« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
als er aus dem sause entfliehen wollte. 13. Man wußte lange nicht, wer die Freun waren, bis es endlich an den Tag kam, daß es politische Flücht. 14. Entlich ist es an den Tag gekommen, worüber Jahre lang der Schleier ter Verschwiegenheit getedt war. 15. Ehe er sich zu mir in ten Wagen sehte, bat er sich die Vedingung aus, daß ich langfam fahren möchte. 16. Als er gefragt wurte, warum er tiefe entwärtigente Handlung begangen habe, versezte er, daß ihn die Noth dazu getrieben babe. 17. Hierauf verschte ich ihm, daß Mengel kein Grund zu Diebstahl, und Noth kein Grund zu einem Verbrechen sei. 18. Das Schicksal verseßte ihn aus der Fülle in tie größte Dürftigkeit, wie es mich eft aus einer Stellung in die andere, aus einem Lante in tas antere und aus einem Welttheil in den andern verseßte, -aber den härtesten Schlag verseste es mir dadurch, taß es mir an dem Tage meiner Ankunft in Amerika den Bruder sterben lies.
1. My brother goes to-morrow morning with his friend over the country, and will return in the evening. 2. How came you by this book? 3. As I went over the country I found it. 4. The father gave the boy a blow with his hand. 5. Upon the questions, which the judge asked the criminal, he replied: that he had not committed the crime purposely. 6. I have not been for a long time in Germany. 7. I have not been long in Germany. 8. It is a long time since I have seen my parents and brothers. 9. He did not know for a long time who it was that had taken his pencil-case, after it was found. 10 Let us take a pedestrian tour, as we have beautiful weather to-day. 11. How long is it since you have heard anything of your friends? 12. I do not know, but I believe it is more than a month since I have heard anything of them.
LESSONS IN LATIN.-No. XLVI.
3. A PRONOUN may agree with a pronoun, e. g., Caveto ne alios vituperes, qui fortasse laude digniores sunt quam tu ipse. Take care you do not blame others who perhaps are more worthy of praise than you yourself. Here the relative qui agrees with its antecedent, the pronoun alios, in gender and number; and tu agrees with ipse in gender, number, case, and person, both being in the second person, nominative case, singular number, and masculine gender.
The rule may be stated thus:
Pronouns agree with pronouns in gender and number, or in gender, number, person, and case.
Idem, added to another pronoun, gives force to a proposi
tion, e. g.,
Ptolemy is said to have been deprived of life by the very son to whom in hi lifetime he had given up his kingdom.
Ultimus coeli complexus, qui idem nether vocatur.
Ipse may be joined to all persons, whether they are subjects or objects. Ipse adds force to the word with which it is connected; ego ipse, I myself; ille ipse, he himself. Ipse sometimes stands without a personal pronoun. If ipse refers to the subject, it is in the case of the subject; if it refers to the object, it is in the case of the object, e. g.,
Subject:-Non egeo medecinâ; me ipse consolor.
Take care to guard yourself most attentively
rendered his in English. Ejus is properly of that person or that
Virtutes et ipsae taedium pariunt.
Alcibiades quum desertus ab omnibus jaceret,
When Alcibiades lay deserted by all,
amica corpus ejus texit pallio suo,
a female friend covered His body with her cloak.
