« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS.
LITERARY NOTICES. The following extract from The Times of February 26, will be of
ATHEISM CONSIDERED THEOLOGICALLY AND POLITICALLY. This some interest to a great number of our subscribers :-The Book. | Volume, consists of thirteen Lectures, by the Rev. LYMAN BERCHER, POST.- We are glad to find from announcement in the Gazette D.D. (father of Mrs. H. B. Stowe.) These Lectures enter fully into that the book-post, which has now become an important channel the momentous question now at issue, or, at least, under discussion, for the diffusion of literature, will be commenced on the 1st of May between
between “ Secularism" and Christianity. For close reasoning and eloquent this country and the East Indies. The total charge from any part of the declaination, these Lectures have rarely been surpassed. The Volume, jast United Kingdom to any part of our vast Indian Empire for a book not issued, is well printed, and is sold for 2s. 60. bound in cloth. It is important exceeding hall a pound in weight will be 60.; not exceeding a pound, Is. ; in ordering this work, that John Cassell's edition should be specially named. pot exceeding 216., 23.; and not exceeding 31b. (the maximum by this
GIN AND WATER; a pair of pictorial designs by Kenny Meadows, portray. post), 3s.
ing the effects arising from the indulgence of those potent liquids. In the ?; M. CROWHURST ( Plynouth): Mensuration certainly.-Little HARRY: first, Gin, we have the interior of the drunkard's home, with a glimpse of Will receive forms one part of the verb to receire, viz , the future tenso, will
the horrors which belong peculiariy to such homes: in the second, WATER, being an auxiliary verb to receire. In the question relating to Arithmetical
we see how comfort, cleanliness, and peace attend the steps of the temperate scales, the radic is always mentioned in the name of the scale, thus : in the
man. The contrase is well sustained, and the pictures which measure decimal scale, ten is the radix ; from the Latin decem, ten. But, in order
24 inches by 16 inches-cannot but be popular, We hare had too many songs
and pictures in praise of the drinking customs of our country, and me to make it all clear, take this table :
are glad to perceive that our poets and artists are beginning to discover NAMES OF THE SCALES. RADIXES.
that they may get inspiration even out of water-
“Wine, wine, thy power and praire
Have ever been echoed in minstrel lays ;
But water, I deem, hath a mightier claim
To fill up a niche in the Temple of Fame!"
These pictures, which should be framed and hang over every cottage
chimney-piece, and on the walls of every factory, and workshop, and rugged Octary eight
school ihroughout all the land, can be obtained of every bookseller for coe Nonary nine
shilling. They are exquisitely engraved on wood, by Messrs. Heory Liston Denary or
and William Measom.
THE AUTOGRAPHS FOR FREEDOM; containing, in addition to a Ver
Story by Mrs. Stowe, authoress of “Uncle Tom's Cabin,” entitled "Toe Duodenary or
Two Aliars; or, Two Pictures in One ;--The Altar of Liberty, or 1776; turelre Duodecimal
The Altar of —or 1850," a thrilling Narrative by FREDERICK LOCGLASS. A WOULD B. FARMER: Hebrew will come in its turn; Greek after Latin. entitled " The Heroic Slave;" “ Passages in the Life of a Slave Worsa, A number is divisible by 8 when its three last figures are divisible by 8, / by Annie Parker; “ Placido, the Cuban Slave," by Professor W. G. Allíti: because 8 is the cube o 2, and 2 is one of the factors of the number 10, the
"The Heroic Slare Woman,” by the Rev. J. S, May, &c.; alzo, Coatrie radis of the decimal scale. For 9, see p. 66, vol 1.
butions from the leading Writers in America on the Question of Segte
Emancipation; and, on this side of the Atlantic, from the Earl of Carlisle, G. WILLIAMS (Bristo!): See vol. I., p. 369, col. 2, line 20.-D. M.
