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In the preceding sentence, we have called the new planets | remarks of Humboldt in his "Cosmos" upon this subshapeless, because they are not, like most of the other planets; ject: "In the course of the 56 years which have elapsed round or globular, a form which they have acquired from the since the latest discovery (that of the 3rd satellite) the existaction of the law of gravity; but they are of an irregular ence of so many as six satellites has been often, but unduly, figure, such as they might naturally be supposed to have as doubted. Hitherto the satellites of Uranus which have been fragments of a disrupted planet. If the law of Titius, of which seen again are the 1st, 2nd, 4th, and 6th, to which may there can be little doubt, led in any way to these remarkable perhaps be added the 3rd according to Lassell's observations planetary discoveries in one region of the heavens, another of the 6th November, 1848. The 2nd and 4th satellites are those discovery has been made on the confines of the planetary or which have been seen again earliest, most certainly, and most solar system, which tends completely to overthrow it, or, at frequently; in Europe and at the Cape of Good Hope by Sir least, to render its application as great a failure towards the end John Herschell, and subsequently by Lamont at Munich, and The 1st satellite of Uranus was reof the series as at the beginning. We have seen that, accord- Lassell at Liverpool. ing to the general expression for the law in question, the discovered and observed by Lassell from the 14th of September to the 9th of November, 1847, and by Otto Struve, from the 8th of distance of Mercury, instead of being represented by the number 4, ought to have been represented by the number 5·5; and October to the 10th of December, 1847; and the outermost or we know, in fact, that it is most truly represented by the num- 6th satellite by Lamont, on the 1st October, 1837. The 5th ber 3 87, which is the real proportional distance given by all satellite does not appear to have been seen again at all; and astronomers. Now, the discovery of a new planet, not supposed, the 3rd not with sufficient certainty. By a kind communication but actually called Neptune, in September, 1846, considerably from Sir John Herschell, dated 8th November, 1851, I learn that Mr. Lassell observed distinctly on the 24th, 28th, and 30th beyond Uranus, has failed to verify the law of Titius in a very remarkable degree; insomuch that its proportional distance, which, October, and 2nd November, 1851, two satellites of Uranus according to that law, as seen in the above table, ought to be which appear to be still nearer to the planet than the 1st 388, is found only to be 300; and, instead of having the seventh satellite of Sir W. Herschell." power of 2 in the expression for this distance, the number which we should expect to find, it has only a power denoted by the mixed number 63. Whether a planet may yet be found revolving at the supposed proportional distance of 388, in order to confirm the Titian law, can only be decided by the future fact; at present we must remain in doubt; but it would be rash to conclude that, because this law has failed in the case of The Neptune, therefore it has no real foundation in nature. whole series may possibly be included in some greater or more comprehensive series which follows a different law, and which inay yet include that which we believe has led to so many remarkable discoveries in our own times.

The following table, constructed on the additional information obtained from Humboldt's" Cosmos," particularly a table of the "Elements of the 14 [now 16] small planets for their times of opposition in or near the year 1851," will be still more acceptable to many of our readers :-

PLANETS.

Venus...
The Earth
Mars
Flora

Victoria...

In page 61 we have given an approximate representation of
the solar system, which might be supposed to be visible from
the lofty eminence imagined in a former lesson; but from the
necessary smallness of its size, it fails to give so accurate an Mercury...
idea of the actual forms of the orbits as could be wished. It
is well known that these orbits are all oval-shaped or elliptical,
and that they are all inclined to the plane of the ecliptic (the
earth's orbit) at different angles. These circumstances would
occasion the orbits to have different appearances according to
the nature of the inclinations. This cannot be represented in
a bird's-eye view like the present; all that can be seen in such
a representation, is the comparative or proportionate distances
of the planets from the sun; and even in this respect, owing
to the immensity of the distances of Uranus and Neptune, the
representation is not exact. We have endeavoured to make it
very nearly exact as far as concerns all the planets up to
Saturn, but beyond this point, the distance between the orbits
of Saturn and Uranus ought to be nearly equal to the distance
of Saturn's orbit from the Sun; and the distance between the
orbits of Uranus and Neptune ought to be somewhat more
than the distance between those of Saturn and Uranus. The
planets, with their astronomical marks, are of course not
arranged according to any actual configuration of the solar
system, but simply in a line, so that their relative distances
and orbits may be readily recognised. Neither, of course, can
the orbits of their satellites be supposed to be arranged in
scientific order; but only in a popular manner, to convey some
idea of the actual facts of the case. As to the asteroids or
new planets, it was literally impossible to exhibit their orbits
on so small a scale, we have therefore only exhibited a sort of
mean orbit of the whole, such as might be supposed to be that
of our imaginary planet, Pluto.

our
08-

The planet Uranus was considered by its discoverer, Sir William Herschell, to have six satellites; but as only two have been considered as decidedly observed by other astronomers, we have only marked that number on diagram. Sir John Herschell says, in the treatise on tronomy above cited:-"These anomalous peculiarities have hitherto rested on the sole testimony of their discoverer, who alone had ever obtained a view of them. I am happy to se able, from my own observations from 1828 to the present time [1834], to confirm in the amplest manner my father's results." It is but justice to add the

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1834

ADDITIONAL TABLE OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM.

