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subterranean communication. On the contrary, whereverminers find running waters under ground, their current is invariably from the mountain towards the sea, and never in the other direction. If there be such passages, some of them must be many hundreds or thousands of miles in length. The explorations of mountains furnish no proof of the existence of internal caverns, 600 or 700 feet high, with cooling roofs to condense the vapours. Travellers have visited grottoes and caverns of all dimensions, but none of them support his theory. Some of these are perfectly dry, and consequently have no communication with the sea. Some of them have their walls and floors covered with incrustations of lime. The bottoms of some of them have small rivulets passing through them. Qthers distil drops of water from their roof and their sides. All the waters that distil from the roof, ooze out at the sides, or run in streamlets at the bottom, are derived from rain and atmospheric moisture. This is proved by the facts—that these cavern rivulets always increase or diminish in proportion as the season is dry or rainy—that no water oozes from the bottom of the cave—and that, in very long dry weather, the oozings at the sides, and the droppings from the roof cease altogether. If springs originated in sea water in a cave, heated by subterranean fire, rising in vapour, condensed by a cooling roof, the droppings and oozings of water would have nothing to do with the changes of dry and wet seasons, for they would be independent of all outward causes on the surface. The second theory, invented to account for the derivation of springs from the ocean, professes to be more philosophic than that of Descartes. It supposes that the sea water has left all its salt behind, on the sides of the subterranean channels and crannies through which it has passed, and that the water becomes purged and purified of all heterogeneous mixtures by being drained through sands and porous rocks. It is by this process, say its ndyocates, that salt water becomes fresh and drinkable. Test, again, this theol y by our geological knowledge. If you have ever descended the shaft of a mine, or walked along any of the adits and levels in our coalpits, and have seen the oozings, droppings, and streamings of water, ask yourself, what has become of the salt of all this water? Has any miner ever discovered this salt? When you are puzzled at this, then ask yourself, what has become of the salt of all the thousands of rivers that flow on our earth? If it has been deposited in the crevices of rocks, it is probable that some mining exploration would have discovered it. I shall, hereafter, show that salt springs give no support to this theory. Think what an enormous quantity of salt must, on this theory, have been left behind by all the river systems of the earth—rivers of immense volumes, which have been running for thousands and myriads of years. In the course of all these ages, either the ocean must have emptied itself of its salt, or the earth become overcharged with it. Besides, the salt left behind in the crevices would eventually block up such channels of communication with the sea, as we see now calcareous and ferruginous water incrusting theinsides of pipes, until they are completely choked. In numerous instances, there are springs of fresh water close •o the margin of the sea, and some of them in very small islands. Such springs can be proved to have no communication whatever with the sea, except by running into it.
Springs rising on one
I will now state to you the geological hypothesis established by induction to account for the origin of springs. The sea communicates with mountains, not by subterranean passages through the crevices of sands and rocks, but by atmospheric moisture in the form of dew and rain. Vapours are constantly exhaling from rivers, lakes, and seas. These are carried by winds through the atmosphere in the forms of mists and clouds. Mists and clouds are stopped in their course by high mountains: their watery particles become condensed and fall to the surface in dew, rain, hail, and snow. The water, thus produced, penetrates the soil, finds chinks and interstices in the rocks, through which it percolates, and insinuates itself into the bodies of mountain masses, until it reaches a bed of impervious stone or clay. There it stops and increases in quantity and power, and penetrates interstices and crevices, till it forces an outlet into the open air as a well of water. The spring becomes perennial or intermittent, according to the extent and capacity of the district, on which the moisture has fallen, to supply water for feedin; the current. That springsowe their origin to atmospheric moisture is proved thus. It needs no proof that the atmosphere being replete with vapours, discharges, on their condensation, its waters into the soil and the crevices of hills and mountains. It is well known that springs are low, or quite dried up, when the season is dry, and that the return of rain never, fails to renew and recruit them. It is, therefore, evident that rain water finds a passage to these wells whether they are on the sides, or at the base of