the Bishop of Oxford, Wilson Armistead, Joseph Sturge, &.; with face LANOLEY (Limerick) : What he suggests will be done. We do not know the
similes of the Autographs of all the Contributors, Price Is., in boards; or book he mentions.-T. H. (Somers town): Thanks, but too late to be ac- bound in cloth, with Eight beautiful Engravings from designs bş Gübert knowledged in the lessons.-SELF TAUGHT (Duke-street) will obtain the case
and Willis, price 18. 61. of mathematical instruments by applying at the office of the Society of Arts, THE ALTAR OF THE HOUSEHOLD: a Series of Eervices for Domestie Tas. St. John-street, Adelphi, Strand.- BYRD (Pontypool) is quite right as to the ship for every Moruing and Evening in the Year: Select Portions of HF four sounds he mentions. The expense of colouring would be too great.- Writ, and Prayers and Thanksgivings for Particular Occasions; with an DELTA (Barlby): See vol. II, p. 32.-Aie: There is no attempt made to give
Address to Heads of Families. Ldited by the Rev. John Harris, D.D., Pria. the meaning of cả, as far as we can see; we think Aie is hypercritical ; cipal of New College, St. John's Wood ; Author of "The Great Teacher: but we must no doubt consider this a benent conferred on us ; for
"Mammon;"**Pre-Adamite Earth,” &c. &c., assisted by ernineat conuibutors. " Critics indeed are valuable men,
The following are among the Ministers engaged in the preparation of TBE But hypercritics are as good again."
ALTAR OF Tue HOUSEHOLD :-The Rev. J. Sherman, the Rev. W. Urwick, -R. B. W.: Greek will follow Latin. The best Greek dictionary is D.D., the Rev. W. H. Bunting, M.A., the Rev. R. Ferguson, LL.D., the Res. Liddell and Scot's, of which there is an abrid 2 ment for the use of learners.
F. A. Cox, D.D., LL.D., the Rev. Professer Lorimer, the Rer. Newman Hall, ERASMUS (Ashton-under-Lyne) must imitate the great man whose name
B.A., the Rev. B. S. Hollis, the Rev. W. Chalmers, A.M., the Rev. J. Biau. he has assumed.
mont, M.D., the Rev, Samuel Martin, the Rev. William Broes, the Res. E. L. M. (Holloway) will learn English composition by carefully studying
John Kennedy, A..M, the Rev. William Leask, the Rer. Charles Williams, our Lessons in English.-S. W. (Hull): We recommend the maps to be
the Rev. W. W. Ewbank, A.M., the Rer. J. Stoughton, tbe Rer, W. Keid, bound at the end of the volume to which they belong, where they can be
the Rev. George Smith, &c. &c. The Work will be completed in Trete inosi easily referred to.-G. GRIPPITI (Carmarthen): Under consideration. Parts, one to appear on the First day of each successive month; the ble -J. D. B. wishes to know who is the publisher of a work on drawing
forming One Handsome Volume, with Frontispiece engraved on steel by a
first-rate Artist. Parts I. to Ill. are now ready, price Is. each, or is cse issued by the Government School of Design.-A. T. M. should study the Lessons in Geography; his question is answered at p. 253, col. 1, line 33, Quarterly Section, price 3s.
CASSELL'S EUCLID.—THE ELEMENTS or GEOMETRY. Contalpid; ite vol. II.
First Six, and the Eleventh and Twelfth Pooks of Euclid. Edited by Riveri H. W. (Liverpool): Navigation will come in course.-W. II. HAGCOTT Wallace, A.M., price ls. in stiff covers, or 18.60. Deat cloth. (Southampton): Wo do not know ; try the members of Parliament for the
THE SELF AND CLASS EXAMINER IN EUCLID, containing the Facia. northern district of burghs or for the western ditto in Scotland.-11. T. M.: Dementate means infatuatel, insane; meteyard, a staff of a certain length of Colleges, Schools, and Private Studenta, is now ready, price 3d.
