« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
they write, and they are followed by all who wish to speak and write that language correctly. Now you are to suppose that I have studied our English classics, and have hence ascertained how I ought to speak and write. In that study I have been preceded by others. Their conclusions afford me aid. Under that aid I have formed a system of rules, and that system of rules is called “English Grammar." English Grammar, then, you see, is a science. Science, you know, means knowledge; it is knowledge, the materials of which are systematically arranged; arranged, that is, into a system, arranged in a set order, and with a view to a certain purpose or result; and English Grammar consists of a continued set of rules derived from the practice of well-educated Englishmen, so arranged as to form a complete whole, and communicate useful information to the learner.”—“Well, I understand that; but in our house every body says “they does,’ and you told me yesterday that was wrong.” —“It is wrong; remember I said that we are guided by the practice of educated Englishmen, and educated Englishmen say “they do.”—“But what does the word Grammar signify 2 I thought a Grammar was a book; you say it is a science.”—“It is both. Grammar is a word of Greek origin. It comes from gramma, which denotes a letter, a letter of the alphabet. Hence Grammar is the the science of letters—letters, that is, employed to express ideas. Listen, letters represent sounds, and form syllables and words; words represent sounds, and the sounds they represent, represent or stand for thoughts or ideas; while those thoughts or states of mind represent things, objects in the inner world or in the outer world. This statement will require thought. Do not trouble yourself too much about it now, you will understand it by and bye. But observe that Grammar is the science by which you learn to express your ideas correctly, that is, according to the usages of the best authors. And a book in which these usages are set forth as rules is also called a Grammar. Every language has rules peculiar to itself. Hence we have “French Grammar,” “Greek Grammar,” as well as ‘English Grammar.”
ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS.
J. GUTHRIE, sen. (Kelso): We admit that the mutability of matter is not its annihilation, but we cannot admit that its non-annihilation is any proof of its eristence from eternity. God having once called matter into being, may change it from time to time as it pleases, Him, and even endow it with eternal eristence after its creation; but this is certainly no proof of its preexistence from eternity; and this is all we contend for. If matter be changeable or mutable, there must be an immutable or unchangeable being who made it so; and if it be rendered immutable or unchangeable, it can only be according to the will of HIM, who willeth all things, and they are done. It is a glorious statement of His, “I give unto my sheep eternal life, and they shall never perish, neither shall any one pluck them out of my hand. * * * I and the Father are one.” As to the reference to Psalm ixxviii., verse 69, it is not in point, because it denies the pre-eternity of matter by the assertion that “the earth. He [that is, God] has established for ever.” Neither does this sentence assert the post eternity of matter in the original Hebrew; for the phrase Le Olam translated for ever, signifies only for THE HIDDEN PER10p, for the time unknown, that is, for the time ło: only to God. Otherwise, the following scripture would be contradictory; but with the true translation of the phrase, it is in perfect harmony: “But the day of the Lord shall come as a thief in the night; in which the heavens, "that i. the lower heavens, or atmosphere] shall pass away with a great uoise, and the elements shall melt with fervent heat, the earth also and the works therein shall be burnt up,” 2 Peter iii. 10.
