« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
an indurated beach composed of comminuted shells and coral. English is indebted. Hence it becomes both interesting and imThe coral reefs which surround the island of Guadaloupe are portant to see how they are related one to another; and that the abraded by the incessant action of the waves. The detritus rather, because with comparison much may be learnt of the origin thus produced is drifted to the shore in the state of coralline and propagation of languages. I therefore place before you a sand, or mud, where, by the action of the atmosphere, or tabular view of streams holding carbonate of lime in solution, the whole drifted
THE LORD'S PRAYER IN mass becomes indurated, and forms a hard and compact limestone. It is evident that this rock was in a loose, soft, or plastic English. Latin. French.
Italiun. Spanish, state, when this human being fell into it or was placed in it.
nostro This skeleton may be seen in the British Museum.
who The third instance that I shall give you of the reconstructive
que agency of the ocean is the silting up of estuaries. The action
in of waves on coasts is exhibited both by piling up detritus in
los cielos the direction of their greatest force on the shore, by which the
( sanctitié mouths of rivers are deflected on one side, and also by heaping be
sanctificato sanctificado soit
sia up bars, even at their mouths, by which navigation is ren
ton dered not only dangerous, but in some instances utterly im
el tu Very frequently rivers are deflected from their course to the kingdom regnum règne
reino sea by beaches which, as we have seen in the Baltic, extend
venga venga from one side, and which have been produced entirely by winds thy,
will and tides. An instance of this may be seen at Shoreham,
volonta voluntad be
siaa near Brighton. In some cases rivers, which have been thus
hagaso deflected, find a way of escape into the sea by the sides of
in cliffs, which seem to aid their current in effecting a free channel
la tierra for their waters. On our eastern coast the mouths of rivers are generally it
sicut deflected towards the south. The marine current, which sweeps is from the north along that coast, is charged with the pebbles in
in and gravel derived from wasting cliffs. The materials held in heaven coelo
el cielo suspension by such a current are ready to form a bar at any give
dacci spot where its course is interrupted by an opposing stream.
this Thus, at Yarmouth, the mouth of the Yare has been, within
} hodie the last five centuries, diverted about five miles to the south of
il nostro its ancient embouchure.
daily quotidianum quotidien quotidiano de cada dia In our own country, one of the most remarkable instances of
pane this silting agency of the sea is found on one side of the Isle of
y Thanet, in Kent. This portion of Kent was, in the time of forgive remitte pardonne remettici perdona the Romans, separated from the mainland by a navigable us channel, through which the fleets of Cæsar sailed on their way
i nostri to London. Bede says that in the eighth century this small
deudas est'iary was three furlongs, or nearly half a mile, wide. It is supposed that this channel began to grow shallow about the
remittimus time of the Norman Conquest. In 1485 it was so much silted forgive
pardonnons rimattiamo perdonamos
nosiris à ceux qui a nostri up that an act was obtained to build a bridge across it. Since
debtors debitoribus nous ont offensé debitori deudores that period it has become marsh land abounding with small
and streams, and now the Isle of Thanet is no longer insulated.
indurre metas Egypt furnishes an extraordinary instance of the gain of land from the sea. At the head of the Red Sea the Isthmus
ne point of Suez has been doubled in breadth since the age in which Herodotus described it. The town of Heroopolis was then, temptation tentationem tentation tentatione la tentacion and down to the time of Arrian, on the coast of the Red Sea,
mais but now it is midway between the Red Sea and the Mediter
liberaci libra ranean. The opposite land, called Tehama, in Arabia, has in
de creased from three to six miles since the Christian era, by
mal sand contributions from the Red Sea.
