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the Spice Islands, or Moluccns, including Amboyna, thirty-two

§ 29.--ORDINAL ADVERBS. miles long, by twelve miles broad, and containing about 282

first; Quatrièmement, fourthly square miles ; then the Philippine Islands, north of these, (1.) Premièrement, in the first Cinquièmement, difthly including Luzon and Mindanao; the former about 400 miles

place Sixièmement, sixthly long, and about 100 miles broad, with a surface of about 56,000 Deuxièmement,


secondly Secondement,

serenthly square miles; and the latter about 300 miles long, and about

Dixièmement, tenthly.

Troisièmement, thirdly 108 miles broad. North of the Philippines, is ihe island of Formosa, belonging to China, and the Loo-choo Islands north- (2.) These, like adverbs of manner, are formed by the east of Formosa, subject to China. North and north-east of addition of ment to the feminine form of the adjet ve. these islands, are the Japan Islands, of which the largest is

8 30.-INDEFINITE ADJECTIVES. Niphon, about 800 miles long, and 100 broad; the next, Jesso,

(1.) The indefinite adjectives are used when anything is to about 280 miles long, and 200 miles broad; next, Kiusiu, about 150 miles long, and 120 miles broad; and the next Sikokf, be represented or referred to in a general or indefinite manner. about ninety miles long, and fifty broad. These islands They are, – include a surface of about 160,000 square miles, and form an

not any, not one quel,


quelconque, achatever impostant appendage to the continent of Asia. The other chaque,


quelque, islands on the west of Asia, and in the north Pacific Ocean,



such In the northern ocean, are of small size and importance.

plusieurs, several


all. there are a few islands, of which very little is known, South of India, are the Andaman and Nicobar Isles in the Bay of (2.) Aucun is generally followed by a noun, with which it Bengal, and the important island of Ceylon, south-east of the must agree. It is followed by no when it comes before a

verb :Carnatic, with an area of about 24,600 square miles, and a population of about a million and a half—a fine appanage of aucun homme, no man ;

aucune femme, no woman; ihe British crown; it is separated from the peninsula of India Aucun chemin de fleurs ne con- No flowery path leads to glory. by the Gulf of Manara, and the strait called Palk's Passage. duit à la gloire. LA FONTAINE. On the other side of Cape Comorin, the most southern point On méprise tous ceux qui n'ont AU those who have no virtue are of India proper, lie the Laccadive and Maldive Islands, aucune vertu.

despised. south-west of the Malabar coast. In the Indian Ocean, between

LA ROCHEFOUCAULD. Africa and India, lie ihe Seychelle Islands.

(3.). Aucun is by the French authors sometimes used in the plural :

Ils ne peuvent souffrir aucun em- They can bear no legitimate do LESSONS IN FRENCH.--No. L. pire légitime, ne mettent aucunes minion, set no bounds to their créexte.

bornes à leurs attentats. By Professor Louis FASQUELLE, LL.D.


Aucun and nul should be put in the plural only before such We shall, in order to render reference easier, place here some words as are not used in the singular, or have in the singular a observations on nouns and adverbs of number.

different acceptation. (1.) The numeral nouns in use with the French are :

(4.) Chaque is of both genders, and is used only in the

singular. It always precedes the noun, and cannot be separated unité, unit trentaine,

thirty from it by an adjective or by a preposition. It should never couple, paire, couple, pair quarantaine,

tuo score be used without a noun :trio, trio, thi ee

cinquantaine, fifty demi-douzaine, half dozen

Every age has its plasures, emery soixantaine,

Chaque âge a ses plaisirs, chaque sixty

état a ses charmes. huitaine, eight days

DELILLE. quatre-vingtaine, eighty

situation its charms. neuvaine, nine (nine days of une containe,

a hundred (5.) MEMB, placed before the noun, has the sense of same, pruyer) deux centaines, &c., two hundred in English. Placed after the noun it means, generally, himself, dizaine, ten, halj a score un millier,

one thousand herself, itself, or themselves. It may often be rendered by the douzaine, dozen

deux milliers,
two thousand word ever.

When même is an adjective it may take the form of quinzaine, fifteen, fortnight une myriade, a myriad

the plural, but does not vary on account of gender :vivgtaine, score, twenty un million,

a million,
c'est la méme vertu

c'est la vertu même (2.) The termination aine signifies nearly, and when added it is the same virtue

it is virtue itself. to words of number is equivalent to the English some, in cases like the following: I have some twenty books, i.e. about twenty les mêmes vertus, ni les mêmes vices. neither the same virtues nor the same

Le peuple et les grands n'ont ni The people and the great fate books. J'ai une vingtaine de livres.


Les écorces mêmes des végétaux The bark eren of vegetables is in

sont en harmonie avec les tempéra- harmony with the tenperature of the un quart, one quarter un cinquième, one fifth

tures de l'atmosphère.

atmosphere. deux quarts, troo quarters deux cinquièmes, two fifths

BERNARDIN DE ST. PIERRE, trois quarts,

three quarters un sixièine, etc., one sixth, etc. le tiers, the third un dixième, etc., one tenth, etc.

