, an inclosure of prilings

bread breed brot

brod

broath hlaif
peccadillo,
a petty fault

and
and
und
unde

jah
privado,
a secret friend

forgive forgere vergib forgif oblat aftet querpo, a close dre83

thatei barricado,

unseero a fortification

debts dettis schuld schulde sculdi skulano suziso From very various sources words have come into our English. as.

wig
also
$0

swaswe jah

wir Razzia is a very recent term.

Wy
It came into existence within the

forgive forgiven vergeben forgeren oblazen afletam last few years, to describe the sweeping destruction with which the our

unsaraim French laid waste whole districts of northern Africa, in order to debtors de touris schuldigern schuldeners skuldikem skulan bring the country under their usurpation. According to Fuller,

lead lede
führe enleyde tirletti briggais

unsih the term plunder is of German origin, and was brought hither by the not not

nicht
uicht ni

ni soldiers who returned from the campaigns of Gustavus Adolphus. into in to

in
in
in

in Frightful crimes may lead to the prevalence of a word, as in the temptation temptacioun versuchung bekoringe khorunka fraistubnjai term to burk, derived from the name of the first criminal; canni

but
but

sondern sonder
deliver dely ver erlöse

Jose

erlosi lausei buls, as designating man-devouring savages, came into use with the us

unsih great discoveries in the western world made in the fifteenth and from

from

fona sixteenth centuries.

evil yvei dem übel obele ubile ubilia From the Arabic we have divan, rizier, cipher, zero, arabesque ; This table is full of instruction. Go through it carefully Ford from the Hebrew we have, besides very many proper names, for word, making due allowance for diversity of spelling; for inJehovah, amen, Jeremiad, lazaretto, lazaar-house, cherub, seraph, stance our word come re-appears in come to, comme, to comme, hallelujah.

chweme, and quimai. In the "bist" of the Lower Saxon I recognise hirds called canaries have brought their name with them an old mood common in the South of England in my boyish days,

Canary Isles, and our pheasants from the Asiatic river where and when the present tense of the verb to be was thus conju. aid to have been their original home.

gated, I be, thou bist, he bees, we be, you be, they be. The Gothic pic, an invective, comes to us from the title of the orations of Ulphilas offers the most striking points of comparison. I will ed by Demosthenes against Philip king of Macedon, of go through it and point out the words wbich still form a part of desigos against the liberty of Greece he was aware,

the English tongne; unsar, our; thu, who; in, in; himins,

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ness;

heaven ; weihnai, vowed; thein, thy; namo, name; quimai, | Flöte, f. flute ; Klavier, n. harpsi. Stimmung, f. disposi. come ; wilga, will; ana, on; airthai, earth ; gif, gire; uns, our; Geige, f. violin; chord;

tion, frame of mind, daga, day; unsarana, our; hlaif, loaf; briggais, bring; lausei, Deschid'lichkeit, f. skill. Partie', f. game ; humour ; loose ; af, of; ubilin, evil. It is thus seen that our mother tongue fulness, clever- Röthe, f. redness, red; lln'bekannt, unknown; had a substantive existence as early as the year of our Lord 360.

Sinach, n. chess; Verlags'buchhandlung, f. And it is curious to observe that in this the oldest form of the Harfe, f. harp; Stachmatt, check- publishing.firm; Teutonic languages we find in several instances the nearest approach Horn, n horn;

mated;

Perle'gen, (See above); to our modern words and forms : e.g., himinem, heaven ; thein, thy, Instrument', n. instru. Süönchen, n. little son; Webwe'gen, wherefore, thine ; airthai, earth; gif, give; uns, us; daga, day; hlaif, loaf, ment;

Spieler, m. player; for what reason. the ancient word for bread; briggais, bring; lausei, loose.

