« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
LESSONS IN FRENCII.-Yo, XXXII.
moi demain. 23. Fortons-les-y. 24. Ne les y portons pas.
25. Prètez-les-lui, mais 1.c les iui donnez pas.
1. Give a book to the young man. 2. I have already given THE IMPERATIVE,
him one, and he does not read it, 3. Lend it to him, 1. CONJUGATION OF THE IMPERATIVE OF THE REGULAR will not give it to hiin. 4. I will not lend it to him. 5, Make VERBS :
haste, young ladies, it is ten o'clock. 6. Have the goodness Chant fin -is rec -0i3 rend
to give me a pen. 7. I have given one to your brother. 8. sing finish receive
Obey your father, and speak to your sister. 9. Will you not Qu'il parl -e chér wisse aperç
send for the letter? 10. I will send for it. l1. Send for it as ld him speal let link cherish let him perceive kl hun sell
soon as you can. 12. Do not do so (le), but write to my Donn -on3 fourn -issons pero -evons tend
cousin. 13. Come, children (mes enfants), learn your lesson. let ils gire let us furnish let us gather
let us tend
14. Give him some [ $ 39, 171, or lend him some [s 100 (6)). Cherch -ez pun -issez conc -evez entend-ez
15. Do not make haste, we have (le) time. 16. Hare patience, geek
my child, the merchant will soon come. 17. Send it to him, Qu'ils port
-ent bais -issent d -oivent perd -ent ld them carry let them seize let them orce
if you cannot give it to hiin. 18. Write to him this afternoon let them lose.
without fail. 19. I would write to him if I had time. 20. 2. The second person singular, and the first and second per. Let us take the first street to the left. 21. Take the second sons plural of the imperative, are the same as the first person street to the right. 22. Pay attention to what your brother singular, and the first and second persons plural of the present says. 23. Let us tell the truth. 24. Let us read that book of the indicative. The pronouns are dropped :
1o-day. 25. Pay your debts as soon as possible. 26, Let us Je parle, parle ; je finis, finis, 1 speak, speak; I finish, finish. obey our instructor. 27. Carry the key to him. 28. Bring
3. Exceptions-Avoir, to have, make in those persons of the me back the books which I have lent you. 29. Do not bring imperative, aie, ayons, ayez ; être, to be, sois, soyons, soyez; them back to me, read them. 30. Let us have patience, we savoir, to know, sache, sachons, sachez; and aller, va, and vas shall soon have money., 31. Let us speak to them, they are at before y not followed by an infinitive.
my father's. 32. Tell them that I intend to write to them to4. Vouloir has only the second person plural, veuillez, have morrow morning. 33. Go to church this afternoon. 34, the goodness to......
Bring me back my letters. 35. Do not carry them there, but 5. A third person singular and plural is given in the impera- bring them to me as soon as possible. tive by most of the French grammarians. These parts, how
Section LXX. ever, belong properly to the subjunctive, as they express her
1. A verb following another verb in the imperative, is put a strong wish than a command. The English expressions, let him speak, that he may speak, are rendered in French by qu'il conjunction which often comes between the two rerbs in
in the infinitive (according to general rule, Sect. 20, 2). The parle.
6. A droite, à gauche, correspond in signification to the English, is not used in French :English to the right, to the left.
Allez parler au musicien.
Go and speak to the musician, Allez faire votre ouvrage,
Go and do your scork.
Go to the right, to the left.
Run and see those gentlemen. 7. For the place of the pronouns in connection with the
2. Prendre garde, to take care, to take heed, when followed imperative, see Sect. 26, R. 1, 4; Sect. 27, R. 1, 2, 3, 4.
by another verb in the infinitive, means to take care not to :RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.
Prenez garde de tomber.
Tuke care not to fall.
3. Prendre le deuil, means to go into mourning ; prendre la Prenons la première rue à droite. Let us take the first street to the right. peine, to take the trouble; prendre les devants, to go on before ; Ne cherchez plus à le tromper. Seek no longer to deceive him. Sachons nous contenter du néces- Let us know how to content ourselves thé, &c., to take coffee, tea, &c.
endre un parti, to take a determinalion ; prendre du café, du saire.
RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.
Envoyez chercher le tapissier. Send for the upholsterer.
Run and see your father, Veuillez accepter ce présent. Be so kind as to accept this present, Prenons garde de nous blesser. Let us take care not to kurt ourselves. EXERCISE 137.
Prenez garde de déchirer vos habits. Take care not to tear your clothes,
N'avez-vous pas pris le deuil ? Have you not put on mourning? Clef, f. key.
Promett-re, 4 ir. to pro- Renvoy-er, 1. to send Prenez la peine de vous asseoir. Take the trouble to sit down. Crayon, m. pencil. mise.
Take tea or coffee.
What resolution hare you taken! Obé.ir, 2. to obey.
Se serv-ir, 2, ref. to use. Partie, f. part. Remett-re, 4, ir, to de- Tiers, m. third.
EXERCISE 139. Précepteur, m. instruc- liver.
Verrez, 3. ir. from voir, Attend-re, 4. to expect, Gât-er, 1. to spoil. Robe, f. dress. tor.
to wait for.
Gouverneur, m. go. Soin, m. care. 1. Envoyez chercher le médecin, votre petit garçon est Chocolat, m, chocolate.
Tomb-er, 1. to fall. malade. 2. Nous l'avons déjà envoyé chercher. 3. Vous Courrier, m. courier. Lorsque, rchen, Tacher, 1. to stain, to n'avez pas besoin de votre crayon, prêtez-le-moi (Sect. 26, R. Croi.re, 4. ir. to believe. Port-er, 1. to scar. spot. 4; Sect. 27, R. 4], 4. Je ne saurais vous le prêter, je m'en Déchir-er, 1. to tear. Quelquesois, sometimes. Se tai-re, 4. ir. to be silent sers. 5. Donnez-le-moi ou me le prêtez [$ 100 (6)]. 6. Je Allez voir mon frère, il a quelque chose à vous communi. l'ai promis à votre institutrice. 7. Si vous ne le lui avez pas quer. 2. Courez leur dire que je les attends. 3. Mon frère a dit, dites-le-lui aussitôt que possible. 8. Ne le lui dites pas bien pris garde de déchirer ses habits. 4. Votre cousine a-tencore. 9. Parlez-lui-en ($ 39, 17] la prochaine fois que vous elle pris garde de tacher sa robe? 5. Elle a pris garde de le verrez. 10. Ayez patience, mon ami, votre père ne tardera tomber, car en tombant elle l'aurait gâtée. 6. Ces petites filles pas à venir. 11. Obéissez à votre précepteur. 12. Je lui ont-elles pris le deuil? 7. Elles viennent de la prendre. 8. obéis toujours, donnez-lui-en une bonne partie. 13. Je lui en Pour qui prenez-vous le deuil 9. Je porte le deuil de ma ai déjà donné plus des deux tiers. 14. Avez vous porté cette mère. 10. Prenez-vous du thé ou du café le matin? 11. Nous clef au serrurier: 15. J'ai oublié de la lui remettre. 16. prenons du thé et du café. 12. Ne prenez-vous pas quelquePortez-la-lui sans faute cette aprés-midi. 17. Veuillez me dire fois du chocolat ? 13. Nous n'en prenons que lorsque nous où demeure M. G. 18. Prenez la première rue à gauche, il sommes malades. 14. Quel parti le gouverneur a-t-il pris! demeure dans la deuxième maison à droite. 19. Allons, Mes. 15. Il a pris le parti de se taire. 16. Prendrez-vous mon parti demoiselles, dépêchons-nous. 20. Mencz-les-y le plus tôt (my parl) ou celui de votre tils : 17. Je prendrai le vôtre, si possible. 21. Ne me les rapportez pas. 22. Renvoyez-leg- je crois que vous avez raison. 18. Pourquoi ne prenez-vous
pas la peine de lire sa lettre? 19. Parce qu'elle n'en vaut pas 7. The past of the subjunctive is formed from the subjuncla peine. 20. Votre courrier a-t-il pris les devants ? 21. tive present of one of the auxiliaries, avoir, être, and the past n'a pu prendre les devants. 22. N'avez-vous pas tort de participle of a verb [ f 45] :prendre son parti? 23. Je n'ai pas tort de le prendre. 24. Que j'aie parlé, que je sois venu. That I may lusve spoken, that I may Avez-vous pris le thé* (your tea)? 25. Nous n'avons pas pris
have come. (our) le thé, nous avons pris le café ?