This reconstructive agency of the ocean has led some to Now to study this tabular view properly, bake each English think that by its action in throwing up shingles, in forming word in turn, and compare it with the same word, first in Latin, sand-banks and dures, and in silting up estuaries, it makes a then in French, then in Italian, and then in Spanish. You will full compensation for the waste which its destructive agency gain instruction if you also alter the order, taking the Italian produces on different coasts. It has been conjectured that before the French, or the Spanish immediately after the Latin. on our eastern coasts the loss is more than compensated by the Now look at these words father, pater, padre, padre, père. They gain of land. In all estimates of this kind the amount of the are, you see, the same term under small modifications. The same loss has not been accurately calculated. The amount of the is the case with several other words. And if you omit the English, acquisition is manifest and palpable, but the coasts furnish no as belonging to a different family of tongues, and compare the rest true index to the extent of land that has been destroyed. together, you will find with a few exceptions an almost identity. In Hence, it appears that the compensation of the reconstructive the comparison you must make some allowance for idiom; for inagency of the ocean is scarcely equal to the waste of its de- stance, the article appears in French where it is not placed in Italian, structive uction,
and so you have la terre, The earth, for terrâ, earth, of the Latin,
and terra of the Italian, The Spanish carries the article so far as LESSONS IN ENGLISH.--No. XL.
to place it before possessive pronouns, thus, el tu nombre, the thy
name. The inferiority ton, of the French is seen in that it is By John R. Beard, D.D.
unable to render word for word "forgive our debtors,” and is DIVERSE STES,
obliged to employ a circumlocution as “ pardon those who have I have intimated that the French, Italian, and Spanish (and offended us." I offer these remarks merely as suggestions relative . one or two others might be added), are, under the name of the to the manner in which the table may be studied. Romance languages, very similar to each other, and similar also to I subjoin a few instances of words in our tongue borrowed from their common mother the Latin. To all these languages the the Italian and the Spanish :
The word cabal has two origins. In one sense, and generally, cabala, is Hebrew, and denotes the science (falsely so called) of the Jewish rabbis. In another, it designates a political intrigue, and owes its existence to the initials of the names of Clifford, Ashley, Buckingham, Arlington, and Lauderdale-C. A. B. A. L., the five celebrated cabinet ministers of Charles II.
We have in English words the names of natural objects, taken from the names of the places where the objects were produced; e. g., peach, Fr. pêche, that is Persh, or Persian; Bergamotte (Bergamum), Indigo, Mocha, Champagne, Burgundy, Madeira, Port, and other names of wine. We have names of the products of art taken from the places where they were fabricated e. g., bayonet, invented at Bayonne, in France; cachemir (shawls), from Cachemir, in India; cambric, from Cambria, in France; cordovan, leather prepared at Cordova, in Spain; damask, from Damascus, in Syria; muslin, from Mossul, in Asiatic Turkey; nankeen, from Nankin, in China; pistol, from Pistoia, in Tuscany; morocco (leather), from Morocco, in Barbary.
Having shown the connexion of the English with the Romance languages, I subjoin another table, showing its connexion with the Teutonic languages. The latter is the more needful, because the latter are our cousin-germans.
THE LORD'S PRAYER IN TEUTONIC LANGUAGES.
Common English of German of Lower German Gothic of
us Our debts
be thi name thi
come to thi wille
in heavene give
to us this
and forgeve to us oure dettis
to our dettouris lede
us not in to
in dem himmel geheiliget werde dein
dein reich komine dein wille geschehe auf
unser fader de di bist in
den hyme len gchyliget werde
ryke to comme dyn wille de werde in der erde
in in den hymm-himile
dinan namun din rihi chweme din willo werde in erdu
hiutu unseer emezhic broath
uns unseero sculdi 80 wir oblazen
unsar atta thu
himinam weihnai thein namo theins thiudiuass 23 quimai
theins wilja wairthal
forgive our debtors
awe jah in bimina gif
weis afletam unsaraim schuldigern schuldeners skuldikem skulain führe enleyde firletti briggais unsih ni in
uns ni in
ak erlosi lausei unsih fona ubile
brocoli, belladonna, camisado, piano-forte, adagio,
ENGLISH WORDS FROM THE ITALIAN.