These facts will enforce the advice I have given to the effect that Der Gesant'te trug Beden'fen, allen The ambassador hesitated to you should let the Saxon come in for its full share in your phrase

Worten der Mini'sters zu trauen. confide in all the words of

the minister. ology. But here, as in all cases, moderation is necessary. And doubtless some usages connected with the Saxon are to be avoided. | Dieser Vuch händler þat Göthe's This bookseller has published How freely and how loosely is the verb to get employed in ordinary såmmt'liche Werte verlegt.

the collected works of life. I am not fond of giving specimens of bad English as a means

Goethe. of teaching persons to speak and write good English, for I think Ich habe meine Schlüssel verlegt'. I have mislaid my keys. such a practice subversive of its object, and, therefore, I abstain Der junge Mann tónnte bei dieser The young man may get into from supplying you according to the usual practice with exercises Frage in Verle'genheit fommen. difficulty by this question. in bad English for correction ; but I may, and from time to time I Dieser Herr will segel mit ihm spie. This gentleman wishes to play sball, explain and enforce my meaning by examples of what is len; allein er þat größere Lust, ten-pins with him, but he has wrong, particularly when the examples given are so gross as to be eine Partie' Billard zu machen. (a) greater desire to take a beyond imitation. Here is a specimen of the hard labour which

game of billiards. gei is made to undergo.

Mein Bruder spielt das Fortepia'no, My brother plays the piano, On getting home, I got my dinner; and, getting the bad news blast (spielt) die Flöte und vere blows (plays) the flute, and you sent, got on horseback within ten minutes after I got your steht die Trommel zu schlagen understands beating(striking) letter. When I got to Canterbury, I got a chaise for town, but I (rühren).

the drum. got wet through in getting to the inn; and I have in consequence got Spielt Ihre Fräulein Schwester ir. Does your sister play any insuch a cold as I shall not be able to get rid of in a hurry; happy

gend ein Instrument'?

strument? shall I be if I get hither by the time you get back. Being, how. Sie spielte einmal auf der Guitar’re, She played upon the guitar ever, compelled to see the minister, I got shaved and dressed as soon

jeßt aber spielt sie nicht mehr once, but now she plays upon as I arrived in London, and getting some refreshment, got to tarauf

it no more. the Treasury. I soon got into the great man's favour, and got Dieser Gerr blast tas Walthorn This gentleman blows the out of him the secret of getting a memorial before the board, but I

Febr (don.

buglehorn very finely. could not get an answer then ; bowever a few days ago I got intelli. Ich errieth'ten Alu'zenblick, was ihn I divined in an instant what gence that I shall get an answer shortly. On my way back I got To außer Fassung gebracht' hatte. had brought him thus out of a beefsteak, and while trying to get the newspaper, I got my foot

(his) self-possession. under a chair and got thrown down. I got up as well as I could and getting back to my own inn, got my supper, and got 1. Er trug Bedenfen, tem Fremden die goldene Uhr anzuvertrauen ? to bed.

It was not long before I got to sleep. When 12. Der Vater trug Betenfen, Alles zu glauben, was iým sein Sohn er: got up in the morning, I first got my breakfast, then getting a walk, I got a bath. After that, I got dressed, got a morning sibíte

. 3. Wer zu viel Bedenken trägt, gewinnt wenig. 4. Sie hielten paper, and, ordering the waiter to get me a cab, got into it forth iln für einen ordentlichen Menschen. 5. Ich hielt ihn für den Vürger. with that I might get in time to get an answer to my memorial. Imeister dieser Stadt. 6. Wir hielten ihn für etwas ganz anderes. 7 Der got the answer, and without delay got pen, ink, and paper to write inge Buchhändler hat ein neues Werk verlegt. 8. Sit die neue Gramto you; and this is all I have got to say.

matif des Herrn N. schon verlegt worden? 9. Sie ist so eben in der Verlags,

buchhandlung des Herrn N. erschienen. 10. Ich bin sehr in Verlegenheit, LESSONS IN GERMAN.-No. XL.

was ich in dieser Sache tu soll. 11. Die Mutter ist in Verlegenheit,

wo ihr fleines Söhnchen sein möchte. 12. Er ist in Verlegenheit, wober SECTION LXXXIV.