tions of all the Propositions and Corollaries in Cassell's Edition, for the use wherewith mersures are taken; molar, haring power to grind : nihility, THE ANSWERS TO ALL THE QUESTIONS IN CASSELL'S ARITHMETIC nothingness, the state of being reduced to nothing': otiose, ul leisure, unoc. for the use of Private students, and of Teachers and Professors who use this cupied: normal, according to rule, properly regulated, standard.-ALPHA work in their classes, is just issued, price 3d. (Brecon): His case is so peculiar that we can scarcely offer him our advice. THE LADIES' WORK Book, containing full instructions for every kind of We would recommend English and French, or English and Latin, to be Ladies' Work, in Point Lace, knitting, Netting. Embroidery, Crochet, $e.. studied together, and history, botany, &c., for recreation. Our object in forming the most splendid Book for the Work-table ever issued. Tsk inserting the Regulations of the University of London, was to give some
contains an immense number of the newest Designs for Ladies' We clue or guide to the order and arrangement of studies.--T. Wøite (Codnor) every description, and is produced in a style perfectly unique. Prieo 26d. and his friends will find some directions, with a splen iid example as to the THE LADIES' DRAWING-ROOM BOOk, in which are introduced the method of studying Euclid, in the "Self and Class Examiner in Euclid," choicest Engravings from the Illustrated Exhibitor and Magazine of Art," price 3d., published by Mr. Cassell.-E. LORD (Manchester) and his friends and the " Ladies' Work Book;" the whole forming a beautiful Voluae far are informed that the rule concerning "a vowel which comes before two the Drawing-room. The work is printed on fine Plate Paper, and got up in consonants is long by position," is quite correct. To fix pencil drawings the first style of Art. Price 10s. Od. 80 as not to smear by contact with another leaf, pass over them a litile milk The PATHWAY, a Religious Magazine, price 20. each Xumber, enclosed in and water, taking care that all the cream be first skimmed off ; or a very a neat wrapper. The Fourth Volume has just commenced-Vols. 1. and II. weak solution of leinglase in water. The liquid should be passed over price 26. 3d. each, Vol. II1., price 29. 9d., neatly bound, are now ready. quickly with a flat camel's-hair brush.
UNCLE Tom's CABIN, with Twenty-seven Illustrations on wod. by R. S. W.: The value of x is found thus :
George Cruikshank, and an excellent Portrait of the Authoresi - Three 100 X 500 X 28.6765 5X286765 5X286765
Editins of this popular work are now on sale at our office-a Dra.com
Room Edition, deny 8vo., price 1s. 6d. elegantly bound, with gis eges; 100+(7X28-6765) 100+200-7353 3007355 crown Sro., neatly bound, gilt edges, 3s. 6d., or plain binding. 3s.
The ILLUSTRATED EXHIBITOR AND MAGAZINE OF ART-The First Two 286765 £4767 14s, 6}d. ; rem. 396522.
Parts of a new and improved Series of this work, under the title of the 60 1471
11.LUSTRATED MAGAZINE OF ART, are now ready, price One Shilling each. The
Weekly Numbers are now enclosed in a neat wrapper, price 3d is diicios GUTHRUX (Grimsby): Zumpt's Latin Grammar is reckoned one of the to nuinerous Engravings in the text, each number contains a Eze Engtar. best; Latin before French; if you have time for both, they may be studied
ing, worked on Plate Paper. With the first Part was presented a spieduit together.- A MARLBURNIAN: We should prefer composed to produced in
View of the Interior of St. Paul's Cathedral, during the laiermeat of the • ference to music.- ADRIEL (Islington) should call on Mr. Bagster, late Duke of Wellington, printed upon tine Plate Paper, measurisg eighteen teruoster-row, and get a copy of his Oriental Catalogue.
inches by thirteen, in addition to four separate Engravings, and a large ERRATUM.
number of choice Illustrations, with which each Part is embellshed. Vol. II, p. 253, col. 1, line 21 from bottom, for north frigid read south igid.
Printed and Published by John CASSELL, La Belle Sausage-yard, Latgales
hill, London.- March 19, 1833,
LESSONS IN DRAWING.-No, VIII.
(Continued from page 347).
In fig. 76 we exhibit the method of putting a square into The square B has its nearest angle at the same distance as perspective. A is a square with a side measuring twenty-four the side of the square A, its sides are at 45° with the ground inches. It is situated two feet six inches from the ground line, line, and its sides have for their vanishing points u and H.
line, its diagonal is therefore perpendicular to the ground and at a distance, laterally, of eighteen inches from our position,
[6.] The student will be able, from the study of the preceding that is, lying eighteen inches on one side, and to the left of a articles, to find the representation of any line lying in the line drawn to the centre of the picture at right angles to the ground plane, for he has there the means by which he may horizontal line ; for it is evident that a line so drawn would ascertain the vanishing points of any lines making any angle mark that position. The centre of the picture depends on that with the ground line; and by drawing lines to v from the position, and on nothing else, and as we change our position the extremities of the original lines, Q u or T n (see figs. 73, 74,
and 75), the perspective lengths may also be found; but centre of the picture changes with it. This appears to be the where v'is taken at any considerable distance from c, lines so reason why it has received the name of the point of sight,- drawn are attended with some disadvantages; they are inconthe changes in other vanishing points not being so obvious. veniently long, and will often lie so close to each other as to
create confusion. This is obviated by adopting another method Fig. 76.
of determining the intersections, as follows, in fig. 77.