Here ejus is requisite because the demonstrative is needed to
Cneium Pompeium omnibus qui unquam fuerunt, P. Lentulum sibi ipsi conscivit; scio ista haec facta proinde ut proloquer; tu mihi ipsi antepono; se ipsos omnes naturâ diligunt; Junius necem es is qui me saepissime ornâsti; ego is sum qui Caesari contedi putem utilius esse, quod postulat, quam signa conferri; transeat idem iste sapiens ad rempublicam tuendam; qui ipsum illum Carneadem diligenter audierat; ridiculi sunt, qui alios id docere conantur, quod ipsi neque experti sunt, neque sciunt; ille quoque ipse confessus est; est idem ille tyrannus deterrimum genus; ii qui divinis legibus parent secundum naturam vivunt; is dici non
potest vir magnanimus, qui suam salutem cum salute publicâ conplacent, aliis maxime displicent; quicquid honestum est, idem est jungere dubitat; ego me ipsum vitupero; saepe ii qui sibi maxime utile; ca omnia, quae adhuc a me dicta sunt, iidem isti vera esse concedunt; musici qui erant quoudam iidem poetae; ego vir fortis idemque philosophus vivere pulcherrimum duxi; illa erat splendida et cadem faceta oratio; petam a vobis ut ea quae dicam non de memet ipso, sed de oratore dicere putetis; non ita abundo ingenio ut te consoler quum ipse me non possim; ignoratio rerum, e qua Idem, in conjunction with another pronoun, must be ren- ipsâ horribiles existunt saepe formidines; Themistocles a suis dered by also, or the same as, or yet, e. g.,
civibus patriâ pulsus est; Fabius a me diligitur propter summam
They themselves confessed; I who have confessed expect death; thou preferrest a friend to thyself, and, at the same time (idem), lovest thyself very much; thou art that wise man whom I myself and we all desire to hear; they blame themselves; they who blame themselves, may become wise; whatever is good, the same is useful; he a foolish, yet (idemque) a kind man, entreats thee to take care of thyself; console thyself; they have consoled me, yet are they wretched; Aristides was banished by his (fellow)
Et ipse is used with the force of our even; alone, that is, by citizens; Aristides and his (fellow) citizens were Greeks (Hellenes) itself, without going further, e. g.,
by birth; the maid took off her cloak, and covered with it the dead body of her sister; the cloak of her husband being taken off, the wife, according to custom, burnt the corpse; all men love themselves; I love myself; they do not love themselves wisely who
Ejus (from is, ca, id) differs from suus, though both are take care of themselves most of all.
4. A noun agrecs with an adjective or participle, e. g.,
2. Part.:-CARTHAGO DELETA est.
Pater et filius MORTUI sunt.
The father and the son ARE DEAD (have died).
If the subject contains nouns of different genders, for instance, one masculine and one feminine, then, the masculine, being what grammarians call the more worthy, requires the predicate to be in the masculine, e. g.,
Pater mihi et mater MORTUI sunt.
The gender is in some cases determined by attraction, the noun nearest the adjective or participle attracting or drawing the adjective or participle into its gender, e. g.,
CONVICTA est MESSALINA et Silius.
In the first instance, the adjective carissima is in the same gender, number, and case as the noun patria. In the second instance, the participle deleta is in the nominative case, singular number, and feminine gender, because Carthago is in the nominative case, singular number, and feminine gender.
The rule, then, is,
A noun agrees with an adjective or participle in gender, number, and case.
If the subject consists of more than one noun, the attributives (the adjective or participle) must, together with the verb, be inicis, f. an expeller. the plural number, e. g.,
This construction may be explained by the supposition that he predicate agrees in reality with the nearest noun only, and is to be considered as repeated after the second noun, thus :
Convicta est Messalina, et Silius convictus est.
When nouns in the subject represent things, the predicate is in the singular, though one or more of the nouns may be - masculine or feminine, e. g.,
CAPITA Conjurationis PERCUSSI sunt.
Portas urbis munitissimas refregit.
He broke open the very strongly fortified gates of the city.
If the two or more nouns are taken separately, the epithet is to be put in the singular number, e. g.,
Inter Esquilinam Collinamque PORTAM posuit castra.
He placed the camp between the Esquiline and the Colline GATE. Apposition requires nouns to agree in case, whether they agree or not in number and gender, e. g.,
ALEXANDER, REX Macedonum, magnus appellatur.
Secundae res, honores, imperia, victoriae, FORTUITA sunt.