(6.) It is at times difficult to distinguish même an adjective deux tiers, two thirds

un centième, one hundredth from même an adverb, which is invariable. [See 97 (2) (3.)] la moitié, the half

un millième, one thousandth (7.) Nul is a stronger negative than aucun. It agrees in (1.) It will be seen that, with the exception of tiers, quart gender and number with the noun which it qualifies. Like and moitié, these numbers take the form of the ordinal numerals. aucun, when relating to the subject of the sentence, it requires They may, therefore, take the form of the plural when neces

ne before the verb: sary.

Nul homme n'est heureux ; nulle No man is happy; nothing Con (2.) The word demi, when used adjectively and preceding chose ne peut le rendre tel. BoISTE. render him so. the noun, is invariable :

Nulle paix pour l'impie ; il la NO

peace for the impious; ke sezis

RACINE, une demi-heure f.,

cherche, elle le fuit.

it, it aroids him. half an hour une demi-aune f., half an ell.

(8.) Nul is sometimes used alone, in the sense of no one :(3.) When coming after the noun to denote an additional half, ni mécontent de son esprit.

Nul n'est content de sa fortune, No one is pleased with his fortune,

nor displeased rcith his own to it agrees in gender with the noun :

MME. DESHOULIERES. une heure et demie

one hour and a half une aune et demie, one ell and a half.

(9.) PLUSIEURS is, of course, always in the plural. It does (4.) When used substantively, demi may take the form of

not vary its form:the plural :

Il faut bien qu'il y ait plusieurs There must necessctrily be boerd

raisons d'ennui, quand tout le reasons for ennui, rchen all agree in Cette horloge sonne les heures et This clock strikes the hours and the nuonde est d'accord pour bailler.

yairning. les demies,





What a delightful picture the Ir the sides A B and D E, or the sides AC and D F of the triangles ABC and D E F be produced, the angles upon the other sides of the country offers! bases of these triangles are equal.

What invisible hand has conquered the universe?

In fig. (D), let the side A B of the triangle A B C be produced to

What harmonious sounds, what

Fig. (D).



ravishing strains, equal the voice of G, and produce the side D E of the triangle DEF, so that DH shall be equal to a G, by Exercise on De la reconnaissance égalent les gratitude? Prop. III. in our last lesson. (11.) QUELCONQUE is always placed after the noun, and The angle CB G is equal to the varies only for the plural:Toutes les jouissances sont précédées d'un travail quelconque. MME. CAMPAN. Deux points quelconques étant THE ACADEMY. donnés.


angle FE H.





For if the triangle A B C be applied to the triangle D E F so that the point A may be on the point B D, and the straight line A G upon the straight line D н, the point G shall coincide with the point H, because the straight line AG is, by construction, equal to the straight line D II; and AG coinciding with DH, it may be shown as in the fourth proposition, that the part A B coincides with the part But the remainder BG is equal to the remainder EH (I. Axiom 3); and because the point B coincides with the point E, and the point G with the point H, therefore BG coincides with may be shown as in the fourth proposition, that EH. Now, B C coincides with EF; therefore, BG coinciding with EH, and BC with EF, the angle C B G coincides with the angle FEH; where


the same manner, by producing the sides A C and D F, it may be (13.) Quelque having the sense of about or some or however, fore the angle C B G is equal to the angle F EH (I. Axiom 8). In shown that the other angles below the base are also equal. is invariable:You look well. Q. E. D. How old are you? Oh! some sixty years.

In the statement of this corollary, Dr. Thomson has taken it too readily for granted that the parts produced by the straight lines A B and D E would necessarily coincide when these straight lines themselves were made to coincide. This assumption is, in fact, taking for granted a corollary which Euclid has thought it necessary to Book I., viz., that two straight lines cannot have a common seg. demonstrate, and which is appended to the 11th Proposition of ment, that is, they cannot coincide in part without coinciding demonstration, became necessary to demonstrate the above coraltogether. Now, as this corollary cannot be assumed without

rollary as we have done; and this demonstration includes in it a

demonstration of Euclid's very corollary to the 11th, which would otherewise require to be taken for granted. We are now prepared for the demonstration of the fifth proposition in the way laid down by Dr. Thomson, which we must confess is a great simplification of Euclid's, and well worthy of the attention of teachers who find any of their pupils unable to cross the bridge.



The angles at the base of an isosceles triangle are equal to one another; and if the equal sides be produced, the angles upon the

(10.) QUEL takes the gender and number of the noun to which it relates. It is sometimes immediately followed by its noun, from which it may be separated by one or several words:

Quel tableau ravissant présentent DELILLE. les campagnes ! Quelle invisible force a soumis L. RACINE. l'univers ? Quels son harmonieux, quals efforts ravissants,

(12.) QUELQUE in the sense whatever, agrees in number with Il y a du mérite sans élévation, mais il n'y a point d'élévation sans quelque mérite.