No. of
Satel-
lites.

Vesta
Iris
Metis
Hebe
Fortuna...
Parthenope 4° 37'
Astræa
Egeria

5° 19'
16° 33'
9° 6'
11° 44'
13° 3'

10° 37'
34° 37'

Irene
Eunomia
Juno
Ceres
Pallas
Hygeia
Jupiter
Saturn
Uranus
Neptune...

3° 47'

1° 19′ 23° 18' 86
2° 30′ 22° 39′

0° 46′ 23° 41'

1° 47′ 22° 21'

...

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Inclination of
thir or bits to
the ecliptic.

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Inclination of
their orbits to
the equator.

s to
Inclination of
their orbits.
their axes t

7° 0' 128°

45'

3° 23′ 21° 33'

0-006860-72333

0° 0' 239 25166° 32' 0-01679 1-00000
1° 51' 24° 44'61° 15′ 0 09322 1 52359
5° 53'
0-156792-2018
8° 23'
0-21792 2 3349
7° 8'
0.08892 2:3612
5° 28'
0.23239 2 3855
5° 36'
0.12229 2 3862
14° 47'
0 20186 2 4249
2.4409
2:4483
0 18875 2 5774
008627 2.5825
0:16786 2:5849
0.18840 2 6476
0 255862-6687
0 07647 2 7673
0.239562-7729

0:09789

Period of
Revolution.

1376

Excentricities
of their orbits
in parts of their
mean distance.

days. hr. min.

18 28

13 14
3 43

16

0-20562 0-38709

Mean distance from the Sun,

the Earth being

unity.

We shall now close this astronomical information, which has extended to a greater length than we intended, by inserting some particulars relating to the satellites of Jupiter, taken from the same source as above-mentioned :

0-10092 3·1514 54 0-04816 5.20277

SATELLITES OF JUPITER.

1516 1518. 1574. 1592.

1681
1687.
2043.
4332-58480
10759-21981

0-05615 9 53885
0-04661 19-18239 30686-82051
0-00372 30 03628 60126 7

Distances from
Jupiter in his
semidiameters.

6.049

9 623 15:350 26.998

Sidereal periods of revolution.

Days.

Diameters in geograph. miles.

87.98928 221 70078 365 25637 686.97964 1193. 1303' 1325 1346' 13461379.

1393.

2116
1900

3104

2656

1399. 1511:

Masses compared with Jupiter.

0.000017328

0 000023236 0:000088497 0.000042609

eux.

LESSONS IN FRENCH.-No. XXX. asked him many questions. 11. Have you asked him if he

had studied his lesson? 12. I did not ask him. 13. Will not By Professor Louis FAEQUELLE, LL.D.

that little girl do her best to learn her lesson? 14. She will SECTION LXIII.

do her best to learn it. 15. Qf what food do you make use 1. Faire connaissance, to become or get acquainted, takes the when you are sick ? 16. We make use of bread and rice. 17. preposition avec before its object.

Have you forgotten to bid farewell to your mother? 18. I had Faire un mille, faire

not forgotten it; I intended to go to her house this afternoon, un voyage, faire un tour de promenade, mean to go, or travel a

19. With whom have you become acquainted ? 20. With the mile, to go on a journey, to take a walk :

bookseller. 21. Do you not keep hose ladies waiting? 22. Nous avons fait vingt milles à che- We travelled twenty miles on horse. I do not keep them waiting, they are not ready (prétes). 23. val.

back,

Do I make you wait? 24. You do not make me wait. 2. Faire ses adieux, faire des emplettes, faire des progrès, 25. Have you left your children in your room? 26. I have fuire des questions, faire du feu, correspond in signification to not done so (le). 27. Have you sent them out? 28. I have the English expressions, to bid farewell, to make purchases, to not sent them out, I have lei them remain where they were. improve or to ask questions, to make a fire :

29. Have you made purchases this morning? 30. I have J'ai fait mes adieux à mes parents. I bid farewell to my relations.

made none,
I have no money.