a mountain. According as the mass or stratum of sand, which the water penetrates, is more or less thick or deep, or as the water-tight stratum below is curved or basin-shaped, and capacious or small, to contain, a larger or less quantity of moisture, so will the well that bubbles up be intermittent or perennial. I will now endeavour to explain to you some of the geological circumstances, which give rise to different descriptions of springs. Fo § generally the case that the external surface of the earth, whether on mountain or in plain and valley, consists of some porous and loosestrata, covered with gravelly beds and vegetable mould. Lower down is an impervious and water-tight rock, through which water cannot percolate. The surface soils allow the water to pass through them easily. When the percolating water reaches the upper surface of a water-tight stratum, it collects and accumulates, especially if that surface be dented or curved. As it increases in quantity and weight, it will endeavour to find for itself an outlet, and form a well. If the beds that have becm percolated by the water be deep and extensive, the flowing at the spring head may continue the whole length of a dry season, and thenitiscalled operennial fountain. The rocks of the earth are susceptible of four forms of structure, which give rise to as many forms of springs. The first is where the underlying water-tight rock is a ridge that bends downwards on each side. The second is where it is an inclined plane in one direction. The third is where the sides of the rock curve up on both sides like the inside of a basin: The fourthis where rocks have been dislocated by what is called a fault. These peculiarities of structure will be illustrated to you by the different woodcuts of this Lesson. The first instance of a spring formed by the concave curve of a water-tight rock is represented by fig. 39.
In this stitutes a mountain mass.
A represents a water-tight rock which conB is a gravelly bed formed by the disintegration of A and resting upon it. c is the vegetable mould which covers A and B. #. D to 2 is a well formed at the bottom of the mountain, and E is another spring bubbling at a high elevation one one of its sides. Springs of this description are generally known from the fact of their having the same mean temperature as the region in which they appear. On this account they seem in summer * colder, and in the winter to be warmer, than the atmosphere. It is possible that rain water, which has entered these rocks in a comparatively pure state, may, in passing through crannies and pores of the beds, dissolve chemically some of the soluble elements it meets with, and bear them away with it in its course. In these instances, the percolating moisture, originally derived from the atmosphere, springs up in wells charged with carbonic acid, with some of the alkalis and salts, or with some calcareous or siliceous elements, in quantities, perhaps, too small to be detected by analysis, but sufficient to give a different taste to the water. These are all, to a certain degree, mineral springs. The second instance of wells formed by geological structure, is where all the upper beds of a hill, or a mountain, consist of porous rocks through which water can easily percolate, and where they and the water-tight rock below them, form an inclined plane, as represented in fig. 40. In fig. 40A is a series of inclined beds of a water-tight rock forming the base of a hill, a is a series of porons strata, consisting of gravel or sand, resting conformably on the inclined beds of A. c is the point of junction of the porous beds with the water-tight strata, at which the...; water will appear as a spring, at a considerable elevation on the side of e hill. It is evident that with such a geological structure of rocks, no spring of water can appear at 5. e copiousness and the continued flow of such a spring must depend upon the depth and the extent of the beds a B. e water of wells of this description penetrate deepe, into the earth, than the water of the springs represented in fig. 39. On account of the depth of rock penetrated, the percolating water increases a little in temperature, according to the laws of increase of temperature in the inferior rocks. Hence most wells thus formed have remarkably a greater warmth, than the mean temperature of the district in which they rise. This is the case sometimes even in elevated mountains, where the water has attained the degree of 40 or 50 degrees of heat Fahr., and are accordingly called hot-wells, or thermal springs, which have been described to you in a former Lesson. In all probability the several hot-wells, which are found in the Alps, derive their warmth, only from the circumstance of rain water having to descend five or six thousand feet into the mountain before it bubbles up on the side, or at the bottom, of a rock, as a sprin ă The third instance of springs being occasioned by geological structure, is where the surface of water-tight rocks curves upwards on both sides, and forms akind of basin for the percolated waters... I shall reserve what I have to say on wells of this description to our next Lesson, which will be “On the Principles of Artesian Wells.”