LA ROCHEFOUCAULD. Quelques vains lauriers que promette la guerre, On peut être héros sans ravager la BOILEAU. terre.

Quel âge avez-vous? Vous avez bon visage Eh! quelque soixante ans. RACINE, les Pladieurs. Alexandre perdit quelque trois cents hommes, quand il vainquit D'ABLANCOURT. Porus. Quelque méchants que soient les hommes, ils n'oseraient paraître

ennemis de la vertu.


tel livre, such book

tels livres, such books

All enjoyments are preceded by some sort of exertion.


Two points of some kind being


of some (a certain number), or
the noun :-

See § 97 (5).

There is merit without elevation, but there is no elevation without some


Whatever vain laurels war may promise, one may be a hero without ravaging the earth.

(14.) TEL makes in the feminine telle; in the plural masculine, tels; in the plural feminine, telles. It agrees with the

noun which it qualifies :

Tout citoyen doit servir son pays; le soldat de son sang, le prêtre de LA MOTTE. son zèle. En toute chose, il faut considérer LA FONTAINE. la fin.

The personal;
The possessive;

Alexander lost some three hundred men when he vanquished Porus.

However wicked men may be, they do not dare to appear enemies of


(15.) Tour meaning every, is of course always in the singular, but varies for the feminine :

telle lettre, such letter
telles lettres, such letters.

(16.) Tout, in the sense of all, agrees in gender and number other side of the base shall be equal. with the noun to which it relates :

tout l'argent, all the money.

toute la toile, all the cloth. He was above all those vain objects Il était au-dessus de tous ces vains objets qui forment tous les which form all the desires and all désirs et toutes les espérances des | the hopes of men. MASSILLON.


Every citizen should serve his country; the soldier with his blood, the priest with his zeal.

In everything we must consider the end.


(1.) The pronoun, in French, as in other languages, is a word used to represent the noun, in order to prevent its too frequent repetition. (2.) The pronoun serves also to designate the parts which each person or thing takes in speech. This part is called


(3.) There are three persons: the first, or that which speaks; the second, or that spoken to; the third, or that spoken of. (4.) There are five sorts of pronouns :

The indefinite.

The demonstrative;
The relative;

Let A B C be an isosceles triangle, of which the side A B is equal And let the equal sides A B and A c be produced to the side A C. to D and E. Then, the angle ABC is equal to the angle AC B, and the angle CBD to the angle BCE.

In BD take any point F, and from AE the greater, cut off AG equal (I. 3) to AF the less. Join F C and G B.

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Because in the two triangles A F C and A G B, the side A F is equal to (Const.) the side A G, and the side A B to (Hyp.) the side A c, the two sides FA and A C are equal to the two sides G And A B, each to each; and they contain the angle and AG B. Therefore the base FC is equal FAG common to the two triangles AFC to the triangle AG B. Also, the remaining (I. 4) to the base G B, and the triangle AFC angles of the one are equal (I. 4) to the remaining angles of the other, each to each, viz., those to which the equal sides are opposite; wherefore the angle AF C is equal to the angle AG B. Again, because the whole A F equal to the whole a G, of which the parts A B and A C, are equal. Therefore the remainder B F is But the side FC was proved equal (Ax. 3) to the remainder CG.




to be equal to the side GB; therefore, in the two triangles BFC and G CB, the two sides B F and F C, are equal to the two sides co and GB, each to each, and the angle BF C was proved to be equal to the angle C G B. Therefore, the two triangles BFC and G C B are equal (I. 4), and the angles A B C and AC B, on the other side of the base BC of these two triangles, are equal, by the preceding corollary; but these are the angles at the base of the triangle ABC. And because the triangles FBC and GCB are equal; therefore the angles FBC and GCB opposite to the equal sides FC and GB are also equal (I. 4); and these are the angles on the other side of the base B C of the triangle ABC. Therefore, the angles at the base of an isosceles triangle, &c. Q. E. D. Quod Erat A KEY TO THE EXERCISES IN THE Demonstrandum, Which Was to be Demonstrated.


ANOTHER PROOF.-Dr. Thomson has inserted in his edition the following proof of this important theorem :-In fig. (E), let A B C be the isosceles triangle, of which the sides A c and C B are equal to one another; and let the angle ACB opposite the base AB, be bisected by the straight line CD, that is, divided into two equal parts, viz., the angles ACD and BCD. Because, in the two triangles ACD and BCD, the side a c is equal to the side c B, by hypothesis, and the side C D is common to the two triangles; therefore the two sides AC and CD are equal to the two sides BC and CD each to each; but the angle A CD is equal to the angle Fig. (E). BCD, by hypothesis, therefore the base AD is C equal to the base DB, and the triangle A CD to the triangle B CD; also, the remaining angles of the one are equal to the remaining angles of the other each, viz., those to which the equal sides are opposite; therefore, the angle CAD is equal to the angle CBD; and these are the angles at the base of the isosceles triangle AC D. And if the equal sides CA and CB were produced, the angles on the other side of the base would be equal, by the corollary to the fourth proposition,

as above demonstrated.