31. Has the servant made a Avez-vous fait du feu dans ma Have you made a fire in my room! fire in my room? 32. He has made one. 33. Will you do chambre ?

your best to come to-morrow? 34. will do my best to come 3. Faire sortir means, to send out, or to order out ; faire entrer, early. 35. We travelled yesterday forty leagues in sixteen 10 let in, to bid come in ; faire attendre, to keep waiting :

hours. Vous les avez fait entrer dans ma You made them come into my room.

Section LXIV. chambre.

1. l'aire is also used in the sense of playing the part of, or Vous avez fait attendre mon père. You made my father wait. 4. Faire son possible, to do one's best, takes the preposition

pretending to be :-
Il fait le grand seigneur.

He plays the great lord.
pour. Faire semblant, to pretend, faire usage, to make use, are
followed by de :-

2. Faire also means to matter, to concern, to help :We have done our best.

Cela ne fait rien.
Nous avons fait notre possible.

That is no matter.
Cela ne vous fait rien.

That is nothing to you, does not con-
RÉSUMÉ OP Examples.

cern you.

Qu'est-ce-que cela nous fait ? What is that to us! Nous avons fait connaissance avec We became acquainted with them. Je ne puis qu'y faire.

I cannot help it. Vous avez fait vingt lieues en dix You travelled twenty miles in ten self. Se faire is used reflectively in the sense of the English

3. Se faire mal conjugated reflectively, means to hurt one's heures.

hours. Nous ferons un tour de promenade. We shall take a wall.

verbs, to become, to turn. It is, also, used with the significa. Je lui ai fait plusieurs questions. I asked him several qilesiionis,

tion of the words cause, have, gel, &c. Se faire takes être as its Ils nous ont fait leurs adieux. They have bid us farewell.

auxiliary [§ 46, Sect. 44] :Vous nous avez fait attendre. You have made us wait

Je me suis fait médecin.

I have become a physician.
Cet enfant fait semblant de dormir. That child pretends to be asleep. Je me suis fait faire une paire de I have had a pair of boots made for
Vous faites semblant de lire. You pretend to be reading, or do as bottes.

it you were reading.
Je me suis fait raser.

I have had my beard shaved, Nous ferons notre possible pour le We will do our best to see him. Nous nous sommes fait couper les We have luad our hair cut. voir.

cheveux EXERCISE 125.

Je me suis fait mal au doigt. I have hurt my finger.

4. Besides the instances mentioned (Sect. 32, R. 5), faire is Aise, glad.

Se fâch-er, 1. ref, to be. Négociant, m. merchant. Aliment, m. food.

used unipersonally in many idiomatic expressions :come angry.

Quart, m. quarter. Crédit, m. creuit. Faire l'aumône, to give Rarement, seldom.

Il fait jour, fait nuit.

It is daylight, it is night. Demand-er, 1. to ask. alms.

Réuss-ir, 2. to succeed. Il fait de la boue, il fait de la It is muddy, it is dusły. Dorm-ir, 2. ir. to sleep. Laiss-er, 1. to leave, let. Riz, m. rice.

poussière. Etude, f. study. Mendiant, m. beggar.

Il fait clair de lune, il fait obscur. It is moonlight, it is dark.

Il fait bon ici, il fait cher ici. It is comfortable here, it is dear kere. 1. Seriez-vous bien aise de faire connaissance avec ce mon. sieur? 2. J'en serais bien aise, 3. Ce cheval fait-il une lieue

Résumé of ExamPLES. et un quart d'heure ? 4. Il a fait ce matin une lieue en douze minutes. 5. Leur avez-vous fait des questions? 6. Je leur Ce jeune homme fait le savant. That young man plays the learned en ai fait.* 7. Quelles questions leur avez-vous faites ? 8. Je

That is nothing to me. leur ai demandé s'ils avaient fait des emplettes ? 9. Vos élèves Cela ne me fait rien. font-ils des progrès dans leurs études? 10. Ils n'en font pas Non frère s'est fait orfèvre.

Que pouvons-nous y faire ?

What can we do to it! beaucoup, ils viennent rarement à l'école. 11. Si vous étiez

My brother has turned goldsmith.

Pourquoi vous faites-vous raser ? Why do you get shaved ? chez vous, feriez-vous semblant de dormir? 12. Je ne ferais Je me ferai couper les cheveux. I will have my hair cut. certainement pas semblant de dormir. 13. Pourquoi ne faites. Je me suis fait bâtir une maison. I have had a house built for me. vous pas entrer ce mendiant? 14. Ma mère vient de lui faire Nous nous sommes fait mal à la We have hurt Oir heads. l'aumône. 15. Le négociant fait-il usage de son crédit. 16.

tête. Il en fait usage. 17. De quels aliments ce malade fait-il usage : Il commence à se faire tard. It is beginning to grow late. 18. Il fait usage de riz et de bouillon. 19. Faites-vous votre Fait-il cher vivre à Paris ? Is it dear living in Paris ! possible pour réussir ? 20. Je fais tout mon possible. 21. Il fait beaucoup de boue. | It is very muddy. Avez-vous fait entrer ces enfants, ou les avez-vous fait sortir ?