Who were the assassins of Caesar Brutus and Cassius; memory is the treasury of the soul; religi is the guide of life; is not religion the expeller of vices? the philosophy of religion is the medicine of the soul; religion and hilosophy are very benign; who were the thunderbolts of the Roi. an empire? generals, the thunderbolts of the Roman empire, went (proficiscor) to the war; in Greece, the mother of great men, lived Solon and Aristides; Prosperity, honours, commands, victories, are GIFTS of fortune. riches and honour are perishing things; the man and his wife Here the subject contains one masculine noun, honores, and have suddenly died; the wall, the threshold, and the ship, have two feminine nouns, secundae res and victoriae, yet the attri-been struck with lightning; you are friends, we are enemies; was butive is in the neuter gender, fortuita. A masculine noun, Acsop a renowned writer? however, requires the adjectives or participle to be in the masculine gender. The gender may also be determined by proximity, that is, by the gender of the nearest noun.
When the subject, though in the feminine or neuter gender, denotes male persons, then the construction, being determined by the sense rather than the sound, requires the predicate to be in the masculine, e. g.,
struck with lightning; indagatrix, icis, f. an investigator; expultrix, Bene actae vitae, of a well-spent life; de coelo tacta sunt, were
Aesopus scripter clarus, fuit gibbosus; Scythae, homines belli. cosi, terribiles fucrunt; Phoenices crant nautae peritissimi; Graecia fuit patria multorum hominum illustrium; conscientia bene actae vita jucunda est; Graeca lingua est difficilior quam Romana; anser et ovis et asinus videntur esse bestiae stultis
simae; omne animal mortale est; nos sumus amici vos estis inimici; quanta est imbecillitas tua! Grammatica quondam et musica junctae fuerunt; misericordia in eo et perfidia dilectae sunt; Samnitium caesi sunt tria millia ducenti; stultitia et teme
ritas et injustitia et intemperantia fugienda sunt; pax et concordia fuerunt; opes sunt irritamenta malorum; murus et porta de coelo victis utilia, victoribus pulchra sunt; captivi militum praeda tacta sunt; duo fulmina Kemani imperii fuerunt Cheius et Publius Scipio; Brutus et Cassius interfectores Caesaris fuerunt; Vespasianus quaestor Cretam et Cyrenas provinciam sorte cepit; Pompeius, a militibus desertis, Aegyptum petiit; Philosophia vitae est dux, virtutis indagatrix, expultrixque vitiorum; quid dicam de thesauro omnium, mer oriâ?
ASINUS AND EQUUS.
Asinus equum beatum praedicabat, qui tam copiose pasceretur, quum sibi post molestissimos labores ne paleae quidem satis praeberetur. Forte autem bello exorto, equus in praelium agitur, et circumventus ab hostibus, post incredibiles Jabores, tandem, multis vulneribus confossus, collabitur. Haec omnia asinus conspicatus, "O me stolidum," inquit, "qui beatitudinem praesentis temporis fortunâ aestimaverim!"
THE HEADS of the conspiracy were PUNISHED WITH DEATH. A difference is to be observed between an epithet and a noun in apposition. The attribute is called an epithet when it consists of an adjective or participle. The attribute is said to be in apposition to the subject when the attribute is a noun. Epithets, whether used as predicates or merely as adjectives, must be in the same gender, number, and case as their nouns, e. g., mons altus, a high mountain; mons est altus, the mountain is high; gramen viride, green grass; gramen est viride, grass is green. Care must be taken to ascertain whether the subject is singular or plural, e. g.,
Placuit, consules circa PORTAS Collinam Esquilinamque ponere
It was resolved that the consuls should pitch the camp around the Colline and Esquiline GATES.
Here you have the epithets Collina and Esquilina in the singular, though the noun portae is in the plural; the reason is, that there were two separate individual gates, the Porta Collina, and the Porta Esquilina. Had the adjectives been common and not proper, and so had the qualities which they represent been shared by the noun gates, then would the epithets have been in the plural, e. g.,
AGRICOLA ET FILII.
Agricola senex quum mortem sibi appropinquare sentiret, filios convocavit, quos, ut fieri solet, interdum discordare noverat, et fascem virgularum afferri jubet. Quibus allatis, filios hortabatur, tribuit singulis singulas virgas, iisque celeriter fractis, docuit ut hune fascem frangerent. Quod quum facere non possent, disillos, quum firma res esset concordia, quamque imbecillis discordia.
