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A circle is a plane figure contained by one line, which is called the circumference, and is such that all straight lines drawn from a certain point within the figure to the circumference, are equal to one another.
And this point is called the centre of the circle.
A diameter of a circle is a straight line drawn through the See N. centre, and terminated both ways by the circumference. XVIII.
A semicircle is the figure contained by a diameter and the
"A segment of a circle is the figure contained by a straight ❝line, and the circumference it cuts off."
Rectilineal figures are those which are contained by straight lines.
Trilateral figures, or triangles, by three straight lines.
Quadrilateral, by four straight lines.
Multilateral figures, or polygons, by more than four straight lines.
Of three-sided figures, an equilateral triangle is that which has three equal sides.
An isosceles triangle is that which has only two sides equal.
A scalene triangle, is that which has three unequal sides.
A right angled triangle, is that which has a right angle.
An obtuse angled triangle, is that which has an obtuse angle.
An acute angled triangle is that which has three acute angles.
An oblong, is that which has all its angles right angles, but has not all its sides equal.
A rhombus, is that which has its sides equal, but its angles are not right angles.
See N. A rhomboid, is that which has its opposite sides equal to one another, but all its sides are not equal, nor its angles right angles.
All other four-sided figures besides these, are called Trapeziums.
Parallel straight lines, are such as are in the same plane, and which, being produced ever so far both ways, do not meet.
LET it be granted that a straight line may be drawn from any one point to any other point.
That a terminated straight line may be produced to any length in a straight line.
And that a circle may be described from any centre, at any distance from that centre.
A X IOM S.
THINGS which are equal to the same are equal to one another.
If equals be added to equals, the wholes are equal.
If equals be taken from equals, the remainders are equal.
If equals be added to unequals, the wholes are unequal.
If equals be taken from unequals, the remainders are unequal.
Things which are double of the same, are equal to one an-
Things which are halves of the same, are equal to one an-
Magnitudes which coincide with one another, that is, which
The whole is greater than its part.
Two straight lines cannot inclose a space.
"If a straight line meets two straight lines, so as to make
PROPOSITION I. PROBLEM.
To describe an equilateral triangle upon a given finite straight line.
Let AB be the given straight line; it is required to describe an equilateral triangle upon it. From the centre A, at the distance AB, describe the circle BCD, and from the centre B, at the distance BA, describe the circle ACE; and D from the point C, in which the circles cut one another, draw the straight lines CA, CB, to the points A, B; ABC shall be an equilateral triangle.
Because the point A is the centre of the circle BCD, AC is equal to AB; and because the point B is the centre 15 Definiof the circle ACE, BC is equal to BA: But it has been tion. proved that CA is equal to AB; therefore CA, CB, are each of them equal to AB; but things which are equal to the same are equal to one anotherd; therefore CA is equal 1st Axiom. to CB; wherefore CA, AB, BC are equal to one another; and the triangle ABC is therefore equilateral, and it is described upon the given straight line AB. Which was required to be done.
From the point A to B drawa the straight line AB; and upon it describe the equilateral triangle DAB, and produce the straight lines DA, DB, to E and F; from the centre B, at the distance BC described the circle CGH, and from the centre D, at the distance DG describe the circle GKL. AL shall be equal to BC.
PROP. II. PROB.
FROM a given point to draw a straight line equal. to a given straight line.
Let A be the given point, and BC the given straight line; it is required to draw from the point A a straight line equal to BC.
a 1 Post.
b 1. 1.
€ 2 Post.
d 3 Post.