EXERCISE 127. 22. Je les ai laissés où ils étaient. 23. Vous avons-nous fait absolument, absolutely. Etudiant, m. student, Peinire, m painter. attendre ? 24. Vous nous avez fait attendre plusieurs heures.

Artisan, m. mechanic. Fou, folle, fool, simple. Fersonne, m. nobody. 25. Si vous faisiez attendre ces dames, elles se fâcheraient.

Bijoutier, m. jeweller.

Tanneur, m, taliner. EXERCISE 126.

Bon marché, cheap. Impertinent, e, imper. Vigneron, m. vine-dres1. Does that child pretend to read ? 2. He pretends to read. Denrées, f. p. provisions. Ouvrier, m. workman. Vitrier, m. glazier.

Chagriné, e, vezed. tinent, 3. Does not that atleman pretend to sleep?4. He does not

1. Pourquoi cet ouvrier fait-il le malade ? 2. Il fait le pretend to sleep, he sleeps really (réellement). 5. Will you take a walk this morning 6. I would do so with pleasure, if malade parcequ'il n'a pas envie de travailler. 3. Cet étudiant I had time. _7. Have you become acquainted with the phy

ne fait-il pas le savant? 4. Il ne fait pas le savant, il fait le sician: 8. I have not yet become acquainted with him. 9. fou. 5. Sied-il à ce jeune homme de faire le maître ici? 6. How many questions have you asked (a) the child: 10. I Il ne sied à personne de faire l'impertinent. 7. Cela fait-il

quelque chose ? [R. 2.) 8. Cela ne fait absolument rien, 9. See Sect. 41, 11, and 135 (7).

Cela peut-il faire quelque chose à ces vignerons ? 10. Cela ne

me.

man.

ton.

ser'.

leur fait rien du tout. 11. N'êtes-vous pas bien chagrinés de cela? 12. Nous en sommes bien fâchés, mais nous ne pouvons qu'y faire. 13. Votre associé ne s'est-il pas fait bijoutier ? 14. Non, Monsieur, il s'est fait peintre. 15. Cet artisan ne s'est-il pas fait vitrier 16. Il s'est fait tanneur, et son frère s'est fait soldat. 17. La modiste ne s'est-elle pas fait couper les cheveux? 18. Elle se les est fait couper. 19. Ne vous levez-vous pas aussitôt qu'il fait jour? 20. Oui, Monsieur, je me lève de très bonne heure. 21. Ne fait-il pas clair de lune? 22. Il fait très clair, mais il ne fait pas clair de lune. 23. Fait-il bon vivre en Amérique? 24. Il fait très bon vivre en Amérique, les denrées y sont à bon marché.

EXERCISE 128.

1. Does not that gentleman play the learned man? 2. He plays the lord and fool at the same time (à la fois). 3. Does not that boy pretend to be sick? 4. He pretends to be sick, he does not wish to study his lessons. 5. When you have no wish to work do you pretend to be sick? 6. I never pretend to be sick. 7. Is it muddy to-day? 8. It is not muddy, it is dusty. 9. Will it be moonlight this evening? 10. It will not be moonlight, it will be very dark. 11. Is it comfortable here? 12. It is very comfortable. 13. Is it too warm or too cold? 14. It is neither too warm nor too cold here. 15. Will you have your hair cut? 16. I had my hair cut yesterday morning. 17. Will you not go home, it is beginning to grow late? 18. Is it not very dark out? (dehors.) 19. It is not dark, it is moonlight. 20. Has not the glazier turned goldsmith? 21. He has not turned goldsmith, he has turned soldier. 22. Does that concern your brother? 23. That does not concern him. 24. Are you not sorry for that? 25. I am sorry for it, but I cannot help it. 26. Why do you get shaved? 27. Because I cannot shave myself. 28. Have you not hurt those children? 29. I have not hurt them. 30. Have you hurt your arm? 31. No, Sir, but I have hurt my head. 32. Has not your sister hurt her hand? 33. She has hurt her hand, and my mother has hurt her elbow. 34. Have you not hurt your head? 35. I have not hurt my head, but I have hurt my hand.

SECTION LXV.

1. Avoir mal means to have a pain or ache, a sore. When used in relation to one of the limbs, it means generally, to have a sore, a bruise, a cut, &c. The name of the part of the body is preceded by the preposition à and the article [See Sect. 62, R. 5, § 77 (9)]:

N'avez-vous pas mal au doigt?
Je n'ai pas mal à la tête.