JAs. CHARLETox (Birmingham): We understand that the system of shorthand used by reporters of the daily press, is not Pitman's, but a modification of Taylor's or Gurney's. A gentleman belonging to this staff in the Metropolis, would oblige ourselves very much by informing us more precisely on this point.-W.M. Jones (Liverpool): We shall explain all about gravity, and specific gravity, when we come to Natural Philosophy; as to the nature of decimals, and units, and zeros, he should consult cas. sell's Arithmetic.—DEux JEUNEs Hoximes (Hollinwood): If e be final in hotesse, and consequently not pronounced, how can s be final too? Thes must be pronounced because it is not final. What meandering is this? eau is a triphthong, and is pronounced o in French.-W. Jackson (Manshester); His answer is too long—J. Russell (Kingscavil): His solution is correct. The final e is pronounced.—W. G. (Tokenhosue-yard) should study Dr. Beard's Lessons in English first, or along with one of the other languages.-P. E. E. (Ely): We do not know.—Bowsorham (Sutton-inAshfield); Tardy's Improved.—G. W. (Holme-lane) proposes to ask Tentamus first, by what power can an irresistible body be set in motion? He is wrong on the snail, and on the eternity of matter; let him read our answer to J. Guthrie, sen.-WILLIAM TAPEcs (Bradbury): We shall keep Lessons in Agriculture in view.-W. S. (Cheltenham): We have said Spiers long ago; we use Boniface and find it very good; we do not recollect the price.-: S. R. B. (Halsted): There are kessons in Grammar every week, the best that, could be got, and they are entitled Lessons in English.-LAMARTINE (Rotherithe): We do not know the best; but there are some teachers of French in London, who use the P. E. as a tert-book; if they will send their addresses we will insert them.—Guliel Mus: When you” wonder whose plan it is," you “wish to know tae person whose plan it is;" the antece‘lent to whose, therefore, is person, understood though not expressed.—A. RiuManu (Crowhurst): Correct.—J. W. D. (Lambeth): Thanks.-Celsus: The same result would happen.—UN IRLANDois will find what he wants in Casseli's "Mannal of the French language,” price 2s., and in books such
* “Graham's English Composition;" his letter is wel, written.—Classer Foun (London): Answers to query 1, no; 2, Herodotus, ii.3 p.c.; 3, in Paris; 4, we cannot find the words referred to; 5, the sentence is right. W:Muarity: As weintend to give some Lessons on the Physiology of Food, he will learn our opinion as to the diet best adapted to our variable climate. In the meantime he cannot do better than keep to mixed diet.-E. A. M. will be satissed with the above intimation, since he has thus the prospect of obtaining all the information he now desiderates.—Cathcart: to our friend who writes from that locality we beg to say that we hope to follow up the Lessons on the Physiology of Food with a series of paperson those form of disease to which we are liable, and their mode of treatment.-x.x:-We recommend him not to trifle with Hernia. He should beware of extreme exertion-be careful in attending to the state of the bowels, and should by all means wear a rauss. There is a society in London which supplies this useful article either gratuitously or at a very reduced price. By no means should he fail to consult an experienced s n. We presume he could get the article above-mentioned on similar terms at the Glasgow Royal Infirmary, -Apoloscans: There can be no doubt that if an Albino marry an Albiness, though both of European extraction, their children, according to all the known laws of physical generation, will, more or less, resemble themselvo; in the peculiar and distinctive characteristics. Even if the female shoul? belong to another species, since the share in the reproductive function, which belongs to the male, assentially consists in the formation and liber. tion of the reproductive particles, the offspring are more likely to take o . the paternal likeness. For example: let a Jew marry a woman who by birth is removed to the greatest possible distance from Jewish connexion, and you will find that their children strikingly exhibit all the characteristics of the Hebrew nation... If our correspondent is an Albino, we would advise him not to marry an Albiness. The influence of intermarriage with other portions of the race, with change of climate, and other favourable agencies, is such as in progress of time to overcome these peculiarities.
As many of our correspondents are desirous to know where cheap globes may be had, we have pleasure in recommending a “Portable Globe" sold by John Betts, 115, Strand, London, price 3s.6d. This globe is about sixteen inches in circumference, constructed of pasteboard so contrived that it can be laid perfectly flat, or in less than a minute can be made to form a sphere. It is engraved in a distinct manner, and not overcrowded with names, being chiefly adapted sor beginners.-R. J. Ralph : Thanks for his information; does he mean a book (or box) of instruments; he has written book? Weare informed by W. W. SNElling, that the box of instruments announced by the Society of Arts may be obtained at the office of the society, Adelphi, London, price 2s. 6d. or 6s. each, according to value. The boxes of solour, may be obtained at Mr. Rogers’, Bunhill-row, St. Luke's, price ls.—T. 91bbs (Southwark): Thanks for suggestions on the Latin dictionary.-A LEARNea (Bonner's-road): See answers on the same subject to othersBeath ice (Manchester): Pitman's is strongly recommended to us by a host of subscribers; but we have two parties to please, those who solow short-hand as an amusement or an aid to private study, and those who follow it as a profession; it is not used by parliamentary reporters. Spanish will come in its turn.-J.ARMITAge (Bradford): Thanks for his correction. Our readers will please to draw the pen through the word length, yol. It page 399, col. 2, fine 26. To improve your spelling write a good deal of English, and whenever you are in doubt ..o. dictionary.-J. B. (Forfar) should purchase Cassels's Euclid and Arithmetic, and study the lessons on the same in the P.E.; we do not recommend the course he mentions.-W. STEPHENson (Lancaster): The errors have been corrected.—G. Quaiah (Manchester) shall have the explanation in the Lessons. We know no better plan than to go to Norway; the next best would be to order a Norwegian grammar and dictionary, if such can be had, from D. Nutt, foreign bookseller, Strand.-J. A. (Hull): See vol.I., p. 176, col. 1, and p. 208, col. 1.