mirador, matadore, mulatto,
fandango, hidalgo, cortes, gala,
one who murders for hire
a kind of wild ox
a little song
a capuchin or hood
a section of a poem
a musical farce
a kind of cabbage
Strikingly and painfully does the Italian language by certain words betray the character of the Italian people. What shall we say of a nation with which a lover of art (virtuoso) is the virtuous man; which makes the opera (work) the work of their lives; which finds in a loquacious and ignorant guide (cicerone) their representative of Cicero; and which identifies a cut-throat with a brave man (bravo)?
an attack in the dark
a well-known musical instrument
slow time in music
a soft sound
a bass riolin
ENGLISH WORDS FROM THE SPANISH.
a principal card
one of mixed breed
an after-dinner nap
the buffoon in a pantomime
an outdoor buffoon
a small boat
the boatman of a goralola
a standard bearer
the chief magistrate in Venice
engraving resembling painting
soft in music
strong in music
a walk under a roof supported by pillars.
a plant used for smoking
a stringed instrument of music
a lively dance
one of noble birth
the states assembled in Madrid
silk interwoven with gold, &c.
an inclosure of pailings
a petty fault
a secret friend
a close dress
From very various sources words have come into our English. Razzia is a very recent term. It came into existence within the last few years, to describe the sweeping destruction with which the French laid waste whole districts of northern Africa, in order to bring the country under their usurpation. According to Fuller, the term plunder is of German origin, and was brought hither by the soldiers who returned from the campaigns of Gustavus Adolphus. Frightful crimes may lead to the prevalence of a word, as in the term to burk, derived from the name of the first criminal; cannibals, as designating man-devouring savages, came into use with the great discoveries in the western world made in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.
From the Arabic we have divan, vizier, cipher, zero, arabesque ; from the Hebrew we have, besides very many proper names, Jehovah, amen, Jeremiad, lazaretto, lazaar-house, cherub, seraph, hallelujah.
irds called canaries have brought their name with them
deliver dely ver erlöse
heaven; weihnai, vowed; thein, thy; namo, name; quimai, | come; wilga, will; ana, on; airthai, earth; gif, give; uns, our; daga, day; unsarana, our; hlaif, loaf; briggais, bring; lausei, loose; af, of; ubilin, evil. It is thus seen that our mother tongue had a substantive existence as early as the year of our Lord 360. And it is curious to observe that in this the oldest form of the Teutonic languages we find in several instances the nearest approach to our modern words and forms: e.g., himinem, heaven; thein, thy, thine; airthai, earth; gif, give; uns, us; daga, day; hlaif, loaf, the ancient word for bread; briggais, bring; lausei, loose.
These facts will enforce the advice I have given to the effect that you should let the Saxon come in for its full share in your phraseology. But here, as in all cases, moderation is necessary. And doubtless some usages connected with the Saxon are to be avoided. How freely and how loosely is the verb to get employed in ordinary life. I am not fond of giving specimens of bad English as a means of teaching persons to speak and write good English, for I think such a practice subversive of its object, and, therefore, I abstain from supplying you according to the usual practice with exercises in bad English for correction; but I may, and from time to time I shall, explain and enforce my meaning by examples of what is wrong, particularly when the examples given are so gross as to be beyond imitation. Here is a specimen of the hard labour which get is made to undergo.
Mein Bruder spielt das Fortevia'no,
On getting home, I got my dinner; and, getting the bad news you sent, got on horseback within ten minutes after I got your letter. When I got to Canterbury, I got a chaise for town, but I got wet through in getting to the inn; and I have in consequence got such a cold as I shall not be able to get rid of in a hurry; happy shall I be if I get hither by the time you get back. Being, how-Sie ever, compelled to see the minister, I got shaved and dressed as soon as I arrived in London, and getting some refreshment, got to the Treasury. I soon got into the great man's, favour, and got out of him the secret of getting a memorial before the board, but I could not get an answer then; however a few days ago I got intelligence that I shall get an answer shortly. On my way back I got a beefsteak, and while trying to get the newspaper, I got my foot under a chair and got thrown down. I got up as well as I could and getting back to my own inn, got my supper, and got to bed. It was not long before I got to sleep. When I got up in the morning, I first got my breakfast, then getting a walk, I got a bath. After that, I got dressed, got a morning paper, and, ordering the waiter to get me a cab, got into it forthwith that I might get in time to get an answer to my memorial. got the answer, and without delay got pen, ink, and paper to write to you; and this is all I have got to say.