2. Avoir une douleur, or des English to have a pain or pains :— J'ai une douleur au bras.

I have a pain in my arm. 3. The construction mentioned in Rule 1 is used after avoir, taken in the sense of tenir, to hold, and after avoir froid and avoir chaud [Sect. 62, R. 5] :Vous avez les armes à la main. J'ai chaud aux mains et aux pieds.

Have you not a sore finger?
My head does not ache.

EXERCISE 130.

1. What is the matter with your hand? 2. I have had a sore hand these ten days. 3. Has your brother sore fingers? 4. He has sore fingers and a sore hand. 5. What has your brother in his hand? 6. He has a pen in his hand. 7. Has your little boy a sore throat? 8. He has a sore throat. 9. Has not your eldest sister the toothache? 10. She has not the toothache, but she has a sore finger. 11. Why does not the soldier walk? 12. He cannot walk, he has a sore foot. 13. Have you not sore feet? 14. My feet are not sore. 15. If your finger were sore would you write? 16. If I had sore fingers I should not write. 17. If your brother had the headache would he study his lesson? 18. He could not study his lesson if he had the headache. 19. Has not that gentleman douleurs, corresponds to the pains in his chest? 20. He has pains in his chest and in his side. 21. Has your little girl black eyes or blue eyes? 22. She has black eyes and a fresh complexion. 23. Has not your daughter the toothache? 24. She has the toothache and the ear-ache. 25. Are not your hands and feet cold? 26. My hands are cold, but my feet are warm. 27. Have not those ladies aquiline noses? 28. They have aquiline noses and a fair complexion (le teint beau). 29. Has your sister large not those little girls hurt their heads? 32. They have not hands? 30. No, Sir, my sister has small hands. 31. Have hurt their heads, they have hurt their faces. 33. That little boy has black hair (cheveux).

[blocks in formation]

1. Ce jeune homme a-t-il mal à la gorge? 2. Oui, Monsieur, il y a deux jours qu'il a le mal de gorge. 3. Avez-vous souvent mal à la tête? 4. J'ai le mal de tête presque tous les jours. 5. N'avez-vous pas mal au bras? 6. J'ai mal au bras et à la main. 7. Votre sœur a-t-elle le mal d'oreille. 8. Qui, Madame, elle a le mal d'oreille et le mal de dents. 9. N'avezvous pas froid à la tête. 10. Non, Monsieur, mais j'ai froid aux doigts. 11. N'avez-vous point froid au visage? 12 Non, Monsieur, je n'y ai point froid. 13. Ce monsieur a-t-il le nez aquilin? 14. Il a le nez aquilin et la bouche_grande. 15. Cette demoiselle a-t-elle e belles dents? 16. Elle a de belles dents et de beaux yeux. 17. Ce petit garçon a-t-il les pieds petits? 18. Il a les pieds petits et les mains grandes. 19. Votre nièce n'a-t-elle pas les yeux bleus? 20. Non, Monsieur, elle a les yeux noirs. 21. Vos écoliers se sont-ils fait mal au visage? 22. Ils se sont fait mal à la poitrine. 23. Vos filles ont-elles une bonne mémoire? 24. Elles ont la mémoire excellente. 25. Ces Italiennes n'ont pas le teint frais.

Cette dame a l'esprit juste.
Votre sœur a les yeux noirs.

You have your arms in your hands.
My hands and feet are warm.

4. The article le, &c., is used before words indicating moral and physical properties, in cases where the English use a or an, or omit the article. When, however, an adjective precedes the noun, un, une, or de, des, are at times used:

N'avez-vous pas mal au pied?
Cette demoiselle a le mal de tête.
N'avez-vous pas mal aux dents ?
Mon frère a le mal de dents.
Mon cousin a mal au côté.
Il a des douleurs de poitrine.

Qu'avez-vous à la main?

That lady has a correct mind.
Your sister has black eyes.

5. A moral or physical property, which, in the individual is single, is not put in the plural in French, though the reference be to a number of individuals:

Ces dames ont l'esprit juste.

Those ladies have correct minds. Ces garçons se sont fait mal à la tête. Those boys have hurt their heads.

RESUME OF EXAMPLES.

Have you not a sore foot!
That young lady has the headache,
Do not your teeth ache?
My brother has the toothache.
My cousin has a pain in his side.
He has pains in his chest.
(What have you in your hand 1

What is the matter with
handi

your

LESSONS IN GEOLOGY.-No. XVII.
By THOMAS W. JENKYN, D.D., F.G.S., &c.

CHAPTER II.