JOHN CASSELL's ALMANACKS FOR 1853 ARE NOW READY
The Uncle Tow's CABIN ALMANAck; or, The Abolitioxist MEMENTo for. 1853, splendidly Illustrated by George Cruikshank, Gilbert, Harvey, “Phiz," and other eminent Artists, price is.
The Illustrated Exhibiton ALMANack for 1833, containing upwards of Thirty beautiful Engravings, price 6d.
The Populah Educator ALMANAck for 1853, containing Forty-eight Pages of most interesting and valuable Educational statistics; including a Comparative View of Education at Home and Abroad; Essays on the Leading Sciences; Brief Notices of Eminent Scholars; Exposition of Technical Terms; &c. &c., price 2.I.
THE TEMPERANCE ALMANAck for 1853, much improved and enlarged, and in which will be inserted a Tale of thrilling interest, from the inimitable pen of Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe, authoress of "Uncle Tom's Cabin," or titled, "The PLEDGE TAKEN ; or, The Husband saved, and a Family made Happy : " with valuable details of the great Temperance Movement, Stor tistics, &c. With several Engravings, designed by Gilbert, price 2d.
The ProTest ANT Dissextens' ALMANAck for 1853, with 12 beautiful o by Gilbert, of striking Events in the History of Nonconformio price tod.
Printed and Published by John cassell, La Belle Sauvage Yard, Ludgv" hill, London.-October 31, 1852,
In this class those plants are ranged which have no apparent flowers, and do not appear to produce seed in the same way as flowering plants, Linnaeus gave them the name of cryptogamia, formed from two Greek words, meaning hidden marriage, from this circumstance. Some light has been cast upon them since the day of that distinguished naturalist, but much still remains to be learned. It is, however, generally admitted that the plants of this class produce a number of small particles called spores, each of which contains several minute germs, which spring from it without any particular regularity, and which are not assisted in their growth, by any such store of nutriment as that provided in the seed of others. Of some of these, we shall therefore take a brief survey.
cealed under ground, and consisting of the small delicate white substances which gardeners term the spawn, and which is well known to be indispensable when mushrooms are cultivated artificially. It ought to be known to all who gather mushrooms for the table, that the funguses similar to them in form, which grow in woods, and
are of bright colours, or have worts on the bonnets, are more or less poisonous or dangerous. The truffle used like the mushroom for food, has no root, but grows beneath the surface of the ground. It is round and solid, and the outside is rough. The method of finding this subterranean delicacy is by dogs, which are taught to hunt for it by the scent. As soon as they discover it, they begin to bark and scratch up the ground, a sure indication to their employers that the truffle of which they are in search is at hand. The liver-wort, fig. 4, besides its regular fructification, which conFig. G.