Spielt Ihre Fräulein Schwester ir.
Dieser Herr bläst das Walthern
3ch errieth' ren Au’genblick, was ihn
Stimmung, f. disposi-
the collected works of Goethe. I have mislaid my keys. The young man may get into difficulty by this question. This gentleman wishes to play ten-pins with him, but he has (a) greater desire to take a game of billiards.
My brother plays the piano, blows (plays) the flute, and understands beating(striking) the drum.
LESSONS IN GERMAN.-No. XL.
Bedenken tragen (to bear or have hesitation) may be rendered, "to hesitate, to doubt." Ex.: Ich trage Bedenken, es zu thun; I hesitate to do it. Er trug Bedenken, es mir anzuvertrauen; he hesitated to entrust it to me.
I. Ver compounded with verbs commonly expresses the idea of, away, a loss, wrong, &c., (§ 97. 3. 4.); as, treiben, to drive; vertreiben, to drive away. Spielen, to play; ver spielen, to lose at play. Leiten, to guide, ver leiten, to misguide, (to guide wrong). Ex: Wie schnell verfließt eine frohe glückliche Stunte; how quickly a joyful happy hour passes away. Ich habe mich verhört; I have heard wrong (misunderstood), &c. Certain uses however, of this and many others of the same class ($ 95., &c.) are best illustrated by examples; thus, sehen signifies to see, and versehen, to provide. Legen, to lay, and verlegen, to mislay: also figuratively, to furnish, and hence to publish (a book) that is, furnish the necessary means for producing the book, &c.
Aeußerung, f. utter- Billard, n. billiards; Erra'then, to guess,
tion, claim, de- Buchhändler, m book-
Fassung, f self-com
1. Er trug Vedenken, dem Fremden die goldene Uhr anzuvertrauen? 2. Der Vater trug Bedenken, Alles zu glauben, was ihm sein Sohn eralte. 3. Wer zu viel Bedenken trägt, gewinnt wenig. 4. Sie hielten ihn für einen ordentlichen Menschen. 5. Ich hielt ihn für den BürgerImeister rieser Stadt. 6. Wir hielten ihn für etwas ganz Anteres. 7. Der junge Buchhändler hat ein neues Werk verlegt. 8. Ist die neue Grammatik des Herrn N. schon verlegt worden? 9. Sie ist so eben in der Verlags, buchhandlung des Herrn N. erschienen. 10. Ich bin sehr in Verlegenheit, was ich in dieser Sache thun soll. 11. Die Mutter ist in Verlegenheit, wo ihr kleines Söhnchen sein möchte. 12. Er ist in Verlegenheit, woher er die ihm fehlenten zwanzig Thaler bekömmen möchte. 13. Sie ist in Verlegenheit über das plöhliche Erscheinen eines Unbekannten. 14. Wollen wir eine Partie Schach oder Billard spielen? 15. Ich nehme lieber eine Partie Schach an, da bei diesem Spiele mehr der Verstand, als die Geschicklichkeit in Anspruch genommen wird. 16. Spielen Sie Schach gern (Sect. 44. I.)? 17. D, ja; nur habe ich zu wenig Gelegenheit es zu spielen, weßwegen ich bei geschickten Männern sehr oft schachmatt werde. Spielen Sie ein Instrument? 19. Ja, ich spiele Klavier und habe seit einigen Tagen angefangen Geige zu spielen. 20. Spielen Sie Geige lieber als Klavier? 21. Nein, ich spiele das eine Instrument so gern, wie das andere. 22. Blasen Sie Flöte? 23. Nein, aber ich habe vor das Hoin blasen zu lernen. 24 Wie lange blasen Sie Flöte? 25. Seit ungefähr einem Monate. 26. Ich habe jene Papiere verlegt; ich weiß nicht, wo sie tozu finden sind. 27. Die Schwester hat ihre Handschuhe und ihr Buch verlegt. 28. Den sonst so ruhigen Mann brachte ein solches Vetragen ganz II. Vor frequently answers to our "on." Ex.: Was geht hier außer Fassung, und seine kurzen Antworten und die Röthe seiner Wangen rer? What is going on here?