ON THE ACTION OF WATER ON THE EARTH'S CRUST.
SECTION I.

ON THE ACTION OF RAIN UPON rocks.

In the whole course of our preceding lessons, we have assumed that the first form of our earth's crust was that of an incandescent globe in the process of cooling, and represented to you by the ashy covering of a cooling cinder. In these circumstances of starting into existence as a planet, there could have been no water, and consequently no sea, and no rain.

The origin of rain is a subject that belongs rather to Chemistry than to Geology. One of the demonstrations of modern

Fig. 38.

water

at

chemistry is, that water is produced by the combination of them away, either by dissolving then chemically, or by carrydifierent gazes, which can be proved to have been co-existent ing away mechanically the loosened portions, and depositing with the origin of the earth.

them in another place. This demonstration of chemistry does not in the least ex- The outer lines of our first diagram in page 197, are intended clude the agency of the Almighty Creator as the Intelligent to represent that the first crust of the earth was not quite round Maker of all things. These powerful gases may be literally and even, but broken, dented, and rugged. Its whole circumone class of “the things which do not appear,” but by the ference is diversified with hollows und elevations, depressions, combination of which, “the things which are seen were swellings, and peaks. Suppose any dent or depression in fig. framed by the word of God. No reasoning can prove more 1 on that page, to designate some hollow of many miles in ex. triumphantly than those of the inductive sciences, that these tent, sufficient to form the bed of an inland sea, or it might be gases did not originate themselves, endow themselves with what is called the “basin" of a large river, into which streams given tendencies, or fix laws for their own energies. They and torrents are flowing from all sides. had a Maker, and their Maker is God. It is He that called After having referred yourself to that figure, innagine that them into existence. It is He that gave them their separate the annexed diagram, fig. 38, represents any one of the deenergies and adaptations. It is He that endowed them with pressions which were originally formed in the crust at the time fixed laws for their respective combinations. Their elementary of the earth's first cooling. As the rain would wear away, properties came from His creative power, and the laws of their or, speaking geologically, would disintegrate the upper parts or combinations have been ordained by His legislative will. edges of the hollows, the water would run downwards to the

The revelations of natural philosophy teach us that the bottom, and there settle, and when in a state of rest it would various elements of the universe are found in combinations deposit the loosened materials or detritus which it had discalled compound bodies; and the investigations of natural lodged from the higher portions of the rock. This detritus theology prove that, when the properties of these compounds would necessarily consist of pebbles, gravel, sand, and mud or are compared with the elements employed in composing them, silt. the object of the Great Designer contemplated, at their origin, Every fresh shower would effect a fresh disintegration of the rather the properties of the compounds, than the properties of rock, and would also produce fresh currents and streams that the separate elemenis theinselves. The sinple elements were would carry away more pebbles, sand, and silt, and deposit created not for their own sakes, but for the sake of the com- them in a fresh layer or bed over the surface of the first. Upon pound bodies which their combination would produce. This every repetition of shower and foods two results would take argument might be illustrated by the properties of hydrogen in place; first, the lake or inland sea would, by the accession and water, were this the place and time to enter upon it. The rise of its unexhaled waters, become deeper and deper; and geologist, as such, assumes the existence of water without l secondly, with every fresh deposit of detritus, the bottom troubling himself to ac

would come up higher count for its origin, or

and higher, and the to introduce it as a

shallower and proof of design.

shallower, until, It is well known that

last, the upper layer of water exists in the dit

the detritus would beferent forins of a solid,

come visible as dry a liquid, and a vapour.

land. You at once see It is probable that the

that as these layers or first or primordial ap

beds rise in thickuese, pearance of water upon The Results of Rain-floods on a Depression in the Earth's Crust.