L E S S O N S IN L, A T IN.—No. XXX. By John R. BEARD, D. D. DEVIATIONS IN THE FIRST CONJUGATION.
2. Perfect, ui, Supine, thum. Crepo, crepui, crepare, crepitum 1, to creak. Cubo, cubui, cubare, cubitum 1, to lie down. iii. Domo, domui, domare, domitum 1, to tame, subdue. iv. Mico, micui, micare (no supine), to glitter; so emico, emicui, emicare, emicatum, to dart forth; but dimico, I fight, has dimicavi, dimicare, dimicatum. v. Plico, pligui, plicare, plicatum, and plicitum, to fold; implico has implicui, implicatus (Cicero), and implicitus; explico and applico, in Cicero, have always avi, atum; replico, also, is regular. vi. Sona, sonui, sonare, somitum, to sound; part. fut.
vii. Tono, tonui, tonare (no supine), to thunder, viii. Weto, vetui, vetare, vetitum, to forbid, Let me impress on the student the necessity of committing these lorms to memory. Only by committing them to memory—only by retaining them in your memory—can you become thoroughly master of them, and so have them in your possession for all necessary purposes. Be not deluded by any representations which may aim to make you think that you can become familiar with the Latin or any other language, unless at the expense of very considerable and very close labour. Again, and again, twice or thrice over, must you acquire and repeat to yourself or to a friend all the forms I give; nor be satisfied that they are yours until, by repeated examinations and trials, you learn that you have them in your mind. You will act wisely to call in to your aid the principle of mutual stimulus and mutual instruction. Go over these forms aloud, several persons reciting them at once. For this purpose, it would be well to have a leader or drill-sergeant, to give the word, and keep the recital correct. When you have repeated a form or avocabulary sufficiently, then proceed to examine each other. You would do well to callinto play the same impulse and aid in writing and correcting the examples and exercisea. If you are unable to get several to join you in the task, undertake to teach Latin to some poor boy who cannot afford to purchase the PopULAR EDUCAtoR, or who may be neglected by his proper guardians. If two persons, who, with equal time and equal talents, began together to study Latin, the one teaching another, the other confining all his attention to himself, the former would outstrip the latter very easily, and make such pragress, as in a few months to defy competition.—Docendo disce. Vocabul.ARY. Increpo 1, to scold; percrepo 1, to resound; accubo 1, to lie up to, to lie (sit) at table; excubo 1, to keep watch; perdömo 1, to tame thoroughly; applico 1, to lean against; se applicare, to bring near, approach, apply to some one, to turn to some thing; complico 1, to fold together; complicatus, complicated, dark; replico 1, to unfold, reply; cremo 1, to burn; aduro, adussi, adurere, adustum 3, to set onfire, burn; evolvo, evolvi, evolutum 3, to roll out, unfold; verecundia, ae, f. modesty; scaturigo, inis, a spring; gemitus, as, m. a groan; nutus, sis, m. a nod, command; ploratus, fls, a complaint, a weeping; passim, hither and thither, everywhere; age, come; discedo 3, to depart, go; reperio 4, to find; et—et, both. ExERCISEs.-LATIN-ENGLISH. Quis vinit; fores crepuerunt; dux milites vehementer increpuit; tota urbs vocibus civium de victoria ex hostibus reportati exexsultantium percrepuit; age, cubitum discedamus; Romani multas gentes ac nationes armis perdomuerunt; docemur auctoritate nutuque legum, domitas habere libidines, coercere omnes cupiditates; ex hoc fonte ingentes scaturigines aquae emicuerunt; Indorum sapientes ad flammam se applicant; Indorum sapientes sine gemitu aduruntur; indorum sapientes, quum ad flammam se applicaverunt, sine gemitu aduruntur; Cicero ad Molonem, philosöphum se applicavit; sapiens studet animi sui complicatam notionem evolvere; quum memoriam tempórum replicaveris, et virtutum et vitiorum multa exemplareperies; quum urbs expugnata esset, omnia passim mulièrum puerorumque ploratibus sonuerunt; teremur quum serenå tempestate (weather) sonuit; nitimur in vetstum; Augustus carmina Virgilii cremari vetuit; Augustus carmina Wirgilii cremari contra testamentiejus verecundiam vetuit. ENGLISH-LATIN. The hinges of the door creaked; the mother scolded her innocent son; the soldiers kept watch all night; the sailors will subdue the enemy's fleet; I shall apply myself to Cicero (study under him); I forbid you to study under Aristotle; we shall strive for what is forbidden (vetitum); the whole house sounded with the groaning of the sick men; the city sounds with arms; Jupiter subdues the other gods by his nod; everywhere groanings and weepings sound; I have thoroughly tamed the lion. DEVIATIons IN THE FIRST Coxrugation. 