ließen errathen, was in seinem Innern vorging. 29. Ich errieth augen. blicklich die Ursache, die diese Stimmung in dem Gemüthe meines Freundes hervorgerufen hatte und ließ es auch jenen errathen, damit er vorsichtiger in seinen Aeußerungen sein möchte.
1. He hesitated to entrust his attorney with the affair. 2. The mother hesitated to believe everything that her daughter told her. 3. I have mislaid your book, and am therefore in much
trouble. 5. The child deceived its teacher, and, he therefore, hesitated to believe him again. 6. He played at billiards, and lost all his money. 7. Will you play a game at chess with me? 8. No, I prefer a game at billiards, for I do not know much! about chess 9. Do you play any instrument? 10. Yes, I play the harpsichord, and I think of learning the violin. 10. Is your sister skillful at the piano. 11. No, but she is excellent at the harp. 12. By that question he lost all self-command, and knew not how to answer. 13. Mr. C. in London will publish the history of the kings of England shortly.
Recht (right) and link (left) are often used with 3ur;" as, zur Rechten, zur Linken, for zu der rechten Hand; to the right hand; zu der linken Hand; to the left hand.
I. Gefallen, literally, to fall, or happen (acceptably,) i. e. to be pleasing, or agreeable. Ex: Dieses Buch gefällt mir; this book pleases me. Gefallen lassen to submit to, "to put up with." Ex.: Ich kann mir diese Behandlung nicht gefallen lassen; I cannot submit to this treatment, i. e. cannot let this treatment please me.
EXERCISE 88. Aufstellen, to post, Guitar're, f. guitar: draw up; Liet, n. song, air; Belei'rigung, f. of- Link, adj. (See above); fence, injury; Lints, adv. to the left; Beschließen, conclude, Mozart, Mozart; resolve, determine; Natürlich, natural, Fen'erglode, f. firebell; naturally; Schō'rig, suitable, Recht, adj. (See
proper; above); Gei'genfriel, n. violin- Rechts, adv. to the music; right; Es ist Schade, daß bei vielen Men. schen die guten Anlagen und Talen'te nicht beffer aus gebildet
Es ist Schade, daß er nicht ka war.
Das ist mir ganz recht.
Ein Berleum'ter muß es sich ge. fallen lassen, von seinen Ne'ben. menschen verach ́tet zu werden.
In dem Stübchen dieser armen al ten Frau saß zur Rechten tie Noth und zur Linken das Glend.
Rechts ficht man die Schafe in ter Wiese weiren, und inks tie Ziegen an tem Berge flettern.
Morgen über acht Tage reisen wir
ven hier ab.
Gr begleitete seinen Gefang' mit ter Harfe.
Die Begleitung tiefes Stückes ist von tem berühm'ten Karl Mari'a von Weber.
Unter solchen Umständen wurte das Versprech'en natürlich ge bro chen.
Still'schweigen, to be
Untersuchung, f. exami
LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY-No. XX.