8. A verb is put in the subjunctive, when it is preceded by EXERCISE 140.
the conjunction que, and another verb expressing consent, 1. Has your brother taken care not to spoil his hat? 2. He fear, apprehension, &c. [§ 127 (2)]:
command, doubt, desire, surprise, want, duty, necessity, regret, has taken care not to spoil it, he has only one. 3. Go and speak to your sister, she calls you (appelle). 4. Will you not Je désire que vous arriviez à temps.
Je veux que vous lui parliez.
I wish you to speak to him. take a cup (tasse) of tea ? 5. I have just taken my tea.
I wish you to arrive in time. What have you said to your little girl? 7. I have told her to
9. When the first verb expresses fear or apprehension, the take care not to tear her dress. 8. Let us take care not to verb preceded by que must also be preceded by ne, whieh, tear that book. 9. My son has just brought it. 10. IIas he however, has no negative sense [$ 127 (3), § 138 (4) (6) (6)]: takcn his tea? 11. He has not yet taken tea, it is too early. Je crains qu'il ne tombe.
I am afraid lest he fall, 12. At what hour do you take tea* at your house ? 13. We 10. After craindre, to fear; appréhender, to apprehend; avoir take tea at six o'clock. 14. Do you take tea* or coffee for peur, to be afraid ; trembler, to tremble, pas is used in conbreakfast (à votre déjeûner)? 15. We take coffee. 16. Is your nection with the ne, when we wish for the accomplishment of courier gone on before? 17. He has not been able to go on the action or occurrence espressed by the second verb [$ 138 before. 18. What resolution have you taken? 19. I have (7)]:taken the resolution to study my lesson. 20. Have you taken Je tremble qu'il n'arrive pas à I tremble that he may not arrive in care not to tear your books 21. I have taken care not to stain temps.
time. them.. 22. What has your brother determined : 23. IIc has determined to remain silent. 24. Have you taken my part 1
Résumé of EXAMPLES, 25. I have taken my brother's part. 26. Are you right to take his part? 27. I am right to take his part, because he is le médecin veut-il que je boive de, Does the physician wish me to drink
water? right. 28. Are you not afraid to take his part? 29. I am not Je conscna que vous alliez le voir. I consent that you go to see him. afraid to take his part. 30. Will you take your sister's part Nous doutons que vous arriviez à We doult your arriving in time. or mine? 31, I will take my sister's part. 32. Go and read temps. your book, you do not know your lesson. 33. I know my Je crains que votre maitre ne vous I fear lest your master may punish lesson, and I know also that you are my friend. 34. Let us punisec. go to our father, he wants us.
Je crains que votre maitre ne vous I fear that your master may not punisee pas.
punish yokt. SECTION LXXI.
Je m'étonne qu'il ne saclie pas cela. I am astonishal that he does not
J'exige que vous lui donniez cela. I require you to give him that, 1. All the French verbs, regular and irregular, end in this Voulez-vous qu'il aille à la chasse ? Do you wish him to go hunting. tense with e, ex, e, ions, iez, ent :
Que voulez-vous que je dise ? What do you wish me to (that I 2. CONJUGATION OF THE PRESENT OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE OF
J'aime mieux que vous me payicz. l I would rather have you to pay me. TIE REGULAR VERBS :Que je chant rec -oive rend
Artisan, m. mechanic. Empêch-er, 1. to prevent. Moulin-à-scie, sarc-mill. Que tu parl clér -isscs apers -oives vend
Atelier, m workshop. Fortement, very much. Obé-ir, 2. to obey. That thou mayest speak: mayest cherish mayest perceive mayest sell
Au dessus, above. Force, f. strength. Rempl-ir, 2. to fulfil. Qu'il donn fourn -isse perç -oive tend
Bracelet, m. bracelet, Magasin, m, warehouse. Rue, f. street.