The only objection to the preceding demonstration, which is short and clear, and obvious to every capacity, is that in assuming the bisection of the angle ACB, we virtually employ an additional postulate, viz., “That any rectilineal angle may be divided into two equal parts." This, of course, increases the number of postulates, which Euclid was evidently desirous to avoid. Besides, it anticipates the construction of the 9th proposition of this book, where Euclid shows how to bisect a given rectilineal angle; and it was a principle with him, never to take any problem for granted of which it was possible to show the construction and demonstration.


Fig. (r).

B G.


A THIRD PROOF.-In his notes on the fifth proposition, Dr. Thomson, as others have done before him, suggests another mode of proof, which we here insert in full for the sake of learners. fig. (F), let ACB be the isosceles triangle, of which the sides AC and CB are equal; and let the triangle ABC be applied obversely (that is, with its present face downwards) to the plane in which it is, at any point E, so as to leave a trace or outline EF G, in which Er represents the straight line A C; EG the straight line C B, and FG the straight line AB. Also the angle GEP represents the angle ACB; the angle EGF represents the angle C BA; and the angle EPO, the angle CA B. Because A C is equal to CB, by hypothesis, and that Eo is equal to CB, by construction (being its trace), therefore AC is equal to EG (I. Axiom 1). In the same manner, it may be shown that CB is equal to E F. Because the angle A C B is equal to the angle G E F, by construction (being its trace); therefore in the two triangles AC B and GEF, the two sides AC and C B are equal to the two sides GE and EF, and the angle A C B is equal to the angle GEF; wherefore the two triangles are equal; and the remaining angles of the one are equal to the remaining angles of the other, &c. (I. 4). Therefore the angle C A B is equal to the angle EGF, and the angle ABC to the angle EFG. But the angle EGF is equal to the angle C B A by construction (being its trace); therefore the angle C A B is equal to the angle CBA (I. Axiom 1); and these are the angles at the base of the isosceles triangle A B C. In the same manner, it may be shown by the application of the corollary to the fourth proposition, above demonstrated, that if the equal sides CA and CB were produced, the angles below the base would also be equal. COROLLARY.-Hence every equilateral (equal-sided) triangle is



also equiangular (equal-angled). For any side being made the base, it can be shown that any two angles at the base are equal; therefore, all the three angles are equal to one another.

The enunciation of this fifth proposition is more clearly and logically expressed by saying that "if two sides of a triangle be equal to one another, the angles which are opposite to the equal sides are also equal to one another; and, if the equal sides be produced, the angles upon the other side of the base shall likewise be equal.”

(Continued from page 343, Vol. II)

Page 70, col. 2, vol. II.-LATIN-ENGLISH.

God has given us a mind than which nothing is more excellent, the victory cost us much blood; the mother of all good arts is wisdom, than which nothing more productive, nothing more excellent has been bestowed by the everlasting God on the life of men; God has placed the body as a (quandam) garment round the soul (God has surrounded the soul with the body as with a gar ment), and has clothed it outwardly; those whose fathers or forefathers were distinguished by any glory (glorious deeds), endeavour for the most part to excel in the same sort of praise (praiseworthy deeds); we ought to hold our parents very dear, because by them life has been given to us; he has not conferred a benefit who unwilling has done good (who has done good unwillingly); who are more yours than those to whom you have restored safety, when they were destitute of hope? the citizens showed themselves most energetic defenders of liberty; a great multitude surrounded the orator in the market-place; eloquence has been given by nature for the safety of men; eloquence has been given by nature for the preservation of men; a wicked orator turns inhuman as to turn eloquence, given by nature for the safety and eloquence to the ruin and destruction of the good; what is so preservation of men, to the ruin and destruction of the good; pay had not been given to the soldiers for a long time; sedition arose among the soldiers; because pay had not been given for a long time, sedition arose amo..g the soldiers; you, my friend, will evince fidelity to me; I know for certain that you, my friend, will evince fidelity to me; nothing hinders us; nothing will hinder us; we may obtain a victory; I believe that nothing will stand in our way so that we may not obtain the victory (to prevent our obtaining the victory); the victory cost the death of many brave men; brave men; will you persist in your opinion? I know not whether we did not doubt that the victory would cost the death of many you will persist in your opinion.

N.B. On page 70, col. 2, line 11, for constěti read constiti. do. do. line 12, for perstěti read perstiti.

Page 70, col. 2, vol. II.-ENGLISH-LATIN.

Classem duci dedit; tibi classem dabit; censesne se fratre meo classem daturum esse? nihil pluris hominibus constitit quam avaritia; Deus mihi dedit sororem, quâ nihil mihi est carius; soror mea mihi se amantem per totam vitam praestabit; milites fortissimos se praestiterunt, sed victoria morte multorum virorum fortium constitit; nihil obstat quominus victoriam adipiscamur; victoriam, credo, adipiscemur; Socrates omnibus philosophis prae stitit; quis nescit Socratem omnibus philosophis praestitisse? credis ne filium tuum omnibus sociis praestaturum esse? ingens hominum multitudo oratorem circumstat; stipendium militibus milites oriatur; perstaturusne es in sententiâ tuâ? nescio perstanon est datum; stipendium militibus dabo; cave ne seditio inter

turus ne sim in sententiâ mea.