From m, the vanishing point of the line tn, set off towards the centre c, and on the horizontal line : 1, a part mo equal 10 mv. From P, the point in the ground line, where it is cut by the original line produced (i. e. extended), set off P R equal to P r in the opposite direction to mo; join o and R; then the point t, where the line o R cuts the line PM, is the perspective representation of the point t. Similarly, taking ps equal to PN, and drawing so, its intersection with PM, namely n, is the perspective representation of the point n. The point o varies for each vanishing point, depending as it does on the length of mv, and, from its use, has received the name of the measur.
ing point, or the measuring centre. In the case of lines at right We begin by fixing on some length to represent one foot, vanishing point of such' lines, as v, the place of the eye is
angles to the ground line, it is at the same distance from c, the then, drawing a G, the ground line, suppose the eye to be from this point ; the measuring point of lines at right angles five feet six inches above it, at that height draw 1 h; this is to the ground line is sometimes called the distance point, being the horizontal line ; make c the centre of the picture, and also the vanishing point of lines making 45° with the ground
line. bring down from c a perpendicular to meet the ground line in P, then take one and a half from the scale and set it off the following theorem.
The geometrical reason for this procedure is contained in to the left; from t this point, eighteen inches from p, draw ta
In fig. 78, if parallel lines v M at right angles to a G. The square to the left is to have one
and PN be drawn at the extremity side parallel to the ground line, the other side is therefore
of a line PM, and a line yn be in ra. Setting off from t, in the first place, two feet six
drawn, joining the extremities of inches, and then twenty-four inches for the side of the square,
these parallels, then a line os, joinand completing the square, we have its plan correctly drawn in
ing the extremities of another pair of position and magnitude; the sides being brought up to the
parallels, equal to the first pair, and ground line, lines drawn to c, will give the perspective lines. You
drawn from the same points P and can now find the perspective of the diagonal, by means of the
M, such as ps and o m, will cut the vanishing point of lines at 45° ; this is at a distance from the
line pm in the same point n. If centre c equal to that of the eye from the plane of the picture,
Om were taken half the length of as may be deduced from the example given in fig. 73. Sup.
Vu, and ps half the length of Pn. pose this to be seven feet ; set this distance from c on A s by
P or in any other ratio, the line o s the scale; produce the diagonal to cut the ground line in D,
would still pass through the same join this point and the vanishing point just found, draw
point n. This property enables us parallels to the ground line through the extremities of the
to economise space, where the lines perspective diagonal, and the figure is complete.
would run to an inconvenient length. VOL. II.
(7.) We have now given, as concisely as possible, the prin- [10. We shall give more examples of this convenient ciples upon which all perspective consiructions are founded; arrangement. In fig. 80 you have the perspective representarules are but the application of principles, and without a tion of a point P, found in the same manner; and in this knowledge of the latter, the former are likely to fail when doubt arises in the mind of the student. It may be of assistance to those who are studying these lessons, if at this point we recapitulate the essentials, that is, those points and lines which, according to what has preceded, must be definitively ascertained, before we can determine with certainty any perspective representation whatever. They are, 1°. The distance of the eye from the plane of the picture, which is determined by a line drawn from the eye at right angles to this plane; such as v c in any of the preceding figures, which gives 2°, the point c the centre of the picture. 3o. The horizontal line drawn through this point c, parallel to 4°, the ground line, or line where the plane of the picture cuts the ground plane. Inter. secting line is a term used for this line, and of wider application ; but ground line will be better understood in most cases. 5o. tiguie, ik in Tr being bisected (i.e. halred), and the bisect. The ranishing points—lying all in a vanishing line, which, for ing point brought up to the line un, a line drawn to D, the the ground plane, is the horizontal line. 6o. The measuring bisecting point of the line o DD, shows an application of the points, as just explained.
principle noticed in the explanation of measuring points. These six particulars have been so far explained, as to put it in the student's power to produce the perspective representa
Fig. 81. tion of any plane figure lying in the ground plane; and we now proceed to give some examples, by way of simplifying the whole procedure, especially by reducing the number of the vanishing and measuring points.