Malsain, e, unhealthy, Tomb-er, 1. to fall. Que nous cherch -ions pun
-evions entend -lons That we may siek may punish may conceive
1. Que voulez-vous que nous fassions ? 2. Je désire que Que vous port iez
vous fassiez attention à vos études. 3. Ne craignez-yous pas That you may carry
que l: pluie ne vous empêche de sortir ? 4. Nous craignons Qu'ils aim -cnt
-issent déç -oivent mord -ent foi tirent que la pluie ne nous empêche de remplir nos engageThat they may love
men s? 5. Doutez-vous qu'il soit chez lui maintenant? 6. 3. In the first conjugation, the subjunctive is in the singu. Je doue qu'il y soit, il est déjà dix heures. 7. Exigez-vous lnr, similar to the present of the indicative. Exception : qu'il parte de bonne heure? 8. Je m'étonne qu'il ne soit pas aller-je vais, que j'aille.
dejà parti. 9. Aimez-vous mieux que je vous rende ces brace4. The first and second persons plural of the subjunctive, lets ! 10. J'aime mieux que vous me les payiez. 11. Votre in the four conjugations, are the same as the corresponding voisin craint-il que son enfant ne sorte ? *12. Il craint qu'il persons of the imperfect of the indicative. The third person ne tombe dans la rue, 13. Ne désirez-vous pas que vos élèves plural is like the corresponding person in the indicative pre
vous obéissent? 14. Je souhaite qu'ils m'obéissent et qu'ils sent. Exceptions : avoir, subjunctive, nous ayons, vous ayez, obéissent à leurs professeurs, 15. Ne craignez-vous pas que ils aient ; savoir, nous sachions, vous sachiez, ils sachent ; étre, cet artisan ne tombe malade ? 16. Je crains qu'il ne tombe nous soyons, vous soyez, ils soient ; faire, nous fassions, vous fassiez, malade, car son atelier est très malsain. 17. Ne regrettez, ils fassent; aller, ils aillent ; vouloir, ils veuillent; valoir, ils vous pas qu'il soit obligé de travailler ? 18. Je regrette qu'il vaillent.
soit obligé de travailler au dessus de ses forces. 19. Ne dé6. The subjunctive may also be formed from the participle sirez-vous pas qu'on lui apprenne cette nouvelle? 20. Je désire present, by changing ant into e, es, e, ions, iez, ent: as, chantant, qu'on la lui apprenne le plus tôt possible. 21. Votre père ne je chante ; finissant, je finisse ; recevant, je reçoive ; sachant, je veut-il pas que vous achetiez un magasin ? 22. Il veut que sache ; craignant, je craigne.
j'achète un moulin-à-scie. 23. Désirez-vous que je vous 6. The verbs presenting exceptions to this last rule are the quittc ? 24. Je désire que vous restiez avec moi. 25. Je veux following, which the student will find conjugated in the que vous partiez ce matin. Second Part of this Grammar, 62:
1. Do you wish me to speak to the mechanic? 2. I wish
you to tell him to (de) come here to-morrow morning. 3. Avoir Pouvoir pounds) pounds) pounds)
What do you wish me to do? 4. I wish you to bring me a Faire Pourvoir Recevoir Valoir Vouloir book. 5. Do you not wish me to read your letter! 6. I wish
you to read it and (que) give it to my sisters. 7. Does not • Le thé, the meal called tra; du thé, the berer oge called tca. your sister fcar lest the rain may prevent her going out;
8. She fears that the rain may prevent our going out,
9. Do These facts lead me to mention a third case, in which a pecuyou doubt that your father be at home now 10. I doubt his liarity of geological structure gives rise to a different descripbeing there. 11. Do you require me to do my work now? 12. tion of springs, a case which the next diagram will help you I wish you to do your work before going out (avant de sortir). to understand. 13. Do you not regret your being obliged to work? 14. I do
Fig. 41. not regret my being obliged to work. 15. Are you not astonished that he knows that? 16. I am astonished that he knows all. 17. Do you require me to pay him to-day? 18. I
A. wish you to pay him to-morrow. 19. What would you have me do (see No. 1 of the above exercise) ? 20. I will have you pay him immediately. 21. Do you fear lest the master punish your son ? 22. I fear that he may not punish him. 23. What would you have me say? 24. I would have you say the truth. 25. Does not your father wish you to buy a house? 26. He wishes me to buy a storehouse. 27. Do you wish us to leave you ? 28. I wish you to go away to-morrow. 29. Do
B you wish me to stay with you? 30. I wish you to stay here. 31. Do you wish me to tell him that news? 32. I wish you to tell it to him. 33. Do you wish your children to obey their teacher 34. I wish them to obey him.