MULIER ET ANCILLAE.
"Mulier vidua, quae texendo vitam sustentabat, solebat ancillas suas de nocte excitare ad opus, quum primum galli cantum audivisset. At illae, diuturno labore fatigatae, statuerunt gallum interficere. Quo facto, deteriore conditione quam prius esse coeperunt. Nam domina, de horâ noctis incertâ, nunc famulas saepe jam primâ nocte excitabat.
molestus, a, um, hard, severe; praebeo 2, I afford; confodio 3, I stab, Praedico 1, I declare; pascor, pasci, pastus sum 3, dep. I feed: run through; exorior 4, dep. I arise; fascis, is, m. a bundle; vinga, ae, f. a rod; distribuit singulis singulas virgas, he gave a rod to cach of them.
When placed after a verb. Singular.
moi, me; toi, thee; le, him, it, m; la, her, it, f.;
to her :
When placed after the verb.
leur, to them; (both genders).
nous, us; vous, you;
fà eux, m. à elles, f. J
(4.) Indirect regimen; Genitive and Ablative.
Always placed after the verb.
de nous, of or from us;
de moi, of or from me;
thee; him; her;
(1.) The French, as well as the English, use the second person plural for the second person singular, in addressing one person.
(2.) The second person, however, is used, as in English, in addressing the Supreme Being :Grand Dieu! tes jugements sont Great God! thy judgments are full remplis d'équité. DES BARREAUX, of equity. (3.) It is also used in poetry, diction :
to us; to you; to them.
O mon souverain roi ! Me voici donc tremblante et seule devant toi. RACINE, Esther. (4.) It is used by parents to children, and also among intimate friends.
(5.) The pronoun il is used unipersonally, in the same manner as the English pronoun it :—
il pleut, it rains;
il gèle, it freezes.
(5.) Observe that the personal pronouns of the third person are not used for the indirect regimen to represent inanimate objects. The relative pronouns EN, of or from it [§ 39 (17)], Y, to it [§ 39 (18)], are used instead of the personal pronouns. Thus, in speaking of a house, we do not say, Je lui ajouterai une aile, I will add a wing to it. We must say :J'y ajouterai une aile; I will add a wing to it (thereto). In speaking of an author, we may say :
Que pensez-vous de lui?
What do you think of him?
But in speaking of his book, we should say :
What do you think of it (thereof)? (6.) The word même, plural mêmes, may be used after the pronoun in the sense of self, selves :—
O my sovereign king t Here I am, trembling and alone before thee.
le roi lui-même.
la reine elle-même,
les princes eux-mêmes,
les princesses elles-mêmes,
(7.) The pronouns moi, toi, lui, eux, are often used after the verb, to give greater force to a nominative pronoun of the same person, in those cases where the emphasis is placed on the nominative in English, or where the auxiliary do is used :—
the king himself. the queen herself.
the princes themselves.
the princesses themselves
(9.) The same pronouns are used in exclamations, and in those cases where the English pronouns, I, thou, &c., are followed by the relative pronoun who; also after c'est, c'était, &c.
Votre père et moi, nous avons été longtemps ennemis l'un de l'autre. FENELON. Rica et moi sommes peut-être les premiers. MONTESQUIEU.
I say so, or I do say so.
he says so, or he does say so.
Who arrived this morning? 1.
You write better than he.
Pénélope, sa femme, et moi qui Penelope, his wife, and 1 who am suis son fils, nous avons perdu l'es- his son, have lost the hope of seeing FENELON. him again. pérance de le revoir.
(10.) These same pronouns are also used instead of the nominatives, je, tu, &c., when the verb has several subjects which are all pronouns, or partly nouns and partly pronouns. The verb may then be immediately preceded by a pronoun in the plural, representing in one word all the preceding subjects:
or to give more energy to the and always accompanies a verb :
I yield to him!
They go to London!
(11.) The recapitulating pronoun and the verb sometimes come first in the sentence :
Your father and I were a long time enemies.
