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TO THE

THIRD EDITION.

The principal alterations in the present edition are the following:

The chapters which were the fourth and fixth of the second book are nearly rewritten, on account of an error into which the author had fallen in an attempt to estimate the fruitfulness of marriages and the number of the born living to be married, from the data in registers; and as the chapters, in their present ftate, are not suggested by those which immediately preceded them in the same manner as they were before, they are transferred to the latter part of the book, and now form the ninth and tenth chapters.

In the chapter of the same book, which treats of the Checks to Population in England, a remark has been added to show the incorrectness of confidering the proportion of births as nearly uniform throughout the last century, and consequently of founding an estimate of the population at different periods on such grounds.

In the fifth chapter of the third book an observation has been inserted on the policy as well as

duty duty of affifting the poor through temporary seafons of distress; and in the seventh, eighth, ninth, and tenth chapters of the same book, fome passages have been omitted and others added, particularly in the tenth, which treats of bounties on the exportation of corn, on account of the present importance of the subject, and the discussion which it has lately received.

In the sixth chapter of the fourth book, one pasfage has been omitted, and a passage has been added on the effect of good government in diminishing poverty.

In the seventh chapter of the same book a parfage has been omitted ; and in the eighth chapter a passage of some length, relating to a comparison of the married and unmarried, has been omitted, and an observation added on the propriety of not underrating the desirableness of marriage, while we are inculcating the duties of moral restraint.

These are the most prominent alterations. The reft confift merely of a few verbal corrections, and here and there a short paffage or explanatory note, to prevent misconceptions. These minor corrections occur principally in the two first chapters.

The reader will see that the alterations here mentioned do not affect the principles of the work, and therefore do not essentially lefsen the value of the quarto edition.

In an appendix, an answer is given to the principal objęstiops which have been urged against the

Essay;

Effay; and for the accommodation of the purchasers of the former edition it is printed in quarto, and may be had separately. Those who have no leisure or inclination to read the entire work, will find in the appendix such a notice of its most prominent arguments, as will give them a good general idea of the aim and bent of the whole,

CONTENTS.

2

CONTENTS

OF THE

FIRST VOLUME.

BOOK I.

OF THE CHECKS TO POPULATION IN THE LESS CIVILIZED

PARTS OF THE WORLD AND IN PAST TIMES,

42

Page
CHAP, I. Statement of the Subject. Ratios of the
Increase of Population and Food

Į
Of the general Checks to Population, and
the Mode of their Operation

15
III. Of the Checks to Population in the lowest
Stage of Human Society

30
IV. Of the Checks to Population among the

American Indians
V. Of the Checks to Population in the Islands
of the South Sea

79
VI. Of the Checks to Population among the

ancient Inhabitants of the North of Eu-
rope

I10
VII. Of the Checks to Population among mo-
dern Pastoral Nations

142
VIIl. Of the Checks to Population in different
parts of Africa

170
IX. Of the Checks to Population in Siberia,
Northern and Southern

195
CHAP.

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