LESSONS IN GEOLOG Y.-No. XIX.
Springs caused by Depressions in the Strata.
Fig. 41 represents a spring in a mountain side near Zurich, I gave you two illustrations, and reserved two others for this in Switzerland. You see that the upper part of the hill, a, conLesson:
sists of a deep and extensive mass of gravelly soil. Through You have seen that water derived from rain, dew, and snow, this mass water, from rain and snow, penetrates until it reaches enters into porous soils of gravel and loose sands. You know the impervious and retentive beds BB. These beds curve upward from observation that such grounds become soon dry after heavy on both sides, and, therefore, form a kind of trough or basin showers and long wet weather. Such soils and rocks are called at c, where the water, from the porous soil running on each arenaceous, or sandy, and easily “drink in" the water that side of the inclined planes B B, meet and gush out as a large falls upon them. The other soils and rocks, which retain the water, and copious spring.. Were the porous surface of this moun. or through which water percolates with great difficulty, are tain thin and of small extent, the well would be an intermittent called argillaceous, or clayey.
one, and would soon be exhausted in a dry season. For, if the The water which percolates through these porous beds de- supply of water in the porous soil be not equal to the discharge scends, by its own gravity, lower and lower, until it finds a at the spring, the flow at the well will stop, until the reservoir stratum of stiff clay, or impervious rock, through which it be afresh replenished, either from rain or from melted snow. cannot penetrate. This fact has been already explained to you But, because this gravelly soil is deep and of considerable ex. in two instances. If the surface of the impervious rock forms tent, and because the basin-shaped rocks below help, the a curve upward like a bow, the percolating waters will flow and water to accumulate at the bottom, the fountain is copious, produce wells on each side of the hill, as was represented in fig. powerful, and perennial. 39. If the surface of the retentive rock be an inclined plane, as The knowledge of these conditions of geological structure in fig. 40, the water will flow along the slope in one direction, will aid your comprehension of the phenomena of Artesian and appear as a well on one side only of the mountain, or at wells. its base.
An Artesian well is a boring made perpendicularly into the It is hence obvious that when water reaches an impervious ground by means of a large auger, which is worked till it penestratum and fails to percolate to a greater depth, it must accu- trates through different soils and rocks into a bed which con. mulate as in a reservoir, and will then try to ooze out at any tains water. Such wells are called Artesian from the French outlet, which it can effect by the laws of hydrostatic pressure. province called Artois, which is the ancient Artesium. It was The principal difficulty in this phenomenon is to explain why in this district that wells of this description were first formed the water does not ooze out at every point, along the line of in Europe. It has been lately ascertained that such wells have junction of the porous beds with the impervious or water been established in China from a considerable antiquity. tight stratum, instead of at a few points where we find As the borer is worked and made to penetrate into the under springs.