gradually increase into a leafy expansion, from the lower part of which root-fibres proceed; and this, in due time, acquires the appearance of the original plant, and forins its own organs of fructification. Of the Jungermaniae we have about seventy species, some of them being so small as to be scarcely visible, yet every part is highly curious. In the shape of the leaves there is a marvellous diversity, and the fruit vessel is very remarkable. Before it opens it is round, fig. 5, a, and when ripe it splits into a perfect cross, letting out its little round seeds, attended by a number of threadlike springs, which, flying out suddenly, scatter the seeds around. Mosses, though apparently insignificant, are not useless. They protect the roots of tender plants from the extremes of cold and beat, and many kinds of them, by vegetating in the shallow parts of pools and marshes, in the course of a long period of time, convert the space which was before only water and bog into useful land and fertile pastures. The mosses have stalks and leaves, fig. 6, a ; they are also provided with one or two nervures, b, which are wanting in the liverworts—for what is called the nervure in the membranous or leafy species is nothing more than the stalk itself, on the edges of which the leaves are fastened together in such a manner as to foria, apparently, a continuous whole. In the figure 6, crepresents the vessel containing the spores, d the capsule, and ethe hood
Hooker's Bhining Moss,
In fig. 7 we give one of the beautiful mosses which send forth their delicate capsules at the close of the year to direct our readers to the flowering, which thousands pass altogether unnoticed. On the damp banks of ditches, and similar places, there are often vacant spots of earth left, after the other portions of the soil, ...; where it is exposed to the sun, are clothèd with grass and other herbage. On the bank least exposed to the sun, and even in spots where its rays never come, Hooker's shifling moss (fig. 6) and Necker's curled moss appear, and grow most luxuriantly. In like manner the proliferous feather moss grows in broad patches in woods and groves, covering much ground, which, but for it and its congeners, would exhibit nothing but the naked surface of the earth, and would, of course, expose the trees to the drought of summer, and the frost of winter, which are by this means effectually prevented. With one of these little plants an interesting circumstance stands connected. Mungo Park, when in the interior of Africa, describes himself as cruelly stripped by banditti, and thus proceeds:—“In this forlorn and almost helpless condition, when the robbers had left me, I sat for some time looking around me with amazement and terror; whatever way I turned nothing appeared but danger and difficulty. I found myself in the midst of a vast wilderness, in the depth of the rainy season, naked and alone, surrounded by savage unimals, and by men still more savage. I was five hundred miles from any European settlement. All these circumstances crowded at once on my recollection, and I confess that my spirits began to fail me, I considered my fate as certain, and that I had no alternative but to lie down and perish. “The influence of religion, however, aided and supported me. I rooted that no human prudeace or foresight could possibly have
averted my present sufferings, I was indeed a stronger in a strange land, yet I was still under the protecting eye of that God who has condescended to call himself the stranger's friend. At this moment, painful as my reflections were, the beauty of a small moss caught my eye; and though the whole plant was not larger than the top of one of my fingers, I could not contemplate the delicate conformation of its roots, leaves, and fruit without admiration. Can that Being, thought I, who planted, watered, and brought to perfection, in this obscure part of the world, a thing which appears of so small importance, look with unconcern upon the situation and sufferings of creatures formed after his own image? Surely not! Reflections like these would not allow me to despair. I started up, and disregarding both hunger and fatigue, travelled onwards, assured that relief was at hand, and I was not disappointed.” Of all the Cay ProGAMIA, the ferns approach most nearly to flowering plants. They present a small number of leaves, generally much divided into leaflets, and these again often minutely subdivided, each arising from the ground by a woody stalk, which is commonly regarded as the stem of the plant. The true stem, however, is buried beneath the ground, or sometimes creeps along its surface, and the branches it sends upwards into the air are really the leaf stalks. In several parts of the earth, ferns assume the form and magnitude of trees, and at the southern extremity of Van Dieman's Land, a species has been seen whose trunk was from twelve to sixteen feet high. Nothing like a flower is ever seen in the ferns. The spore-cases are here developed on the backs or at the edges of the leaves. When the fructification is matured, which may be known by the brownish tinge of the yellow or orange spots or ridges on its leaves, if one of them is placed with its under-side upon a piece of white paper this will be found in a day or two covered with a very fine brown dust. This is formed of the spores which are scattered by the bursting of their cases. In most ferns all the leaves are concerned in producing the fructification. The term frond is generally applied to the leafy portions of the Cryptogamia, as distinguishing them from the true leaves of flowering plants.
LES SONS IN FR EN CH-No. XXXI, By Professor Louis FAsque LLE, LL.D.
1. Avoir beau—Wous avez beau, corresponds in *#. to the English expression, it is in vain for you to. It must be followed by the infinitive:— Wous avez beau dire, il me wiendra. It is in tain for you to speal, Aesco pas. not come. 2. Epouser, marier, to marry, have, in French, a different meaning. Marier, conjugated actively, can only have as its nominative the person performing the ceremony, or giving one or both of the parties in marriage; epouser takes, as its nominative, the contracting parties only, and must always be followed by a direct regimen. Se marier, to get married, and marier, conjugated passively, take the same nominative as épouser:— M. L. a mariésa fille avec M. G.
Mr. L. has married his daughter to
Mr. G. has married Mr. L.'s daugh-
M. G. et Mlle. L. sont mariés. Mr. G. and Miss L. are married.
Mon frère vase marier. My brother is going to be married. 3. Undemes amis, is equivalent to the English, a friend of
Wotre ami a €pousé une de mes amies.