Page 71, col. 1, vol. II.-LATIN-ENGLISH. Nothing hinders to prevent our doing that which pleases us most; I will not oppose to prevent his reading everything; death does not deter a good man from consulting the welfare of the republic; they may interrupt me to prevent my being honoured, provided they do not interrupt to prevent the republic from being well managed by me; no pretext appeared sufficient to excuse any citizen from being present; he surrounded the bed with a broad ditch; he surrounds the enemies' camp with his army; he surrounds himself with soldiers; he will put his arms round your neck; he surrounded the city with a mound; I will endeavour to go beyond these limits with which I have surrounded myself; he gave a distinguished character to the peace; patrons have invested him with this fame.

Page 71, col. 1, vol. II.-ENGLISH-LATIN,

Nihil impedit quominus puer bonus esse possis; famam tibi circumdabo; circumdabit mihi vestem; honorem sorori suae circumdedit; circumdate urbi ignes, quominus cives egredi non possint; quominus adsis, nulla excusatio justa est.

Page 82, col. 2, vol. II.-LATIN-ENGLISH.

N.B.-On page 82, col. 2, line 7 from bottom, for necuri read necui. do. 83, do. 1, do. 4 from top, for petire read petére. do. for acipitrem read accipitrem. do. for accipetri read accipitris. do. for second read third.

do. 83, do. 1, do. 43

do. 83, do. 2, do. 8 do. 83, do. 2, do. 9

Who comes (venit)? the door creaked; the leader violently abused the soldiers; the whole city resounded with the voices of citizens exulting (exsultantium) on account the of victory gained over the enemies; come, let us go to lie down; the Romans by their arms completely subdued many tribes and nations; we are taught by the authority and command of the laws to possess regulated desires, and to restrain all passions; great springs of water gushed forth from the fountain; the wise men of the Indians devote themselves to the flames; the wise men of the Indians are burnt without a groan; the wise men of the Indians when they have devoted themselves to the flames are burned without a groan; Cicero applied himself to (studied under) Molon the philosopher; the wise man endeavours to unfold the involved idea of his mind; when you have laid open the history of the times you will find many examples both of virtues and vices; when the city was taken, every place on all sides sounded with the lamentations of women and children; we are frightened (terremur) when it has thundered (tonuit) in calm weather; we strive after what is forbidden; Augustus forbad the poems of Virgil to be burned; Augustus forbad the poems of Virgil to be burned in opposition to the modesty of his (Virgil's) will.

Page 82, col. 2, vol. II.-ENGLISH-LATIN.

Forium cardines crepuerunt; mater filium innocertem increpuit; milites per totam noctem excubuere; nautae hostium classem domabunt; ad Ciceronem me applicabo; veto te ad Aristotelem te applicare; nitemur in vetitum; tota domus hominum gemitibus aegrorum sonuit; urbs armis sonat; Jupiter nutu caeteros Deos domat; passim gemitus ploratusque sonant; leonem perdomui.

Page 83, col., vol. II.-LATIN-ENGLISH.

I fear that I have revived your regret and grief by my letter; you are about to revive the past misfortunes of the republic by your wicked deeds; there is no doubt that you will revive the past misfortunes of the republic by your wicked deeds; Tantalus, touching the top of the water, is repesented by the poets as tortured by thirst; do you not know how much that talkative man has tortured me by chattering? Caius Marius, when he was flogged, at the first forbad that he should be bound, and no one before Marius is said to have been flogged unbound; husbandmen carry the coin, when cut down, into barns; unless you have restrained your desires, in vain will you endeavour to live happily; who knows not how much Cicero aided his country? not only fortune but your industry also has assisted you in your undertaking; if fortune lends our soldiers any aid, we do not doubt that we shall gain a splendid victory over the enemies; the army advanced by long marches (itineribus) to assist the blockaded (cinctos) citizens; do not sup before you have washed your hands; as you are about to wash your body, fetch pure water from the running stream.

Page 83, col. 1, vol. II.-ENGLISH-LATIN.

Pueri, expergiscimini, lavate, et quum lavissetis ad negotium se applicate; hae mulieres me garriendo enecuerunt; non dubito quin hae mulieres te garriendo enecueriat; hae puellae garrulae ine garrulitate enecabunt; vetabo filium garrire; lavistine manus? age! bene manus prius lava quam accumbcs; nolunt pedes lavare; patris verbum filium adjuvat; naves veniunt urbem obsidione cinctam adjutum; non est dubium quin ducis exercitus nostri brevi urbem adjuvaturus sit; secuistine pollicem? crus secui; dolorem meum refricuisti; nolens refricui dolorem tuum; fortuna fortem juvat; servus alligatur; pater vetat filium alligari.