[8.] Any point whatever in the ground plane may be supposed to lie somewhere in a line at right angles to the ground line, and any two points may be supposed to lie in two such lines. In fig. 79 is shown a method of obtaining the perspective of any line, derived from such a supposition.
LESSONS IN ENGLISH.--No. XLI, To get the perspective of any line a B, draw lines through
By John R. BEARD, D.D. the points A and B, at right angles to the ground line. o, being
THE CELTIC ELEMENT. the centre, is their vanishing point, and D, the distance point, (see Art. c), is their measuring point. Now, suppose the The Celtic element in the English language has received far less ground plane to be detached from the intersection Mn, and attention than it deserves. Till recently, indeed, its existence was reversed; then, TT represents the ground line in this new scarcely known; and when at length it compelled recognition, its position, and A B will be at its proper distance from t T, appearance was restricted to names of places, particularly the great unaltered; but I T' may be placed at any convenient distance outlines of the country, such as hills, mountains, headlands, from us, taking care only that it is parallel to mn. Transfer rivers, &c. the points A and B to Tr', as directed in Art. 6, and bringing The ordinary teaching of the schools was, that the original British up these points to the line m N, draw lines to D, and the points natives of these islands were extirpated by the invading and con. of intersection, A' and B', are the perspective representations quering Saxons to such an extent that the former were able to sustain of A and B.
themselves only in the mountain fastnesses of the extreme parts of [9.] This arrangement is much more compact than that the country, Scotland in the north, Cornwall in the south, and which we have hitherto described; but it could not be satis. Wales in the west. In those parts, unquestionably, the native factorily explained before entering into the considerations on British successfully withstood their Saxon invaders, and there which the art of perspective is founded. As a method, it has transmitted their vernacular tongue from generation to generation. many advantages. In the example just given, the vanishing Not less is it true that the British element in the population of the point of the line A B, is comparatively at a great distance from lowlands was neither uprooted nor absorbed. Extermination is a o, the centre ; and as the measuring point would have to be rare event in the migrations and changes of tribes and nations. taken in the opposite direction, the reduced space required in Scarcely would it be too much to afirm that extermination Rever comparison with the other method is obvious. The reversal takes place. And even absorption is only partial. Besides, if blood of the plan, by bringing the ground line into the position T T', is absorbed it does not lose its primitive qualities. Still less casy has also the advantage of showing the original and its repre- of absorption is a language. "A living language,--that is, a lansentation not in opposite directions, as inay be seen by com-guage vernacular to the aboriginals of a country-stamps itself on paring fig. 79 with fig. 77.
the entire land and on the whole life of the people. That impres. The centre and the distance points are the only vanishing sion is all but indelible. Only the attrition and abrasion of centuries and measuring points required, in order to find ihe perspec- can wear the image down, much less wholly efface it. The language tive reprezentation of any line whatevir lying in the ground of the cottage is one of the few permanent things on earth ; add plane.
wien, by the extruding power of the language of the court, and of books, and of commerce, it is compelled to withdraw into narrower
Craig, in Welsh a rock, precipice; our crag. and narrower limits, it ceases to be a language only to become a Druid, the Gallic name for priest. dialect and a palois (the language of the peasants of a province);
Dur, water, Welsh dwr, as in Derwent, Derby, Dorchester. and still maintains an existence in what we call provincialisms and
Foll, foolish, Welsh fful, French 'fou, Scotch fou (tipsy), valgarisms, when at length it is wholly banished from cultivated English fool, German toll.
Lancea, Gallic for lance. society. Nor only there does it survive; it lives on in the warp and the woof of the spoken and written tongue. These allegations
Marga, marl; whence Marlborough, and Albemuule.
Nani, water, river; whence Nant wich. are borne out by the fact that in our present English, the original Pen, a summit, head; as in Pencraig in Hereford, and Pengover Celtic of these islands still remains to no inconsiderable extent. in Cornwall, Penistone in Yorkshire, Penrith in Cumberland.