lying rocks, a jointed tube of iron, and of larger bore or cir. The reason of springs being found at few points only, and cumference, but surrounding it, is beaten down into the boring. not along the whole line, is that the percolating waters con- This tube answers two purposes. First, it hinders the sides of centrate at those points. This concentration of the water is the boring or well from falling in; and secondly, it prevents occasioned by two conditions in the structure of the soil. First, the water, in its ascent, from escaping and spreading into any it is well known that even in gravelly and loose beds there are interstice or fissure which it might find in the sides of the fissures and crevices, which act as natural and easy drains to rock. the percolating waters. Secondly, there may be curves, In these wells the water rises from various depths, either to swellings, and inequalities, in the surface of the stiff and im- the surface of the soil or many feet above it, according to cer. pervious rock which the waters have reached. In the dents tain conditions of the strata in which water is found. In many and hollows of these beds, the water accumulates till it over- instances after the borer has passed through many hundreds flows their edges; or it may be that by means of these depres- of feet of impervious and retentive beds, and it comes to a sions, the water is conducted to lower levels, and thus forms porous stratum containing water, the tuid rises immediately channels for a current to force for itself an outlet at a powerful with considerable impetuosity, rushes up the tube, and flows spring.
over. The first rush is often very violent, so that for a time
the water plays like the jets of a fountain, and then, where the As a case in point, I may mention, that in the year 1784, an origin of the percolating water is at a low level, it gradually Artesian well was formed at Sheerness, in the Isle of Sheppey, sinks, and eventually continues to flow in a tranquil stream near the junction of the Thames with the German Ocean, The from the surface of the well; or, as the case of level may be, it sea is many miles wide between Sheerness and the opposite is constantly full up to within a few feet of the surface. coast of Essex. This well was bored on a point of land close You are aware that this action of Artesian wells is due to the
to the sea side. The perforation was more than three hundred laws of hydrostatic pressure, or to that constant tendency and feet deep. When the boring instrument reached the bed of effort of water to find its level. These phenomena will be gravel and plastic clay which is known to be under the stratum easily comprehended by means of the following diagrain, fig. I called the London clay, the water immediately rushed up with
violence and filled the well. As the water conFig. 42
tinued to supply this Artesian well at Sheer, ness, it was found that the supply of water in the wells on the coast of Essex was proportionably diminished.
These representations will be sufficient to assist you in forming correct notions of the principles of the many Artesian wells which are about London and its neighbourhood; as well as of many others, according to their geological condition,
The instance of the natural spring found on
the lower height a in fig. 42, introduces you A Section explaining the Rise of a Natural Spring and the Perforation for an
to another condition of geological structure Artesian Well.
which gives rise to wells, as represented in
fig. 43. 42, representing a geological section in which Artesian wells In fig. 43, let A B C DXY z represent a section of a country may be made.
many miles in length, with three different rocks x y z resting Let ABC, in fig. 42, be the surface of a country, in which conformably on each other, and among which the rock y is water is scarce, except where it has a natural spring at the argillaceous and porous. The rain enters this rock in the space height a. Under the vegetable soil * * * are the two beds a a, between x and y. The other rocks x and z are impervious to which are stiff and impervious to water, or through which water water. percolates with great difficulty. The rock bb.is gravelly or It is found that the series of these beds have been fractured sandy, and allows the water to percolate easily, and to ac- and dislocated by a disturbing force from below, Such a fraccumulate between 6 and 6. But this reservoir of water is ture is called, both by miners and geologists, a fault. This concealed by the superficial soil and by the beds a a. A geo- fault or fissure produces an outlet on the surface at B. The logist, indeed, might, from the natural spring at A, and from water which has entered the porous bed y at zy, is prevented the fact that these beds are what he calls synclinal (inclining from descending lower by the watertight character of the undertogether), infer that water would be found below at some points lying rock z. "Let B+ be a fault or fissure, from the effect of between B and c. The rock bb rises to the surface, or crops which the continuity of the bed y y is broken, and a portion of out, as it is geologically termed from beneath the rocks a a at it is thrown down to a lower level on the left of the diagram. the height a, where there is a natural spring. To the left of A, If the rock y be tapped by an Artesian perforation at w, the and to the right of c, it is found that beneath 66 is another rock dd, which is impervious to water.
Fig. 43. It is now obvious that water, entering the soil at A and c, will be absorbed by the elevated parts of the rock bb. The
CE percolating water will now pass downward to, and along, the surface of the water-tight rock å d, and take a direction under
у the impervious bed a a, and render the whole rock bb a kind of
3 3 subterranean drain.