MAP OF ASIA. ASIA, the cradle of the human race, and the original seat of Paradise, lies within the northern and eastern hemispheres, and to the east and south-east of Europe. The greater part of this continent lies within the north temperate zone; the exceptions being part of Siberia, which lies within the north frigid zone, and parts of Arabia, Hindostan, Chin-India, and China, which lies within the torrid zone. Asia is bounded on the north by the Arctic Ocean; on the south by the Indian Ocean and the Chinese Sea; on the east by the Pacific Ocean; Sea, and the Red Sea or Arabian Gulf. This continent exand on the west by the continent of Europe, the Mediterranean tends from lat. 78° 20' N., to lat. 1° 20′ S.; and from long. 26° 5' E., to long. 169° 44′ W. or long. 190° 16′ E.; the northern and western hemispheres. Its length, from Cape which shows that a very small portion of this continent lies in Baba, in Asia Minor, in lat. 39° 30' N. and long. 26° 5' E., to East Cape in Russia in lat. 66° 6′ N. and long. 169° 44′ W., is in Siberia, in lat. 78° 20' N. and long. 101° E., to Point about 6,880 miles. Its breadth, from Cape Severo-Vostochnoi Romania, in the Malayan Peninsula, in lat. 1° 23′ N. and long. 104° 17′ E. is about 4,600 miles. This continent is connected with that of Africa, at the Isthmus of Suez, which is said to be only 73 miles wide. The surface of Asia, including i's islands, is reckoned by some to contain about 22 millions of square miles, and its population to be about 440 millions; if these approximations be somewhat near the truth, there will be, on average, about 20 inhabitants to every square mile of this division of the world; but much of it contains vast 1 Gs ift Schate, taß Sie nicht eine Stunde früber gekommen fint. deserts, destitute both of useful vegetation and human popu2. Macht es wie ihr wollt, mir ist Alles recht. 3. Mir ist Alles recht, about 4,500,000 square miles, the population according to a lation. Thus, in Siberia, which is reckoned by some to contain was die Versammlung beschlossen hat. 4. Er mußte sich diese Beleidigung recent estimate was scarcely more than a million of inhabitants; stillschweigend gefallen lassen. 5. Er mußte sich Bieles gefallen lassen, which allows only one inhabitant to every 44 square miles. On toas er sich unter antern Verhältnissen micht hätte gefallen lassen. 6. | the other hand, in China proper, the number of square miles Sie mußte es sich gefallen lassen, verleumtet werden zu sein. 7. 3ur is about 1,300,000, and the population, on the most moderate estimate, about 260,000,000 of inhabitants; and this allows Rechten hatten wir das Gebirge und zur Linken den Fluß. 9. Rechts und about 200 inhabitants to the square mile! The linear extent links waren feintliche Truppen aufgestellt. 9. 3hr dürft weder zur Rechten of the coast line of the continent of Asia is reckoned by some noch zur Linken von diesem Wege abweichen. 10. Wer ist Schuld (Sect at 35,000 miles.
Unterwer ́fen, to subject,
It is (a) pity that with many
It is (a) pity that he was not
That just suits me (is just as
A calumniator must submit to
In the little room of this poor
old woman sat distress at the
at the left.
60. 11.) an tiefem Unglücke? 11. Unser Nachbar ist Schuld varam.
At the right are seen the sheep
earlier. 2. I must submit to whatever my father resolves
56 13 4 17 12 34 20
6 57 16 45 13 59 16 36
[Turkey Native Princes subject to Limited Monarchy Native Prince
Absolute Monarchy Dost Mahomed
Limited Monarchy Native Prince
in West Siberia Asia. East Siberia
| Asia Minor Turkey i Syria
í Birmah Eastern Siam India. Annam
Moluccas and Bandas
10 12 25 17 54
48 40 51 69 60 64 88 72 80 78 75 79 96 100 107 105
98 102 100 103 116 92 74 127 128 114 139 102 106 114 119 128 121 121
21 54 20 51 13 57 13 84 16
0 20 15 22 51 26 20 10 30 30 13 50 28 52
16 2 5 1 39 29 38 37 26 22
Limited Monarchy Native Prince
Absolute Monarchy William III.