Your friend has married a friend of
Devoir, 3.ir. tootee, to Parent, e, relation. Archevêque, m. arch- be about. Princesse, f. princess.
bishop. Epoux, pl. couple; man Prochain, e, next. Cadet, te, younger. and wife. Savoir, 3.ir. to know. Demoiselle, f. young Infanterie, f. infantry Régiment, m. regiment.
lady, Evêque, m. bishop. Vieillard, old man.
1. Votre hièce me va-t-elle passe marier? 2. Elle semariera l'anhée prochaine. 3. Qui épousera-t-elle 4. Elle épousera he fils ainé du général M. 5. Savez-vous qui a marié ces deux époux? 6. L'archevêque de Paris les a mariés. 7. N'a-t-il pas aussi marié Mlle. L.; 8. Ill'amariée avec M. G. 9. Qui votre demoiselle a-t-elle épousé; 10. Elle a €pousé M. L., capitaine au 25eme régiment d'infanterie. 11. Ce vietllard n'a-t-il pastort dese marier? 12. Il n'a pastort de se marier, massil a tort d’épouser cette‘demoiselle. 13. Quand ces princesses vont-elles se marier? 14, Eiles se marieront le mois prothain. 15. Qui les marierał 16, L'évêque d' Arras les mariéra. 17. Qui doivent-elles épôuser? 18. Lainée doit epouser M. W. et la cadette M. G. 19. Le capitaine G. n'a-t-il pas €pousé une de vos parentes? 20. Oui, Monsieur, ila Épousé une demes cousines? 21. Qui estcette demoiselle? 22. C'est une demes sours. 23. N'avez-vous pas un de mes livies ; 2. J'ai un deves livreset ume devos plumes. 25. Je viens de parler aune devos sours.
1. Is your brother going to marry Miss l.2 2. Yes, Sir, it is in vain for us to speak to him, he will marry her. 3. Will not your father marry your sister to Mr. G. 4. No, Sir, he will marry her to Mr. L. 5. Is Captain H. married? 6. No, Sir, he is not yet married, but he will be married next year. 7. Whom does he intend to marry? 8. He intends to marry acousin of mine, who is at my brother's. 9. Who will m them : 10. My eldest brother intends to marry them. 11. your youngest sister married? 12. No, Sir, she is not married. L3. Is she going, to be married ? 14. She will marry when she is [Sect. 60, 5] old enough (assez agee). , 15. Whom did Colonel J. marry? 16. He married a sister of mine. 17. How long have they been married (Sect. 56. * 18. They have been married two years. 19. Is not that young lady wrong to get married? .20. She is wrong to marry, she is too oung. 21. Who married General S. and Miss N. 22. The
ishop of Arras married them. 23. Did not the Archbishop of York marry that couple? 24. The Archbishop of Paris married them. 25. Will not your aunt Harry; 26. She will not marry. . Is not your sister at home? 28. No, Sir, she is with (chez) an aunt of mine. 29. Is your brother at your house? 30. No, Sir, he is with one of my relations. 31. Is he married?_32. He is not married. 33. Is Captain H. maro: 34. He was married last week. 35. He married
Section LXVII. DIMENsion, weight, ETC, 1. The verb avoir is used in expressing the size of an object. preposition de precedes the noun of dimension. When
there is noverb in the sentence, the preposition must be placed before the number, and again before the noun of dimension:Cette muraille a disc piéds de That wall is ten feet high.
hauteur. Cepuits a cent pieds deprofondeur. That well is one hundred feet deep. The table dequatre pieds de lon- A table four sect long.
2. In sentences where sizes are compared, and the verb étre is used, the preposition de is placed before the number expressing the ercess:Wous etes plus grand que moi de You are taller than I by two inches.