The laws of hydrostatic pressure inform us that water, in such conditions, being constantly in effort to find its level, will strive to force its way upward through the overlying beds a a; but being unable to accomplish this, it will, in the natural order of things, remain beneath unexposed to evaporation, unless it can find an outlet at some lower level as at A.
If, under these geological conditions, a boring be made at B, through the beds a a, into the rock bb, the water in that stratum will rise in the well, and play above the surface as high as the dotted line By; that is, it will play as high above the surface 4 Sætion ropresenting a Natural Spring produced by a Faull, and as c is higher than B. The great quantity of water contained
an Artesian Well by boring. in a reservoir so extensive as the bed bb between c and a, and the hydrostatic pressure from c to 6 and from A to b, are suffi- water will immediately rise to the surface. But irrespective of cient to account for the impetuosity and the copiousness of the the artificial boring at w, you have a natural artesian well at B; rush of water at B.
for the fissure or fault B + serves the same office as the artificial The phenomena would be perfectly as represented here, if boring. There is this difference between them : The artificial the heights A and c were of equal elevation. But the height a boring is a mere puncture, as to extent; but the effects of the is lower than the height c, and accordingly the water that fault are felt along a more extensive line downwards, frequently enters ob at o produces, according to hydrostatic laws, an outlet of some miles in length. On this account, springs produced by at a, where there is a natural spring, at the point where 60 faults are more permanent than others. This arises from the mecrops out above dd. You will see, however, even in this case, chanical arrangements of the reservoir, by which a vast quantity that when the Artesian boring has reached the bed bb, the water of water is accumulated, and can only escape by slow degrees. between A and b, as well as that between c and b, will have a Without these natural fissures, which permit the escape of tendency to rush towards the outlet effected at B. In conse- waters from a great depth, many districts would be comparaquence of this tendency, the natural spring at a will either be tively destitute of this great necessary of life, particularly lowered, or have its supply of water diminished, in proportion during long dry seasons. The severe droughts, which dry up to the discharge at B, or until the pressures previously exerted the more superficial springs, are comparatively little feli by be balanced.
those which are produced by faults.
LESSONS IN ENGLISHI.--No. XXIII.
pthrough the folding doors fur to prove it
in his mind
right into the theatre UNCOMBINED SUFFIXES.
aright in all he undertook
the stairs the place intended
the enclosure Tue suffixes of which we have spoken enter into the structure of by
the church the words with which they are severally connected. Thus the ment in amendment forms an essential part of the term. If ment
Here are forty-one different acceptations of the word went. In is sundered from amend, the word amendment ceases to exist; and no other language known to me is this multiplying power exceeded, instead of a noun, there arises a verb, the verb to amend. if, indeed, it is equalled, even in the German ; while in most
Other words are appended to roots without entering into union with languages, as io Latin, in French, and in Spanish, the facility of com. them. For instance, we say cast down and cast up. °Herc down and bination is very much less. up form no part of cast. Cut off down and up, and cast remains the So familiar, however, are Englishmen with the import and the
Yet down and up modify the meaning of cast, and they application of the uncombined adverbs, that I have no need to go modify it in a very important way. And down and up come after through them in detail. It may be more useful to give two or three cast. In some sort, then, they are suffixes. They perform the instances of the way in which they modify the verb to which they part of suffixes in regard to meaning, and they differ from suffixes are subjoined.
Verbs. chiely in not combining with the root as do the suffixes already
SUFFIXES. considered. Hence they appear to be uncombined suffixes. Put.
back ting the two together, I may designate suffixes, properly so called,
down combined suffires, and those that do not enter into the composition
forwards of words, uncombiricd suffixes.
in, into The uncombined suffixes dəron and up are adverbs. Adverbs
aloog form one class of uncombined suffixes. Another class consists of
Run, throw, strike, bring prepositions ; for instance, we say, I speak to, and I speak of.
over, on Here to and of are prepositions. These uncombined suffixes, you see, very materially modify the meaning of the verb to speak. Con.