The Celts (or, as the fashion now is, the Kelts), as far back as Rit, a ford; hence the ending rit as in Camboritum, Cambridge. history goes, were the primitive inhabitants of England, Wales, Soldurii (sol, bond, and vor, Latin vir) a man; boundmen, or men Scotland, and Ireland." The race at large, in an ante-historic engaged to each other and to their leader in war, our sollier. period, migrated from Central Asia into Europe, and, spreading
Spatha, a two-edged sword; whence through the German spaten,
is our spade. over its surface, penetrated to its western limits. The Celtic language is now acknowledged to have affinities with painted people; so we say the blacks, the whiles, the fair).
Tan, land, as in Britain (Brittania, the land of the Britli, or the important group of languages denominated the Indo-Germanic, of which the Sanscrit, the Greek and the German may be taken as
The names father, mother, sister, and brother, are of ne.. representatives. At the same time, the Celtic language, as being a cessity among the first, they are also the most enduring: language spoken by an independent family of nations, possesses Consult then this table :essentially independent features,
tad, father, dad, dadds. Europe. Of these, four belong to the British islands. A fifth, mamm,
mam, mother, mamma, mammy. the Cornish, now nearly or quite extinct, also pertained to the same breur,
brawu, brother. insular home of the Keltai or Celts. The sixth, the Armorican, choar,
chwaer, sister. belongs to Brittany, a country connected with Britain in history as
Our words father and mother come to us from the Indowell as name.
Germanic stem; but the cottage words, the nursery words, The Celtic Tongues.
the words of intimate affection, dad, daddy, mam, mamma, 1. THE GALLIC OR BRITISH. II. Tue GAELIC OR Erse, mammy, are derived from our British or Celtic forefathers. including
The oldest forms of a language are found in the cottage and on 1. Cymric or Welsh. 1. Fenic or Irish.
the hill-side. . In both those spots, and in the provincialisms 2. Cornish.
2. Gaelic or Highland Scotch. which still in a measure survive (but, alas! are fast giving way 3. Armorican or Breton. 3. Manx.
before railroads, and commerce, and ignorant euphuists, that is, I may confirm the statements I have made, as to the survival of seekers after finery in language), a considerable number of the Celtic element in our national life and literature, by a quotation
Celtic words remain. These words are among the most exfrom an author of merit, whose studies and whose subject would pressive.. Take the term mettle. Even Websier, after other naturally incline him to give predominance to Saxon claims : great lexicographical authories, originally derived this from “No:hing is more common or less true than the exaggerated the Greek root which gives us metal, namely, inetallan, to scruaccount of total exterminations and miserable oppressions in tinise, to seek for, by digging; as if a man of mettle and a man the traditional literature of conquered nations; and we may of metal, were not as much opposed to each other as a highvery safely appeal even to the personal appearance of the
Turn to the Welsh and you spirited man and a money-grub.
peasantry in many parts of England as evidence how much Keltic find in meddwl, mind, courage, which by the vulgar is called blood was permitted to subsist and even to mingle with that of pluck, the exact idea which mettle conveys, e.g., the ruling Germans; while the signatures to very carly charters “ The winged courser, like a generous horse, supply us with names assuredly not Teutonic (or Saxon), and Shows most true mettle when you check his course."--Pope. therefore possibly borne by persons of Keltic race, occupying
To fetile, is in the genuine Lancashire dialect a very expositions of dignity at the courts of Anglo-Saxon kings.'
In a list given by the very learned German philologist pressive word, giving rise to the general idea of making a Adelung (Mithridates II., 40) of genuine Celtic words found thing good, excellent, delicious ; and occurring in such ingathered from very ancient sources, and found in Teutonic stances as to fettle a horse, means to restore him io soundness; tongues, the following have representatives in the English of to fettle a wife, means to put her to rights ; fettled ale, means
ale warmed with spice, spirits, eggs, &c. The word, together the present day : Aber, as in Aberconway, and several other Welsh names, denotes verbal form, has its origin in the Welsh Ffaeth, luxuriant,
with our common term fat, of which fettle is a diminutive the mouth of a river, the confluence of a river with the sea; and hence a bay' or harbour; it is found in the French Havre (Havre-de-ripe, rich. Grace), and in the English harbour: Webster seems wrong when
We have cast our eye down a page or two of an Irish he gives harbour as from the Saxon here berga, the station of | Dictionary and found these coincidences :an army.