they would elevate the the cooling surface of

waters of the lake or ir. the earth's crust was in the form of vipour, which, with the land sea in the depression, and eventually drive the water off decrease of temperature, condensed at last into rain. Try to to seek its level in other hollows, until finally sea would form for yourself distinct and well-defined conceptions of the join sea and form the ocean. facts of this case, for otherwise you will always be hesitating It is evident that all the loosened materials, disintegrated by and doubting in your future lessons. Imagine that from some the different showers and borne away into the hollows by cause, which Geologists do not profess to understand, the heat the different floods, will be deposited in layers one on the surof our iynited and burning globe began to decrease, and that face of another. The materials thus loosened and worn down a portion of this heat so radiated into space as to allow a crust by the water have, in geology, different names, according to the to form upon its surface, just as you now see crust forming over size of the ingredients of the derritus. Fragments of the molten metal or glass as the fused materials cool down. larger size are called pebbles, the next gravel, the next sand, Imagine again that this cooling process continues, it may be and the smallest mud or silt. for thousands or myriads of years, until at last the surface of If you have ever observed the materials of the bed of a river the earth grew so cool that the watery elements, which during from its source to its entrance into the sea, you will remember its igi.ited and fused state must have floated along with many the facts which have been just stated. When you have been ether volatile constituents in the atmosphere around it, con- on the sumirit of some rocky mountain, you bare seen a well of densed into vapour, and then into drops. This water would water springing up amid its rugged crags. is the immediate be deposited on the surface of the earth in the forms of lakes, neighbourhood, there is not a single rounded stone or pebble to beas, and oceans. After a time portions of this water would be found any where. All the stones are rough and angular, be taken up by evaporation, descend again in the form of rain, for as yet the water has had no opportunity to roll any of the which in its turn would produce streams, torrents, and rivers. looser stones in its bed. As you descend lower into the This outline of the ignited and cooling conditions of the globe glen or ravine, you find that the stones have been rubbed and must be accepted in order to arrive at any consistent explana. partly rounded, by the friction of the water, and by being rolled tion of the present state of the earth, as evidenced by the against each other. When you come to the great valley, the structure of its rocks, and by the fossils, which are monuments valley where all the rivulets form one stream, there you find, of its ancient history.

first large rounded stones, which might almost be called boul. I must now refer you to the latter part of our second lesson, ders ; lower down you have large pebbles ; lower still, gravel; especially to the paragraphs on page 198. I there showed that until, as you approach the sea, the bed of the river is were when the process of cooling commenced on the earth's surface, sand or mud, totally destitute of gravel or pebbles. there was not as yet any water. It was next remarked that, As you recollect these facts you must try to account for them. as soon as it was practicable, according to the laws fixed by We know that the power of water to carry heavy bodies is very the Intelligent Maker, for the gaseous elements of water to com. great and extraordinary, or rather we know that bodies lose bine and to form that liquid, water began inmediately to act much of their weight or gravity when they are suspended or destructively upon the outward surface of the earth's crust. borne in water. We also know that the force of currents can

As soon as water came into contact with the surface-rocks, not carry boulders as far as it can carry pebbles, or carry gravel the entire tendency of its action upon them would be to wear as far as sand or mud. You are now to apply these statements and your own recollections of what you have seen in the bed | upon the removal of their support, fall down in confused fragof a river, to the phenomena which are likely to occur under ments. the action of rain or torrents in our supposed hollow of the Some of the effects of aqueous agency deserve to be classed earth's crust, as represented in fig. 38.

among the grandest phenomena on the glube. They are vast Let A u be one of the depressions found in the crust of the and magnificent in the deep and beautiful excavations which, earth as represented in fig. 1, page 197, vol. I. Imagine several amid lofty rocks and sloping hills, form many of our valleye. repetitions of showers with floods to take place at different But its most stupendous operations are indicated by the de. periods, and the water to affect mechanically the surface rock nudation, which it has accomplished in sweeping away enormous at both the points a B. The water, in running down each side masses of rocks and strata which, for hundreds of square miles, of the declivity, would bear away the larger or finer materials once covered many of our present plains and mountains. to different distances, according to the velocity of the current. These marvellous phenomena are not only calculated to awaken The stream would leave the heavier materials early on in its your interest in Geology, but they will also increase it and enown side of the curve, carry the pebbles and gravel towards the noble it, by giving expansion to your mind, loftiness to your bottom of the hollow, and bear ibe sand and silt to some dis- philosophy, and depth to your adoration of the God that tance on the opposite side.

worketh all things. At the first period, a heavy shower falling on the point B would carry down loose stone and pebbles but a short distance, the sand farther, and the silt farther still, say as far as m. At

LESSONS IN PENMANSHIP.-No. III. the second period, a similar shower and flood from the point a would produce similar results, and form a layer that would In our last lesson we were obliged to postpone the description cover a part of the first bed of detritus, say as far as the point of the following capital letters of the writing alphabet. above y. At a third period, another rain season produced a

The letter W is like the letter M inverted; or rather it flood from B, which carried down more detritus and formed a consists of two tapering black-strokes, joined by a hair-stroke, third layer. At a fourth period, like showers and torrents from and commencing and ending with peculiarly curved hairA would repeat the preceding phenomena. Each repetition of strokes; originally the letter W was just like two V's put torain and flood would produce fresh disintegration, and form gether, and frequently this letter is still made like the latter new layers of pebbles, gravel, sand, and silt.