up sequently, the right employment of prepositions as suffixes is a
under matter of great consequence.
out If you carefully follow me in what immediately ensues, you will
backwards see reason to believe that the English is a very flexible and a very rich language, and that it owes these qualities largely to the ex- Here are fifty-six words made out of four with the aid of istence in a free and uncompounded state of many of its words. suffixes, which being common property may enter into union with Let me explain what I mean by " a free and uncompounded state." many other verbs. In Todd's edition of Dr. Johnson's Dictionary, Suppose that fall and down had coalesced into one word : thus, to sixty-two different applications of the verb to cast are given and falldown ; then falldoren would be a compound, and neither fall exemplified; and this variety is owing mainly to the efficacy of the nor down would be free, being absorbed in the new term. Indeed uncombined suffixes. The diversity of meaning given by these we have in the shape of a noun this very compound, only the terms suflixes is no less remarkable. To run up an account is a very difare inverted as in downfall
. Now down and fall, thus combining, ferent matter from running down an enemy's vessel. By blowing you cannot modify full by using other prefixes ; you cannot, for in. up a citadel, a revolt may be put down. You may enter into a stance, say outfall.
But with dour, as an uncombined prefix, you cave, and you may enter into Milton's Conception of Samson can say fall out equally well with fall down ; and as you can say fall Agonistes. li you have money, you may set up a shop ; if you are out, so can you also say fall in. Indeed the power of expression rich, you may sel up your carriage; if you are liberal, you may, at thus acquired is almost endless. The greater is the pity tliat some the same time, set up a friend; and if you have also a proper spirit, you writers, ignorant of the treasures of the Saxon element of our will not fail to set down the impertinent. Edgar having run through language, and misled by false views of elegance, should have given his fortune, enlisted as a common soldier, and was run through in preference to Latinisms, and frowned on the idiomatic diction battle. To laugh with one's friends is agreeable; to be laughed at which ensues from the employment of our uncombined susłixes. by them is very unpleasant. UNCOMBINED SUPFIXES.
"So long as nature
Will bear up with this exercise, so long 1. Adverbs.
I daily vow to use it."
" It shows a greatness of soul for persons in distress to boar up against “ Away there! lower the mizen yard on deck,"
the storms of fortune.”- Broome.
“They are content to bear with my folly." Sidney. Abafl, on the aft or hind part.
“With such alacrity they bore awny."
Dryden. “Let all hands go amfi.-Anon.
"Whose navy like a stiff-stretch'd cord did shew, Aboard, on board ship.
Till lie bore in, and bent them into flight." Diyle ::. " Resolvid, he said; end rigz'd witl: specily care,
** As a lion bounding in his way
With force augmented bears against his prey." Dryden,
The weight of the body doth bear most upon the knee joints."
Wilkins. The facility of combination afforded by those incombined
" I doubled whether that occasion could bear me out in my confidence." suffixes may be excmpliñed in this verb went.”
-Temple. ( alaft the linnacle
"An eagle fluttereth over her young, and beareth them on her wings." (Emongst the scholars abord the ship
before the picture
(Deul. xxxii. 11.)
“Do you enppose the state of this realm to be so feebie, that it cannot alost in a balloon
bear off a greater blow thau this?"--Haywarıl. qback suddenly
into the house afur from his country 01 of the church
" And bears down all before it with impetuous force." Dryden. vack in a carriage uprcarils toile ceiling
" And ebbing tides bear back upon th' uncertain sand." Dryden. forward in good works
tounel the monument backuaril in morali y
to see his frie: ds
" Cæsar doth bear me hard; but he loves Brutus." Shal-spear. side ward to avoid a pisar.ce
to take a walk
“Give but the word, we'll snatch his damsel up, sitlevrays bitscen the posts high in the air
And bear her off.”
Cato. the croitd
in pocket belong the floor along the highway
To this list nautical phrases would add to bear down on an the roof
enemy, and to bear up against the wind; to bear round a head xurt from the mass
land, and bear over a sea ; to bear by an island, and bear through a (ashore rom the brát Hindir the archw.y
What variety of meaning arises from these uncombined