er die ihm fehlenden zwanzig Thaler befömmen möchte. 13. Sie ist in Bedenfen tragen (to bear or have hesitation) may be rendered, Verlegenheit über das plötliche Erscheinen eines Unbekannten. 14. Wollen "to hesitate, to doubt." Ex: Ich trage Bedenken, eg zu thun; wir eine Partie Schach oder Billard spielen? 15. Ich nehme lieber eine I hesitate to do it. Er trug Bedenken, es mir anzuvertrauen; he Partie Schach an, da bei diesem Spiele mehr der Verstand, als die Geschick. hesitated to entrust it to me.

licyfeit in Anspruch genommen wird. 16. Spielen Sie Stady gern (Sect. 1. Ber compounded with verbs commonly expresses the idea 44. I.)? 17. O, ja ; nur habe ich zu wenig Gelegenheit es zu spielen, of, away, a loss, wrong, &c., ($ 97. 3. 4.); as, treiben, to drive; weswegen ich bei geschickten Männern sehr oft schachmatt werde. 18. ver treiben, to drive away. Spielen, to play ; ver spielen, to lose at play. leiten, to guide, ver leiten, to misguide, (to guide wrong). Spielen Sie ein Instrument? 19. Ja, ich spiele Klavier und habe seit Ex : Wie schnell verfließt eine frohe glüdliche Stunde; how quickly einigen Tagen angefangen Geige zu spielen. 20. Spielen Sie Geige lieber a joyful happy hour passes away. Ich habe mich verhört; I have als Klavier ? 21. Nein, ich spiele tas eine Instrument so gern, wic tas beard wrong (misunderstood), &c. Certain uses however, of 22. Blasen Sie Flöte? 23. Nein, aber ich habe vor ras Hoin this ard many others of the same class ($ 95., &c.) are best blasen zu lernen. 24 Wie lange blasen Sie Flöte? 25. Seit ungefähr illustrated by examples ; thus, sehen signifies to see, and versehen, to provide. legen, to lay, and verlegen, to mislay: also figura- cinem Monate. 26. Ich habe jene Papiere verlegt; ich weiß nicht, ww fie tively, to furnish, and hence to publish (a book) that is, to zu finden sind. 27. Die Schwester hat ihre Hantschuhe und ihr Buch ver, furnish the necessary means for producing the book, &c. legt. 28. Den sonst so ruhigen Mann brachte ein solches Vetragen ganz

II. Vor frequently answers to our "on." Ex.: Was geht hier aujer Fassung, und seine futrzen Antworten und die Röthe seiner Wangen rer? What is going on here?

ließen errathen, was in feinern Innern vorging. 29. Ich erricth augeit. EXERCISE 87.

blidlich die Ursache, die diese Stimmung in dem Gemüthe meines Freundeg

hervorgerufen þatte und ließ es auch jenen errathen, damit er vorsichtiger in Aeu’serung, f. utter. Villard, n. billiards ; Grra'zben, to guess, ance, expression; Viajen,

seinen Aeußerungen sein möchte. blow,

divine; Anspruchy, m. requisi- sound;

Fassung, f. self-com- 1. He hesitated to entrust his attorney with the affair. 2. The. tion, claim, de. Buchhändler, m book- mand, counte. mother hesitated to believe everything that her daughter told mand; seller, stationer;

nance;

| her. 3. I have mislaid your book, and am therefore in much

antere.

to

on.

draw up;

sur

werden.

trouble. 5. The child deceived its teacher, and, he therefore, he. 10. 11.) an diesem Unglücke? 11. linser Nachbar ist Schuld daran. sitated to believe him again. 6. He played at billiards, and lost 12. Der Sdüler ist Stuld taran, tak er bestcast wirt. 13. Wir fellit all his money. 7. Will you play a game at chess with me? 8. No, I prefer a game at billiards, for I do not know much sind Schult baran gewesen. 14. Morgen über acht Tage fomnit ein

Damrisdiff von New York an. about chess 9. Do you play any instrument? 10. Yes, I play

15. Morgen iber vierzehn Tagen tirt the harpsichord, and I think of learning the violin. 10. Is es ein Jahr, daß ich ihn gesehen habe. 16. Gestern ror att jagen ist your sister skillful at the piano. 11. No, but she is excellent sein Vater gestorben. 16. Das junge Märchen begleitete ibren ecjang at the harp. 12. By that question he lost all self-command, mit einer Guitarre. 18. Der freund begleitete mit dem Forteriane tas and knew not how to answer.