Irish or Fenic words identical with English. German. Alpes, the ancient Gallic designation for any higli land; hence our Albion, so called from its lorey cliffs.
Abal, an apple.
Apfel. Bard, the Gallic name for poet, singer, prophet.
Acra, an acre.
Acker. Bastard, from the Welsh bas, lowo, and tardd, lo come forth;
Aer, air (Greck, aer) hence, persons of low and unworthy birth.
Aes, age (Latin, aetas). Becco, Gallic, our beak,
Airc, a chess, ark (Latin, arca).
Arche. Beria, a level field, a plain; hence, the numerous instances of
Airbhe, a rib.
Rippe, ribbe. bery as a termination of English names of places.
Aird, a country, cart? (Scotch, yird). Erde. Braca, Gallie, a dam, a limit; Scotch, "bray; French, braie,
Baban, a baby, infant. a hedge.
Babloir, a bubbler ( ? Babci).
Plapperer. Braccae, Gallic, breeches.
Bainis, a wedding, the bans. Brace, i. e. corn; whence the Gauls made their beer; hence, the
Bairghin, a son, bairn. Words brero, brewer, beer.
Bairile, a barrel. Bria, brign, perhaps from the Welsh brig, brigy, a hill-top;
Baitselcar, a bachclor. briga itself signifies in the Celtic a town, as in Boroughbridge.
Ball, a ball, globe.
Ball Carn, a group of stones or rocks; hence our Carn or Cairn and
Bann, a band of inen.
Bande. Cornwail (stony Wales).
Baran, a baron.
Baron. Carra, a Gallic four-wheeled carriage, a cır, cart, to carry, carier.
Barc, a boat, barque.
Barke. Carruca, among the Gauls a convenient travelling carriage;
Bar, a pne', banii.
Barde. French, caroche; English, coach.
Barra, a bar.
Be, life, being. * The Saxons in England," by J. JI. keable, vols., 8vo., 1919;
le, 23, p. vol. I., p. 21.
Irish or Fenic words identical with English. German.
LESSONS IN GERMAN.-No. XLI. Bear, a bear.
Bär. Bearim, I bear, carry, bring forth.
Section LXXXVI. Bearbaim, I shave the beard (Latin barba). Barbieren..
The dative of the personal pronoun of the first and second Beathach, a beast, French, bête. From the Welsh the following among other instances have person (seldom translatable) is often employed in familiar been given by the Rev. R. Garnett."
style, to intimate in a wholly indefinite manner a participation
or interest on the part of the speaker or the person addressed. Coincidences between the Welsh and the English,
Ex. : Ich lobe mir den Knaben; I praise (for myself) the boy.
Gehe mir nicht auf: Gis; do not go upon the ice. Ju ber blut',
gen Schladt bei Lügen ritt er Euch unter des Feuers Blißen auf und Brat, a clout, a brat or pinafore.
nieter mit fühlem Blut. (Schiller.) In the bloody battle at Lützen Brodiaw, to embroider (Fr. broder).
he rode amid the lightnings of the firing, up and down in Bwyell, a hatchet, a bill (Geri. biel).
I. Davonlaufen=to run off, to run away; as, &r ift bei Nace
und Nebel taron gelaufen ; he has run away by night and fog. Crochan, a pot, crockery (Sax, crocca).
Durchgeben has sometimes a like signification; as, Der Diener Crog, a hook, crook (Celt. crol).
ist mit dem Velde durchgegangen; the servant has run away with Dantaeth, a choice morsel, dainty.
An'merfen, to perceive; Neugierig, inquisitive, Störung, f. disturb.
curious; Bewir'thung, f. enter.
ance; Gwichet, a ricket (Fr. guichet).
tainment, recep- Nettung, f. deliver- Ilm’ieben, look
Freuntlich, friendly; Scheu, sky, skittish; Vertrie'ßen, to grieve, Mop, a mop:
Gezieʼmen, to become, Soniit, consequently,
vex, trouble. Paeol, a pail.
Das Tanzen macht mit fein Ver. Dancing affords me nopleasure.
gnü'gen. Piser, a jug, pitcher.