Page 92, col. 1, vol. II.-LATIN-ENGLISH.

N.B.- On page 91, col. 2, line 27 from top, {for citum read citum.

citum read citum. do. 92, do. 1, do. 7 do.for connivère read connivere. Minerva taught Cicero all arts; the mingled earnestness of modesty is greatly to be admired; so many times have I been occupied, and with such important business, that I am unable (that it is not allowed to me) to breathe freely; know you not how many

toils, how many dangers, how many miseries the soldiers have sustained on their way? if virtue has restrained you from bad desires your life will be happy; Cicero having been told all things (cuncta) by the ambassadors (legatos), ordered the prætors to seize the Allobroges on the bridge; let not their minds mingle with the vices of men; the ascent to heaven is easy to the good; the less minds have mingled with and attached themselves to the errors and vices of men, the easier to them will be the ascent to heaven; the nature of the mind is simple, nor has it in it any thing mixed; we live on grapes dried in the sun; we have dried many grapes this season; Cato was of opinion that Carthage should be destroyed; every fifth year all Sicily was subjected to the census; two most pow erful cities, Carthage and Numantia, were destroyed by Scipio; no forgetfulness has ever blotted out the fame of the Greeks and Romans, nor ever will blot it out; God has filled the world with all good things, and has mixed with it nothing bad; while the general is absent the soldiers excited sedition; the slaughter having been declared to be greater than it really was (than the reality was), excited terror in the city; Catiline was calmed neither by watching nor by rest, conscience so harrased his excited mind; it was enjoined by the laws that the dead should be buried after the third day; I doubt not that you have always shunned the intimacy of impure men; I am not ignorant that you have always favoured me and mine; chickens having been cherished and hatched are anxiously watched by their mothers; will you doubt that I have always cherished the greatest affection toward you; you so embraced me, so held me in your hands, so fondled me, that I could never forget that day; Brutus and Cassius, the murderers of Caesar, caused a great war; he is ungrateful who returns thanks, when witnesses are removed; many commanders of the Romans devoted their lives (heads) to the safety of their country; in the same year three temples were publicly vowed (to be built) and consecrated.

Page 92, col. 1, vol. II.-ENGLISH-LATIN. Cicero a Minervâ omnes artes edoctus est; cives sex templa publice voverunt; templum Veneri dedicaverunt; mater infantem fovet; mater semper liberos fovebit; uxores maritos foverunt; cave ab mulieribus impuris; militum clades per urbem magnum ploratum movit ; nescio quot labores sustinuerit; nescis quot labores sustinuerim; pater te a vitio arcuit; age patri gratias, quum te a vitio arcuerit; cave ne animus vitae sollicitudinibus se admisceat; magnum fovi in pectore meo amorem; in meo pectore magnus amor in te fotus est; quis hoc bellum movit? hostium duces hoc bellum moverunt; tua mens excita nunquam sedabitur; delete hace verba; historiam vitium delendum esse censuit. imperii ejus delevit; mala non sunt facilia deletu; pater tuus

Page 92, col. 2, vol. II.-LATIN-ENGLISH.

letter which should inform me what you were doing; I told you Teach me how I may escape these things; I did not receive the the affair; his father informs the judges concerning the injuries of your brother's reason; the judge must be informed of the cause of Augustus; your uncle will instruct you about your journey; it is fit and pleasant to teach those desirous of learning; I envy your master who for so large a fee has taught you to be wise in nothing; speak Greek; he taught my daughter to play on the lyre; they may I teach many scholars the Latin language; I must be taught to teach him to ride a horse and to use weapons; will you teach me the Greek language? teach these my sons music; gladly will I teach you letters.

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The following extract from The Times of February 26, will be of our subscribers:-THE BOOKsome interest to a great number of POST. We are glad to find from an announcement in the Gazette that the book-post, which has now become an important channel for the diffusion of literature, will be commenced on the 1st of May between this country and the East Indies. The total charge from any part of the United Kingdom to any part of our vast Indian Empire for a book not exceeding half a pound in weight will be 6d.; not exceeding a pound, 1s. ; not exceeding 21b., 23.; and not exceeding 3lb. (the maximum by this post), 3s.

T. M. CROWHURST (Plymouth): Mensuration certainly.-LITTLE HARRY: Will receive forms one part of the verb to receive, viz, the future tense, will being an auxiliary verb to receire. In the question relating to Arithmetical scales, the radic is always mentioned in the name of the scale, thus: in the decimal scale, ten is the radix; from the Latin decem, ten. But, in order to make it all clear, take this table :










Denary or

Duodenary or









A WOULD B. FARMER: Hebrew will come in its turn; Greek after Latin. A number is divisible by 8 when its three last figures are divisible by 8, because 8 is the cube of 2, and 2 is one of the factors of the number 10, the radix of the decimal scale. For 9, see p. 66, vol 1.