13. Mr C. in London will Oeigenspiel des Italienerk. 19. Die Vegleitung dieser Picter ist bon publish the history of the kings of England shortly.

Mozart. 20. Vieles würde uns natürlich crídciner, wenn mir es cinct SECTION LXXXV.

geböbrigen Untersuchung unterwerfen würten. 21. Wir fanten e jet Necht (right) and link (left) are often used with „zur;" as, zur natürlich, daß er gestern nichi fam. 22. Ein natürliches Ereignis etrest Rechten, zur einfen, for zu der rechten Hand; to the right hand ; feine Berwinterung. 23. Gaben Sie șeute Morgen die Feueryleden ges zu der linfen Hand; to the left hand. I. Gefallen, literally, to fall, or happen (acceptably,) i. e. Hört ?

24. Natürlid), (Sect. 83.) tenn ich war selbst bei bem feuc. to be pleasing, or agreeable. Ex : Dieses Buch gefällt mir ; this 25. Gs ist natürlicts, daß wir sterben müssen. 26. Id begleite meine book pleases me.

Gefallen lassen=to submit to, “to put up jungen Freunde nach Hause. with.” Ex. : Id fann mir diese Behandlung nicht gefallen lasse!; cannot submit to this treatment, i. e. cannot let this treatment earlier. 2. I must submit to whatever my father resolves

1. It is a pity that your friend did not arrive half an hour please me.

3. John's new book pleases me much. 4. One must EXERCISE 88.

submit in this life to many things. 5. I would not submit to Aufstellen, to post, Guitar’re, f. guitar : Still'schweigen, to be it, if I were in your place. 6. To the right hand we had the

Lied, n. song, air; silent, to hold one's river and to the left hand the mountainous forest. 7. Right Velei'rigung, f. of. Linf, adj. (See above); peace;

and left we say nothing but enemies' troups. 8. This day-seek fence, injury; Lints, adv. to the left; Untersu'cung, f. exami- we go to Berlin. 9. To-morrow fortnight my brother will Veschlie'šou, conclude, Mozart, Mozart; nation;

arrive here. 10. A week ago yesterday, a ship sailed for Au. resolve, determine; Natürlich natural, Unterwer’sen, to subject, stralia. 11. Three days ago we had unexpectedly great pleasu e. frau'erglofe, f. firebell; naturally ;

submit;

12. It is a pity that the talents of this young artist are not Schörig, suitable, Recht, adj. (See Verwun’tering, f. as better developed. 13. Your sister accompanied me with the proper; above);

tonishment, harp, and sang to the piano of my friend. 14. It is quite naGei'genspiel, n. violin. Rechts, adv. to the prise.

tural that everybody must die. 15. The accompaniment of music; rigint;

this piece is by Handel. 58 ist Shade, daß bei vielen Men. It is (a) pity that with many

schen die guten An'lagen und men (the) good endowments Talen'te nicht besser aus'gebildet and talents are not better LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY-No. XX. developed.

MAP OF ASIA. Es ist Schade, taß er nicht ba war. It is (a) pity that he was not

there.

Asia, the cradle of the human race, and the original seat of Das ist mir ganz recht.