Rica and I are, perhaps, the first,
You and I have need of tolerana.
Nous avons, vous et moi, besoin de tolérance. VOLTAIRE
ils se flattent,
(12.) The reflective pronoun se, himself, &c., is used for both genders, and for both numbers; for persons and for things;
Les yeux de l'amitié se trompent The eyes of friendship are selden
deceived (deceive themselves). (13.) The same pronoun has sometimes a reciprocal and sometimes a reflective meaning, according to the context :they flatter themselves. they flatter one another, each other.
(14.) So, himself, itself, &c., is of both genders and numbers, and is applied to persons and things. It is used in general and indeterminate sentences; having commonly an indefinite pronoun for the nominative:
We have often need of one more humble than ourselves.
On a souvent besoin d'un plus petit que soi. LA FONTAINE.
Il dépend toujours de soi d'agir honorablement.
Etre trop mécontent de soi est une faiblesse. MME. DE SABLE.
To be too much displeased with one's self is a weakness.
For additional rules on personal pronouns, see Syntax, § 98, and following.
It is always in our power to act honourably.
§ 34.-POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS.
(1.) The possessive pronouns, which are formed from the personal pronouns, represent, in the radical part, the possessor, while in termination they always agree with the thing possessed. Some relate to one person, some to several.
(2.) POSSESSIVES RELATING TO ONE PERSON.
Masc. Fem. 1. le mien, la mienne,
2. le tien,
(3.) TWO OR MORE PERSONS.
Votre canif et le mien.
Your penknife and mine. Vos frères et les miens.
Your brothers and mine. On voit les maux d'autrui, d'un autre œil que les siens. CORNEILLE Les ministres du roi sentent que leur gloire, comme la sienne, est dans le bonheur national.
BERNARDIN DE ST. PIERRE.
Fem. Masc. and Fem. le nôtre, la nôtre, les nôtres, le vôtre, la vôtre, les vôtres, le leur, la leur, les leurs, § 35.-REMARKS ON THE POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. (1.) It may be seen from the above table that, as before said, the termination of the possessive pronoun agrees in gender and number with the object possessed:
In Asia, there are many vast Lakes, which deserve and have
above the general level of the ocean. The Lake Baikal, in Siberia, is
We see the misfortunes of others the Dead Sea or Lake Asphaltites, in Palestine; and many others
in this vast continent.
The ministers of the king feel that their glory, like his own, is in national happiness.
ours; yours; theirs.
Votre plume et la mienne.
Vos sœurs et les miennes.
Your sisters and mine.
(2.) These pronouns should relate to a noun previously expressed. This rule is often violated in mercantile correspondence:
J'ai reçu la vôtre en dâte du, etc., I received yours dated the, &c., is incorrect. It should read thus:J'ai reçu votre lettre en dâte du, etc., I received your letter dated, &c. (3.) These pronouns may, however, be used absolutely when mean thereby our family, near relatives, or intimate friends :
Cape St. Andrew, in Cyprus, and Cape Beyrout, in Syria. In
Asia contains the most extensive plateau (platform) or table-land
Moi, j'ai les miens, la cour, le peuple à contenter. LA FONTAINE. Malheureux. . . . qui porte chez les siens le glaive et les flambeaux. COLARDEAU. C'est à nous à payer pour les crimes des nôtres. RACINE.
I have my family or friends, the
We must bear the penalty of the
LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.-No. XXI.