G. WILLIAMS (Bristol): See vol. I., p. 368, col. 2. line 20.-D. M. LANGLEY (Limerick): What he suggests will be done. We do not know the book he mentions.-T. H. (Somers town): Thanks, but too late to be acknowledged in the lessons.-SELF-TAUGHT (Duke-street) will obtain the case of mathematical instruments by applying at the office of the Society of Arts, St. John-street, Adelphi, Strand.-BYRD (Pontypool) is quite right as to the four sounds he mentions. The expense of colouring would be too great.DELTA (Barlby): See vol. II., p. 32.-AIE: There is no attempt made to give the meaning of ch, as far as we can see; we think Aie is hypercritical; but we must no doubt consider this a benefit conferred on us; for

"Critics indeed are valuable men, But hypercritics are as good again." The best Greek dictionary is -R. B. W.: Greek will follow Latin. Liddell and Scot's, of which there is an abridgment for the use of learners. ERASMUS (Ashton-under-Lyne) must imitate the great man whose name he has assumed.

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E. L. M. (Holloway) will learn English composition by carefully studying our Lessons in English.-S. W. (Hull): We recommend the maps to be bound at the end of the volume to which they belong, where they can be most easily referred to.-G. GRIFFITH (Carmarthen): Under consideration. -J. D. B. wishes to know who is the publisher of a work on drawing issued by the Government School of Design.-A. T. M. should study the Lessons in Geography; his question is answered at p. 253, col. 1, line 35,

vol. II.

H. W. (Liverpool): Navigation will come in course.-W. II. HAGCOTT (Southampton): We do not know; try the members of Parliament for the northern district of burghs or for the western ditto in Scotland.-H. T. M.: Dementate means infatuated, insane; meteyard, a staff of a certain length wherewith measures are taken; molar, having power to grind: nihility, nothingness, the state of being reduced to nothing; otiose, at leisure, unoccupied normal, according to rule, properly regulated, standard.-ALPHA (Brecon): His case is so peculiar that we can scarcely offer him our advice. We would recommend English and French, or English and Latin, to be studied together, and history, botany, &c., for recreation. Our object in inserting the Regulations of the University of London, was to give some clue or guide to the order and arrangement of studies.-T. WHITE (Codnor) and his friends will find some directions, with a splendid example as to the method of studying Euclid, in the "Self and Class Examiner in Euclid," price 3d., published by Mr. Cassell.-E. LORD (Manchester) and his friends are informed that the rule concerning "a vowel which comes before two consonants is long by position," is quite correct. To fix pencil drawings so as not to smear by contact with another leaf, pass over them a little milk and water, taking care that all the cream be first skimmed off; or a very weak solution of singlass in water. The liquid should be passed over quickly with a flat camel's-hair brush.

R. S. W.: The value of x is found thus:100×500X28.6765 5X286765 100+(7X28-6765) 100+200-7355

£4767 14s. 6d. ; rem. 396522.

GUTHRUM (Grimsby): Zumpt's Latin Grammar is reckoned one of the
best; Latin before French; if you have time for both, they may be studied
together.-A MARLBURNIAN: We should prefer composed to produced in
ference to music.-GABRIEL (Islington) should call on Mr. Bagster,
teruoster-row, and get a copy of his Oriental Catalogue.


This ATHEISM CONSIDERED THEOLOGICALLY AND POLITICALLY. Volume, consists of thirteen Lectures, by the Rev. LYMAN BEECHER, These Lectures enter fully into D.D. (father of Mrs. H. B. Stowe.) the momentous question now at issue, or, at least, under discussion, between "Secularism" and Christianity. For close reasoning and eloquent declamation, these Lectures have rarely been surpassed. The Volume, jast issued, is well printed, and is sold for 2s. 6d. bound in cloth. It is important in ordering this work, that John Cassell's edition should be specially named. GIN AND WATER; a pair of pictorial designs by Kenny Meadows, portraying the effects arising from the indulgence of those potent liquids. In the first, GIN, we have the interior of the drunkard's home, with a glimpse of the horrors which belong peculiarly to such homes; in the second, WATER, we see how comfort, cleanliness, and peace attend the steps of the temperate man. The contrast is well sustained, and the pictures-which measure 24 inches by 16 inches-cannot but be popular. We have had too many songs and pictures in praise of the drinking customs of our country, and are glad to perceive that our poets and artists are beginning to discover that they may get inspiration even out of water


"Wine, wine, thy power and praise

Have ever been echoed in minstrel lays;
But water, I deem, hath a mightier claim
To fill up a niche in the Temple of Fame!"

These pictures, which should be framed and hung over every cottage chimney-piece, and on the walls of every factory, and workshop, and ragged school throughout all the land, can be obtained of every bookseller for one shilling. They are exquisitely engraved on wood, by Messrs. Henry Linton and William Measom.