3. Perfect, wi; Supine, tum. i., Frico, fricui, fricare, fricatum, to rub; refrico, refricui, refricare, refrictum to rub up, retire (p. f. refricaturus). ii. Neco, necuri, necare, nectum, to kill; enéco, enecui, enecare, enectum, to torture in killing. iii. Seco, secui, secare, sectum, to cut, fog (p.f. secaturus). 4. Perfect, i: Supine, tum. i. Juvo, juvi, juvare, jutum (juvaturus), to help; adjuvo, adjavi, adjuvare, adjutum, adjuturus. ii. Lavo, lavi, lavare, lautum, to wash.
Adjuvare (acc.), to support, assist; desecare, to cut down; resecare, a noun feminine of the first declension in
Columbae, from columba, columbae, a wo. or dove, e nominative
: solutus, *, um, frees in the ablative case, the cause, er, or instrument being
: o:'.*::::::::::::::::::: put in the ablative. Accipitrem, from accipiter, accipetri, a 4, I chatter; horreum, i, n. a barn; congero 3, I carry; reporto 1, 1 |* masculine of the second declension in the accusative case, bring back, gain. " " - - - being the object of the verb rogaverunt, which requires its
object to be in the accusative. Rogaverunt, from rogo, rogare,
rogavi, rogatum, to ask, a transitive verb of the first conjuga
Veregr ne litteris meis refricuerim desiderium ac dolorem tuum; tion in the perfect tense third person plural, to agree with its -
tuis sceleribus reipublicae praetersta fata refricaturus es; dubium nonest quintuis sceleribus reipublicae praeterita fata refricaturus sis; Tantãlus summam aquam attingens, enectus siti fingitur, a poetis; nescisne quantopere garrulus iste homo me garriendo
subject columbae. Ut, a conjunction, which, when, as here, it signifies a contemplated result, requires its verb to be in the subjunctive mood. Eas, a demonstrative pronoun referring to
: ? Caius Marius, quum secaretur, principio vetuitse alligari | columbae, from is, ea, id, the accusative plural feminine gender nec quisquamante Marium solutus digituresse septus; Agricúlae to agree with its noun, and governed by defenderet. Defenfrumenta, deserta, in horrea congointi nioilibidines resegueris, deret, a transitive verb, from defendo, defendere, defendi, defenfrustra studebis beate Yiyere; quis mescit quantopere, Cicero sum, of the third conjugation subjunctive mood imperfect tense Patrian joio.mon solo so, solo oustional third personsingular number, agreeing with its subjectile unjo. ..."o on."..."...".|logovo conjunction it. iii, on o: victoriam; *u. maximis intineribus profectus ille, illa, illud, a demonstrative pronoun referring to accias ove, obsidiome inctus adjutum; no prius coena quain mans |piter, the subject to the verb annuit. Annuit, from
annuo, annuere, annui, annutum, an intransitive verb of
lavèris; corpus lauturus aquam puram e vivo (running) flumine
the third conjugation in the perfect tense indicative mood third person singular, to agree with its subject ille. Annuit is made up of ad and nuo; nuo is connected with the
do not doubt that these women have tortured thee with their chatter; these talkative girls will kill me with their tongues; I shall forbid my son to chatter; hast thou washed thy hands: come! wash thy hands well before you sit to table (accubo); they will not (nolo) wash their feet; the father's word assists the son; ships are coming to assist the besieged city; there is no doubt but
If we view the first sentence logically it will stand thus:–
the army of our general will speedily assist the city; hast thou cut -- - - jo:
---- ---- - hy grief; fort ids th --- - - ly ( ...] o: y grief; fortune aids the brave; eas defendere, to defend them. Accordingly rogo has two
You ought now to be able to translate, at least with the aid fenderet. In the - - - -
- - - Lati l - - grammars it is said that rogo, with other
of a dictionary, an easy tin sentence. Make the trial. verbs of asking, governs two accusatives, the one of the person, Here is a fable by Æsop. I have marked the order in which the other of join
5 10 11 14 15 12 13 1. - É. go through all the parts carefully in every instance.