That just suits me (is just as Paradise, lies within the northern and eastern hemispherts,
I'd have it.)

and to the east and south-east of Europe. The greater part of Dem frommen Tobi'as war Alles To the devout Tobias, all was this continent lies within the north temperate zone; the ex

recyt, was gott über ihn ver, right that God ordained conceptions being part of Siberia, which lies within the north häng'te

cerning him.

frigid zone, and parts of Arabia, Hindostan, Chin-India, and Ein Berleum’der muß es fich ge. A calumniator must submit to China, which lies within the torrid zone. Asia is bounded on

fal'len lassen, von seinen Ne'ven. be despised by his fellow the north by the Arctic Ocean ; on the south by the Indian menschen verach'tet zit werben.

Ocean and the Chinese Sea; on the east by the Pacific Ocean; Ir tein Stübben tiefer armen als In the little room of this and on the west by the continent of Europe, the Mediterranean

poor ten Frau jab jur Redten tie old woman sat distress at the Sea, and the Red Sea or Arabian Gulf. This continent er. Nothy und zur Linten tas Otend. right hand, and wretchedness tends from, lat. 78° 20' N., to lat. 1° 20' S.; and from

at the left.

long. 26° 5' E., to long. 169° 44' W. or long. 190• 16 B.; Recht: licht man die Stare in ter At the right are seen the sheep the northern and western hemispheres. Its length, from Cape

which shows that a very small portion of this continent lies in Wicfe weiren, und links die Ziegen pasturing in the meadow, and Baba, in Asia Minor, in lat. 39° 30' N. and long. 26° 5' E., to an tein Berge flettern.

at the left the goats clamber- East Cape in Russia in lat. 66° 6' N. and long. 169° 44' W., is

ing upon the mountain. Morgen über acht Tage reisen wir A week from to-morrow we de- in Siberia, in lat. 78° 20' N.' and long. 104° E., to Point

about 6,880 miles. Its breadth, from Cape Severo-Vostochnoi von hier no.

part (hence) from here. Gr begleitete scinen Gesang mit He accompanied his song with 104° 17' E. is about 4,000 miles. This continent is connected

Romania, in the Malayan Peninsula, in lat. 1° 23' N. and long. ter Marie.

the harp.

with that of Africa, at the Isthmus of Suez, which is said to Die Bezlei'tung tieses Stüdes ist The accompaniment of this be only 73 miles wide. The surface of Asia, including its

von tem berühmten Karl Mari'a piece is by the celebrated islands, is reckoned by some to contain about 22 millions of von Weber.

Charles Maria von Weber,

square miles, and its population to be about 440 millions; if unter folcheil Umständen wurte Under such circumstances the these approximations be somewhat near the truth, there will tas Versprechen natürlich ge. promise was of course broken. be, on average, about 20 inhabitants to every squue niile

of this division of the world ; but much of it contains rast 1 Es ist Scħate, taß Sie nicht cine Stunde früber gefommen sind deserts, destitute both of useful vegetation and human popu2. Macht :: wie ihr wellt, mir ist alles recht. 3. Mir ist alles recht, about 4,500,000 square miles, the population according to a

lation. Thus, in Siberia, which is reckoned by some to contain was die Versammlung beschlossen hat. 4. Er mußte sich diese Veleitigung recent estimate was scarcely more than a million of inhabita:its; Pilischreigend gefallen lajien. 5. (r inuste fich Vieles gefallen lassen, which allows only one inhabitant to every 1} square miles. On was er sich unter andern Verbältnissen niet witte gefallen lassen. 6. the other hand, in China proper, the number of square miles Sie mußte es sich gefallen lasen, verteutet worden zu sein. 7. Zur is about 1,300,000, and the population, on the most moderate Nechten hatten wir 118 Gebirge und zur fingen ten if(115. 9. Rechte und about 200 inhabitants to the square mile! The linear extent

estimate, about 260,000,000 of inhabitants; and this allows linfs waren feintliche Truppe: aufgestellt. 9. Ihr dürft weder zur Fiechten of the coast line of the continent of Asia is reckoned by some ned; zur Linten von diesem Wege abweichen. 10. Wer ist Schuin (Sect. I at 35,000 miles.

men.

vro chen.

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