half of the letter W. The letter X is formed very like the printed Let us suppose that in the progress of centuries or ages, X, only that it begins and ends with a scroll. The letter Y is like the lake A B would, by some means, become dry, and that a the letter U with the second black-stroke drawn below the line section of the beds were made. It is evident that a rock, or and terminated in a hair-stroke loop. The letter 2 is like the what is geologically called, a formation, of a very complex cha- same letter in the small alphabet, but it begins and ends with racter would appear. There would be pebbles, gravel, sand, a scroll; sometimes the latter scroll is formed into a loop and silt. Different portions of such beds are called by dif- below the line. ferent names, according as they have been cemented or hardened Thus we have described the formation of both the alphabeis together. The bed of cemented pebbles is called a conglo- in Penmanship; considerable varieties, however, exist in pracmerate ; that of gravel and sand, free sandstone; that of mud tice; these can only be learned by experience. The two pages or silt, laminated shale, or slaty clay.

in our last number exhibited writing lessons in round hand or As this lesson is intended to be chiefly an introduction to the text, in smaller hand or half-text, and in the smallest or running doctrines of Geology concerning the action of water, I have hand, used in business, called the court hand. The words of thought it right, to help you, to begin at the beginning. I have these lessons were as follows :—Text: Alexandria; Birmingalready endeavoured to explain to you the action of fire in the hom; Cumberland ; and Darlington. Half-lexii Amendment of formation of the earth's crust; I shall now proceed to a class manners is commendable ; Benevolence is an amiable endore ment; of lessons which will make you acquainted with the intiuence Contentment is better than a kingdom; Decency is respected and of water, as developed in the disintegration of early rocks on the commended. Court hand: A man's manners most commonly make earth's crust, and in the construction of sedimentary strata. his fortune ; Be constantly in some commendable employment; Com

The influence of water upon rocks is inanifested in three mendation most commonly encourages the ingenious ; Diligence most different ways. First, it decomposes their substances chemi-commonly overcomes all difficulties. cally, and dissolves their combined elements, as is seen in the The middle pages of this number exhibit an equal number of action of tea upon a lump of sugar. Secondly, it loosens the writing lessons in the three different hands, of which the words particles of which they are formed, by getting between the are as follows:- Text: Easingwold, Formentera, Guadaloupe, and grains or ingredients which compose them, by forcing them Huntingdon. Half-text: Encourage all honest and virtuous actions; asunder, and thus destroying their cohesion or their power to Fame commonly accompanies merit ; Goodness most commonly transstick together, as is instanced in the action of water upon cends beauty; Humility most conmonly leads to honour. Court hand: slaked lime, or rather on a ball of sand. Thirdly, it acts me- Encouragement most commonly animates the mind ; Fear is comchanically upon them, by removing their loosened fragments monly the companion of guilty actions ; Goodness and mercy art from one place to another, rolling and rubbing them against the attributes of the Divinity ; Humanity and magnanimity are each er, giving them a shape different from their original noble endowments. We strongly recommend learners to write form, and depositing them at å lower level, as may be seen in the copies or words of the round-hand or text alphabet first, the effect of rain in leaving mud in the roads and streets. say three or four times over, till they are well acquainted with

Even when water is in the form of atmospheric vapour, and the shapes of the letters, and can make them with great ease; before it has condensed into liquid rain, it has a powerful in- they may then proceed to the copies of the half-text alphabet, Huence upon rocks. It has a power to make its way, as you and write them as often; and lastly, to the copies of the court have seen, into the smallest interstices or cleavages between or running-hand, and write them most frequently of all, as this i the minutest particles. Its destructive action is made most the hand in which all letters and manuscripts should be written manifest in the disintegration of exposed rocks and of high Those of our students who wish us to give them advice as is peaks, amid whose materials a great quantity of moisture what hand or style of writing we would recommend, have at last penetrates, decomposes the particles, and severs even granite. got it embodied in the court-hand copies ; this is the plain and

The mechanical influence of water is very diversified. It easy style which we admire, and which we consider as far beaffects some rocks by the mere force of its weight and pressure. fore the wiry angular system in common use. The grand It disintegrates others by friction over an exposed surfac as object of all good penmanship should be to write so as to easily in rivers. It destroys some by its velocity or acquired mo. be read; and whenever any style of writing loses this character, mentum, as is instanced in what are called waves of translation it loses half its value. seen in a sudden river flood, in tidal action, and in the power- With regard to the copies given to the learner in these difful currents found in the sea. In some cases it wears away ferent lands, nothing could be expected in the text but a rocks by falling upon them from a height, as in waterfalls and single word ; this is always geographical; in the half-text and eataracts. In other instances, it destroys a whole formation of court-hand, an attempt is made, as usual, to convey moral lesrocks by undermining them. This it does by eating away sons; and the qualifying terms commonly and most commonly, Some soft bed which supports the overhanging strata ; which, are only introduced to make the line the proper length.

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