deux pouces. 3. When the price of an article is mentioned, the article le
* * ***
is used before the noun expressing the measure, weight, &c. hen the remuneration, or rent, &c., for a definite space of time is mentioned the preposition par (per) is used:— Le beurre be vendun franc la livre. Butter is sold [as] a franc per pound. Il gagne six franes parjour. He earns six framos per day. 4. The same preposition is used, when we speak of the number of times any occurrence takes place in a given space of
time :Je vais a la poste deux fois par jour,
o n Resume of La canellese vend deux francs la livre
Cette soie vaut six francs le mêtre. Ce clocher a cinq cents pieds de hauteur. Cet étang a huit pieds de profondeur. Une chambre de quinze pieds de longueur, sur dix-huits de largeur, et huit de hauteur. De quelle taille est votre frère? Sa taille est de cinq pieds huit
1. How large is your father's garden? 2. It is twenty-five rods long and ten broad. 8. Is your cousin's_house large? 4. It is fifty-six feet long and forty broad. 5: Is your house larger than mine? 6. It is larger than yours by ten feet. , 7. Do you know how deep that well is 8. It is twenty-five feet deep and six feet broad. 9. Howis that cloth sold per metre? 10. It is sold [at] forty-five francs per metre. 11. How much do you receive a week for your work: 12, Ireceive fifty francs a week for my work. 13. How much does your friend pay a month for his board (pension, f.) 14. He pays seventy franco.” month. 15. Are you tailer than your cousin 16. I am taller than he by the whole head. 17. Is not your nephew taller than your son; 18. He is taller than my son by * inches. 19. How large is this room 20. It is sixty feet long by forty. , 21. What size is your brother? 22. He is tall, he is taller than I. 23. How many books do you read a week? 24, I read ten volumes a week. 25. How is butter sold per pound? 26. Butterissold [at] two francs per pound; 27. Do you know how much your son earns a day? 28. He earns as much
1. Did the gentleman alight this morning? 2. No, Sir, he would not alight, he had no time. 3. Have you put that insolent person out of doors 4. No, Sir, but I forbade him to set his foot in my house. 5. Did you shelter those little children from the rain? 6. I sheltered them from the rain and the wind. 7. Have you enabled your son to study medicine (la médecine)? 8. I enabled him to study medicine, if he wishes to do so. 9. Have you put on your coat inside out? 10. I have not put it on inside out, but right side out. 11. Did you put yourself in a passion ? 12. No, Sir, I did not become angry. 13. Did you sit down to table at four o'clock yesterday? 14. We sat down to table at six o'clock. 15. Do you intend to commence boarding? 16. I intend to board with Mr. L. (chez M. L.) 17. When do you commence your journey? 18. We commence our journey to-morrow morning. 19. Did your son commence laughing? 20. No, Sir, he commenced weeping. 21. Why do you not commence working? 22. Because I am going to commence reading. 23. Does that lady dress after the English fashion? 24. She dresses after the Italian fashion. 25. Are those ladies well dressed ?. 26. They are extremely well dressed. 27. Will you not place yourself in the shade 28. I will place myself in the sun, I am very cold. 29. Is your coat inside out : 30. No, Sir, it is rightside out. 31. Is this the right side of this cloth (Pendroit) * 32. It is the wrong side (l'envers). 33. Are you not dressed after the English fashion? 34. I am dressed after the Italian fashion, 35. You are well dressed.
WHENEven you look for the origin of great rivers, even such rivers as the Severnor the Thames in our own little island, you never find that their sources rise in the midst of plains, but always on the side, or at the base of mountains. is is preeminently the case with the immense rivers of the Continent and of America. These facts start the question, How came these mountains by their stores of water? and where are the reservoirs which feed so many perpetual springs? It used to be thought that all mountain springs are derived from the ocean, and that it is the sea that feeds all the wells. All this is pure fancy; and it is now nothing but a prejudice. Of this prejudice you must divest yourself at once. I only as: sume that you may have it, from the fact that thousands of people are brought up in this prejudice. I do not wish you to dismiss such an assumption, at my request; but as the result of your own intelligent examination of the phenomena of the case. I will try to assist you to see that the theories which philosophers have invented to account for the derivation of springs from the ocean, are pure assumptions, and are therefore to be rejected by the geological student. The first theory is that of the celebrated Descartes, [pronounced De Cartj. He thought that sea water diffused itself, in all directions, under ground; that when it reached the bottom of mountains, it found there large caverns. In these caverns, the waters become much rarified by the action of subterranean heat, ascended in vapour towards the cold roof, and in its ascent left its salts to”. being specifically heavier. These vapours, on reaching the cold roof, condensed into drops which trickled down the sides of the cavern, until they found interstices and crannies in the rocks through which the water forced for itself a passage to the sides of the hills in the open air. To this theory, apply all the geological facts that may have come under your own observation. It is merely begging the question to assume such a passage between the sea and the foot of mountains, as that supposed § Descartes. No observation, no experiment has warranted the existence of such a