THE AUTOGRAPHS FOR FREEDOM; containing, in addition to a New Story by Mrs. STOWE, authoress cf "Uncle Tom's Cabin," entitled "The Two Altars; or, Two Pictures in One;-The Altar of Liberty, or 1776; The Altar of, or 1850," a thrilling Narrative by FREDERICK DOUGLASS, entitled "The Heroic Slave;""Passages in the Life of a Slave WomDSA,” by Annie Parker; "Placido, the Cuban Slave," by Professor W. G. Allen; "The Heroic Slave Woman," by the Rev. J. S. May, &c.; also, Contributions from the leading Writers in America on the Question of Negro Emancipation; and, on this side of the Atlantic, from the Earl of Carlisle, the Bishop of Oxford, Wilson Armistead, Joseph Sturge, &c.; with fac similes of the Autographs of all the Contributors, Price Is., in boards; or bound in cloth, with Eight beautiful Engravings from designs by Gilbert and Willis, price 18. 6.

THE ALTAR OF THE HOUSEHOLD: a Series of Services for Domestic Warship for every Morning and Evening in the Year; Select Portions of Holy Writ, and Prayers and Thanksgivings for Particular Occasions; with an Address to Heads of Families. Edited by the Rev. John Harris, D.D., Priacipal of New College, St. John's Wood; Author of "The Great Teacher:" "Mammon;""Pre-Adamite Earth," &c. &c., assisted by eminent contributors. The following are among the Ministers engaged in the preparation of THE ALTAR OF THE HOUSEHOLD:-The Rev. J. Sherman, the Rev. W. Urwick, D.D., the Rev. W. H. Bunting, M.A., the Rev. R. Ferguson, LL.D., the Rev. F. A. Cox, D.D., LL.D., the Rev. Professer Lorimer, the Rev. Newinan Ha!!, B.A., the Rev. B. S. Hollis, the Rev. W. Chalmers, A.M., the Rev. J. Beanmont, M.D., the Rev. Samuel Martin, the Rev. William Broek, the Res. John Kennedy, A..M, the Rev. William Leask, the Rev. Charles Williamas, the Rev. W. W. Ewbank, A.M., the Rev. J. Stoughton, the Rev. W. Reid, the Rev. George Smith, &c. &c. The Work will be completed in Twelve Parts, one to appear on the First day of each successive month; the whole forming One Handsome Volume, with Frontispiece engraved on steel by a first-rate Artist. Parts I. to III. are now ready, price 1s. each, or in one Quarterly Section, price 3s.

CASSELL'S EUCLID.-THE ELEMENTS OF GEOMETRY. Containing the First Six, and the Eleventh and Twelfth Books of Euclid. Edited by Robert Wallace, A.M., price ls. in stiff covers, or 1s. 6d. neat cloth.

THE SELF AND CLASS EXAMINER IN EUCLID, containing the Enunciations of all the Propositions and Corollaries in Cassell's Edition, for the use of Colleges, Schools, and Private Students, is now ready, price 3d.

THE ANSWERS TO ALL THE QUESTIONS IN CASSELL'S ARITHMETIC for the use of Private Students, and of Teachers and Professors who use this work in their classes, is just issued, price 3d.

THE LADIES' WORK BOOK, containing full instructions for every kind of Ladies' Work, in Point Lace, Knitting, Netting, Embroidery, Crochet, &c., forming the most splendid Book for the Work-table ever issued. This work contains an immense number of the newest Designs for Ladies' Work, of every description, and is produced in a style perfectly unique. Price 262. THE LADIES' DRAWING-ROOM BOOK, in which are introduced the choicest Engravings from the "Illustrated Exhibitor and Magazine of Art,” and the " Ladies' Work Book;" the whole forming a beautiful Volume for the Drawing-room. The work is printed on fine Plate Paper, and got up in the first style of Art. Price 10s. 6d.

The PATHWAY, a Religious Magazine, price 2d. each Number, enclosed in a neat wrapper. The Fourth Volume has just commenced-Vols. 1. and II. price 2s. 3d. each, Vol. III., price 2s. 9d., neatly bound, are now ready.

UNCLE TOM'S CABIN, with Twenty-seven Illustrations on wood, by George Cruikshank, and an excellent Portrait of the Authoresa-Three Editions of this popular work are now on sale at our office-a Drawing Room Edition, demy 8vo., price 4s. 6d. elegantly bound, with gilt edges; crown 8vo., neatly bound, gilt edges, 3s. 6d., or plain binding, 3s.

THE ILLUSTRATED EXHIBITOR AND MAGAZINE OF ART-The First Two Parts of a new and improved Series of this work, under the title of the ILLUSTRATED MAGAZINE OF ART, are now ready, price One Shilling each. The Weekly Numbers are now enclosed in a neat wrapper, price 3d In addition to numerous Engravings in the text, each number contains a fue Engrave With the first Part was presented a splendid ing, worked on Plate Paper. View of the Interior of St. Paul's Cathedral, during the Interment of the late Duke of Wellington, printed upon fine Plate Paper, measuring eighteen inches by thirteen, in addition to four separate Engravings, and a large number of choice Illustrations, with which each Part is embelished.


Vol. II., p. 253, col. 1, line 24 from bottom, for north frigid read south Printed and Published by JOHN CASSELL, La Belle Sauvage-yard, Ludgategid. hill, London.-March 19, 1853.

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