Limited Monaroliy Victoria I. & William II1. Limited Monarchy Native Pr, under Holland Limited Monarchy William III.
Limited Monarchy Isabella II.
Limited Monarchy Native Prince
5 3 14 6
The seas and gulfs of Asia, on the West and the South, form | Yellow Sea being called the Gulf of Pechelee. Between the an important feature of its natural divisions. The Red Sea peninsula of Corea and the islands of Japan, lies the Sea of and the Persian Gulf may be called inland seas. The Red Sea, Japan, the north part of which is called the Gulf of Tartary. so famous in sacred history, otherwise called the Arabian Gulf, North of this gulf lies the Sea of Ochotsk or Kurile Sea, which with its two arms, the Aelanitic and Heroopolitan gulfs, over washes the western shores of the peninsula of Kamchatka. the latter of which the Israelites crossed on dry .ground, is On the other side of this peninsula, is the Sea of Kamchatka, about 1,400 miles long, its breadth varying from one to two or Behring's Sea, bounded on the south by the Aleu ian Isles. hundred miles, and its surface being about 200,000 square All these seas and gulfs, from the Strait of Malacca to Behring's miles. The two arms above mentioned are also called the Strait between Asia and America, are branches or arms of the gulfs of Akabah and Suez, from the names of the towns at North Pacific Ocean. Behring's Strait, which is reckoned by their northern extremities ; and these inclose between them some writers to be only 52 miles broad at the narrowest part, the desert region called the peninsula of Sinai, in which the separates the Arctic Ocean from the Pacific. In the former, forty years wanderings of the tribes of Israel were performed there are some gulfs which run into the northern parts of fit emblem of the wanderings of human life in this lower Siberia, namel those of Kara, Obi, and Yenisei. world. The entrance to the Red Sea is by the strait of Bab-el- The islands which lie around Asia are of the highest importMandeb, about seventeen miles wide. This sea opens out at ance both to that continent and to the continent of Europe, to this strait into the Arabian Sea, which washes the western which they principally belong, as possessions in the East. The shores of India, the southern shores of Arabia, and terminates East Indies, otherwise called the islands of the Oriental Archi. in the entrance to the Persian Gulf, at the strait of Ormuz, pelago, have been long famous for their produce, and situated through the Gulf of Omaun. The Persian Gulf contains about under the burning line, or within the torrid zone, they yield 95,000 square miles. The Bay of Bengal, whose waters wash such as cannot be found in more temperate climes. The Sunda the eastern shores of Hindostan, and the western shores of the Isles, Sumatra and Java, with others, lie to the south of the Eastern Peninsula or Chin-India, is an arm of the Indian Eastern Peninsula (which, with Hindostan, is often included Ocean. The part of this bay which washes the shores of under the general name of the East Indies); the length of British Chin-India is called the Gulf of Martaban. To the Sumatra is about 1,000 miles, and its breadth about 160 miles, east of the Indian Ocean lies the Oriental Archipelago, studded it contains a surface of about 150,000 square miles: the lengtli with the East India Islands. To the north of this lies the of Java is about 600 miles, and its breadth 100 miles, it conChinese Sea, with the gulfs of Siam and Tonquin.
tains a surface of about 45,000 square miles. The island of Between the Peninsula of Malaya and the Island of Sumatra, Borneo which lies to the east of Sumatra and to the is situated the Strait of Malacca. Between the islands of north of Java, is about 850 miles long, and about 700 Sumatra and Java, is the Strait of Sunda, these islands being miles broad, and contains about 270,000 square miles. The called the Sunda Isles. From the Chinese Sea to the East island of Celebes is about 500 miles long and about 150 Sea, the passage is through the Strait of Formosa ; north of miles broad, and contains about 72,000 square miles. the latter sea, lies the Yellow Sea, whose waters wash the The equator crosses each of these three islands nearly at the eastern shores of China proper; the north-west part of the middle of each. Next follow the islands called par excellence,