MAP OF ASIA. THE Peninsulas of Asia are: Arabia, which lies between the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf; Asia Minor, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean; India, or Hindoostan, between the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal; the Eastern Peninsula, and its branch, the Malayan Peninsula, between that bay and the Chinese Sea; Corea, between the Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan; and Kamchatka, between the Sea of Ochotsk and Behring's Sea. The Isthmus which unites Malaya to the Eastern or Indo-Chinese Peninsula is called the Isthmus of Kraw. The Capes of Asia are: in Asia Minor, Cape Baba, near the ruins of Troy, and Cape Anemur, in Caramania;
The great plains and lowlands of Asia form a balance and counterpart to the mountains and table-lands of that continent. The plain of Siberia in the north extends from the foot of the Uralian mountains, between the shores of the Arctic Ocean and the bottom of the great Altaian range of mountains, to the most eastern extremity of the continent. The plain of Independent Tartary extends from Siberia, on the south-west, to the high table-land of Persia, including the Sea of Aral. The plain of China, which extend◄ 500 miles inland from the East and Yellow Seas, is well waterc and cultivated, and very populous; the plains of Chin-India partake of the same character; and the plain of Hindoostan, which divides the plateaus of Southern India from the Himalayan range of mountains, is the land of rice, sugar, indigo, and cotton. The great Mesopotamian plain of India, the space between the Indus and the Ganges, includes the preceding fertile tract, the great Indian Desert, and the plain of Sinde, which, embracing the lower course of the Indus, is very fertile. The plains of Mesopotamia
(in the middle between the rivers), now called Al-jezirah, and Babylonia, now called Irah-Arabi, include the greater part of the countries watered by the rivers Tigris and Euphrates. The socalled Mesopotamian or northern plain is rather barren; but the southern or Babylonian plain, extending to the Persian Gulf, is naturally much more productive, and formerly supported a much larger population than at present.
In Asia are to be found the loftiest mountains on the surface of the globe, as well as vast plateaus or table-lands of great elevation, and immense plains or deserts destitute of useful vegetation. The following table exhibits a list of the Asiatic mountains, with their elevations and positions.
TABLE OF THE MOUNTAINS OF ASIA,
Elevations in feet
from 15,000 to 20,000
10,000 from 4,000 to 5,000
from 6,000 to 7,000
from 2,500 to 3,000
MR. EDITOR, We submit the following lines to your perusal; at the same time humbly requesting you (if they be worthy of such a distinction) to insert them in a corner of the POPULAR EDUCATOR Yours truly, THE BROTHERHOOD. Near Bradford, Yorkshire, Feb. 21, 1853.
AN INVITATION TO ALL.
Let superstition now take wing,
Through hill and dale the gauntlet fling,-
Let ignorance now kiss the dust,
Nor jealousy to us come nigh;
And every sin of deepest dye-
For "onward" is our battle-ery.
Now learning shall o'erspread the land,
The age of darkness now is past,
For onward" is our battle-cry.
Hark! from the grave, the illustrious dead
We seek for righteousness and truth;
To liberty true knowledge tends,
The time is come, the day doth dawn,
Z. B. H. (amended).
MODE OF STUDYING FRENCH.
DEAR SIR,-I feel it a duty incumbent upon me to acknowledge the benefits and the pleasure which the POPULAR EDUCATOR has conferred upon me. I have taken it weekly from its commencement, for its general subject-matter; but for the last six months 1 have made the French language a subject of study, at ast in so far as the limited time and circumstances of a working man permit,— my occupation being that of a journeyman tailor. I have, according to instructions given in No. 1, POPULAR EDUCATOR, availed myself of the "French Lessons," which have been very useful to me; and now that the second part has begun this week, for which I have been most anxiously waiting, I feel more than ever convinced that some day I shall be enabled to read, if not to speak, the French tongue-thanks to the POPULAR EDUCATOR.
Oros Troados-Olympus) Cyprus
In the preceding list of mountains, it is manifest that the Himalayan range is the highest in this continent; and indeed this range is the highest on the surface of the globe. The mountains, Dhawalagiri in Asia, and Chimborazo in South America, must succumb to the Kunchinjinga, which is now the highest point on the surface of the globe, its elevation being 28,177 feet, or 5 miles, 2 furlongs, 27 rods, 3 yards, and 2 feet above the level of the sea.
I will now state to you the plan upon which I commenced. After reading the earlier numbers of the POPULAR EDUCATOR very often, and treasuring up in my memory the articles, the verbs are and avoir, the nouns in the vocabulary, &c.,-and reading the "French Lessons" over and over again,-I have written down in a copy