Ich merke es Ihnen an, taß Sie I perceive (Sect 52. Sieht man Rhail, a fence, rail (Germ. ralle).
nicht zufried'en sind.
&c.) that you are not conRhasg, a slice, rasher.
Das ist eine verdries'liche Sache.
That is a vexatious affair (or
business). A knowledge of the laws which affect the permutation of Die Rede hat sie Zuhörer vertres. The speech (has) displeased the letters in words as they appear in different languages or
auditors. dialects would disclose to the student many Celtic terms in Gr ist davon gelaufen.
He has run away. English, of which otherwise he would have no suspicion. I Sehen Sie sich nach einer Wohnung Are you looking about (you) have given clear examples. Other very clear examples could
for a residence (boarding be added. I shall för exercise subjoin a few Celtic words
place)? with their several meanings, leaving the student to discover & geziemt' mir nicht, dem Greife It does not become me to conthe corresponding English terms.
tradict the aged man. EXERCISE,
Id habe ihn nie mit irgend einem I have never offended him by a
Der Jähjorn machte Aleran'der tem Sudden passion caused Alexan. Cluder, a heap,
Großen viel Verdruß'.
der the Great much sorrow. Cnoc (knok),
30 lobe mir jenen Chrenmann. I praise that man of honour. Cnol,
a hillock, Coblyn, a sprite,
1. Vielen Menschen søeint es ein Vergnügen zu machen, Antere ja ko Cocru, to indulge,
leidigen. 2. Ich merfte es ihm an, daß er sich beseitigt fühlte. S. Gr Chwant,
beleidigte nicht nur mich, sondern auch meinen Dheim. 4. Diese Sade dusky, E-mwyth, even, soft,
hat mir schon viel Verdruß gemacht. 5. Der ungerathene Sohn matt Filawg, a young mare,
dem Vater viel Verdruf. 6. Es verdrießt den Lehrer, eigensinnige Stile Fug,
deception, Fwtw doun,
zu yaben. 7. Diese Rere verdruß manden Anwesenten. 8. Det Glyn. a valley,
brossene Knabe ließ seine Arbeit liegen. Es verdroi den freunt, tas Gweddu, to unite,
ich ihm seine Briefe nicht beantwortete. 10. Id werdanfe ihm mcire Red Gwylaw, to weep,
tung. ll. Somit verdante ich ihm nacht Gott Alles. 12. Wenn Llawi,
a youth, Llodes, a girl,
nicht bald anders wird, so laufe ich davon. 13. Bei jelchen Greignisjen Mwygl, sultry,
möchte man davon laufen. 14. Dem Knaben ist sein fleiner Hund bassa Posiaw,
to embarrass, Priawd, one's oren, spouse,
gelaufen. 15. Dem Richter geziemt es, nach der Ursache tiefer Sterung Pwmp, a knob,
zu fragen. 16. Es geziemt mir, über diese Sache zu schweigen. 17. Der Rhwyb, to tear,
Neugierige pflegt sich nach jeder Kleinigfcit umzusehen. 18. lim mich ein Souba, to dip,
wenig umzusehen, ging ich in die Stadt. 19. Mein Freund will fio 1 Tal,
of high stature, Tariaw, to loiter, stay.
ciner andern Wohnung umsehen. 20. Ich lobe mir tie alten Zeiten. 21. Tosiar, to throwo,
Ich lobe mir die schönen Zimmer und die freuntliche Bewirthung. 22. Die Tripiaw,
to stumble, Troddi,
Pferde wurten scheu und gingen mit uns turch. to move forwards, Wyna, to bear lambs,
1. It does not become a child to contradict its parents. • " Proceedings of the Philological Society," vol. I., p. 171
2. I went to the town for the purpose of looking about. 3. I and the preceding examples, we have appended the corresponding words in admire these beautiful apartments and their pleasant situation. German, French, and Saxon, in order to enable our readers to judge for 4. The thief ran away with the money, before it was possible to themselves. It is more than possible that many of these words in the overtake him. 5. He ran away for fear they should take him Welsh are borrowed from the English. It is a very dimicult matter to sepa. rate the original words from those that are borrowed.
in the act. 6. It is a vexatious affair that he has lost my