edidit, quam Milvius longo tempore potuisset edere Fabula docet, 4 3 5 7
malorum patrocinium vitandum esse.
Have youread the whole carefully through? There are words you do not know the meaning of? Well, there are several
emember, “practice makes perfect.”
Two verbs in the fable may give you some trouble, namely, edidit and potuisset. Edidit from édo, edere, edidi 3, in the perfect tense third personsingular, is, like dedit from do, formed by reduplication from the present edo. Potuisset, from the irregular verb possum, potui, posse, to be able, is in the sub
- - iliar. ill l - with which you ought to be familiar. I will supply you with junctive mood pluperfect tense third person singular, English,
the signification of such as I suppose you do not know. VocabulARY, Milvius, i, m. a kite; accipiter, ri, m. a hawk; strages, is, f. slaughter; edo 3, I put forth, cause; patrocinium, i, m. patronage; possum, posse, potui, I am able. With this aid you ought to be able to make out the whole. Here then you have a test of your progress. If you cannot, after sufficient study, make it out, you may feel assured that you have not attended to my instructions as you should have done. Bowever, I will supply you with a nearly literal translation, as another means of assisting you. THE HAwk AND THE Wood PIGEONs. The wood pigeons, through fear of the kite, entreated the hawk to defend them. . He assented. But, being received into the dovecote, he committed more slaughter, in one day than the kite could have done in a long time. The sable teaches you that the patronage of the wicked should be shuuned. I will also show you the grammatical connexion of some of the words, and the reason of the condition in which
weather begins to be fine.
2. It happened? that it rained, just
as the battle commenced, and thundered and hailed throughout the whole day. 3. It has rained, hailed, snowed and frozen this winter. 4. As long as it rains I cannot depart. 5. It appears that there are many strangers in this hotel. 6. There are (exist) many things which we cannot explain. 7. As soon as it becomes day, I shall call upon you to go and see the rising of the sun. 8. Exists there anything more noble than to forgive an enemy? 9. Do you intend to go to-morrow with me upon the ice? 10, No, I fear, that it thaws already, and it would not be
LESSONS IN ENGLISH.-No. XXII. By John R. BEARD, D.D. SUFFIXES (continued). Wonds have been curiously formed by abbreviation ; the word omnibus affords an instance; derived from the Latin “omnibus,” and so signifying for all, that is, every man's carriage, the word has been shortened into bus, and so it is now generally termed in common parlance. Mob appears to have been formed in the same way. What is now called the mob used to be called the rabble. | But as the rabble are mobile vulgus, a fickle crew, so were they called mobile vulgus, and by contraction, mob. Still mob and rabble are not identical. Rabble is the general term, the class, and mob is a collection of persons belonging to that class. Palsy is a contracted form of the now more fashionable paralysis. Between alms and eleemosynary there would seem to be no connexion; both, however, come from the same Greek term, and the former is only a shortened form of the root from which the latter is derived. Well do we remember kickshaws, a term of our youthful days,