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both from them, and from society. Nay, I think it to be incomparably better for the interests of virtue, and ultimately, even for the pecuniary interests of the public, that a small loss should be occasionally incurred, by keeping those employed, who are dependent on public charity, and who are able to work, than that an alms-house should be, to any one who has strength to labour, a life of easy idleness. I would, therefore, that all who are able to work, and either unable, from inefficiency of character, to provide for themselves, or who, if left at large, will not support themselves by their own industry, and who have no friends who will take the charge of them, should be sent to a workhouse. If they will go there at the bidding of an overseer of the poor, it is well. If they refuse to go, an authority should be vested somewhere, which can compel them.

A vagrant, however dependent and miserable, and unfit for self-direction, must now be left free, while he chooses to be at large, till he has committed some crime; and he is then sent to prison for one, or two, or three, or six months, again to be sent forth, more expert in knavery, but not more inclined to labour, though perhaps physically more capable than before. To me, indeed, seems most absurd, to talk of the personal rights, and of the constitutionally guarantied freedom of those who not only have nothing, and who, though able, will do nothing, for self-support, but whose example is every day extending corruption to those around them. They are, indeed, sent to prison, when they are found in a state of brutal drunkenness. But instead of this, there should be as well defined an authority to send them to a work-house, even when

they are not intoxicated, or if they do not reduce them selves to the debasement of great intoxication, as there is to send a thief to a jail. There, they not only might do much for self-support, and many of them, even more than would be required for their support, but they might, and should, be treated as moral and immortal beings, who are to be instructed, and reclaimed, and saved. It is a most palpable injustice, a crying wickedness, to commit a man for intemperance to the same prison, to which men are sent for theft, and forgery, and counterfeiting, and other equally heinous civil offences. Let this principle be adopted, and faithfully acted upon, with a judicious classification of the subjects, and the number will be considerably lessened of the inmates of our prisons. Nor would there then be the attraction there is now in alms-houses, to the idle, the able-bodied beggar. Nor is this all the good that would be so obtained. The demand for charity in this city would then be much less than it now is; the facilities for supplying the wants of the better classes of the poor would be greatly increased the vice of the city would be greatly reduced' in its amount; and, by the Christian discipline of the house, some at least of these poor vagrants, all of whom would otherwise die as miserably as they have lived, would be made to live virtuously, and to die happily.

The third class named, was that of orphan children who are not vicious.

These, as far as provision can be so made for them, are the proper subjects for male and female orphan asylums; and where they cannot be so provided for, they should be sent to an Alms-House. With us, occasionally, children are received into these asylums,

who are not orphans. But it is only in cases in which the parent, or parents, either from extreme and hopeless poverty, or by moral incapacity, are unfitted to retain the charge of their children. The children in these asylums are instructed in the free schools of our city; and they have other important advantages over those, who are in our alms-house. But it will be difficult to make this provision for half the poor children in a city, who must be supported either by private, or by public benevolence.

The fourth class, in this division of the poor, are vicious children, who cannot be controlled by their parents, or guardians.

For these children, we have an institution called

The School of Reformation." In this school children are reclaimed from vice, and qualified for usefulness, You have one for the same objects, called " The Re. fuge.” These institutions I consider as second to none, except our public schools and our churches, for the prevention of pauperism, and crime, and misery. They are, however, of so recent a date every where, that much is to be learned by the public, as well concerning the proper subjects for them, as the immense moral benefits to which they may be conducive; and by their directors and superintendants, respecting the true mode of conducting them. I would, however, lay it down as a principle, that every boy and every girl, under fifteen or sixteen

years

of
age,

who can neither be kept at school, nor at any regular and useful employment, and who is beyond parental control, who has begun to be a nuisance, and who, if left to go on, must and will fall into crime, should, if possible, before the guilt of crime has been incurred, be sent to this Refuge

or School. And there let them be committed to the care of those, who, like Mr. Wells, the excellent Superintendant of our School, “ have no hesitation in saying, that every boy under the

age
of fifteen

years,

and somewhat older, however bad he may have been, CAN BE REFORMED;" and we shall find these schools to be imme. diate, and great blessings, in the relief and comfort which they will bring to poor and greatly distressed parents. I know how great is this relief, for I have had opportunities of witnessing it. And I have had the happiness, too, of seeing children, whom I have been instrumental in placing there, and who had seemed to be past recovery, restored to virtue and usefulness, and giving unspeakable joy to the hearts of parents, whom they had most deeply distressed by their departures from virtue. In a few years, we shall see the effects of these institutions, in the diminished numbers of our street vagrants, and of the inmates of our prisons. The interest of the whole community should be enlisted in favour of these schools; and a minister of the poor may do much, both to enlighten the public judgment respecting them, and to assist the parents of disobedient children, in securing this provision for their salvation and happiness. These institutions furnish, to my mind, one of the noblest triumphs which our religion has obtained over sin. If established as extensively as they should be, and supported by public favour as they deserve to be, they will be for temporal and spiritual salvation to many ten thousands.

From these let us turn to the second great division which we have made of the poor. I mean to those who ought not to be sent either to a work-house, or to an alms-house.

who are not orphans. But it is only in cases in which the parent, or parents, either from extreme and hopeless poverty, or by moral incapacity, are unfitted to retain the charge of their children. The children in these asylums are instructed in the free schools of our city; and they have other important advantages over those, who are in our alms-house. But it will be difficult to make this provision for half the poor children in a city, who must be supported either by private, or by public benevolence.

The fourth class, in this division of the poor, are vicious children, who cannot be controlled by their parents, or guardians.

For these children, we have an institution called

The School of Reformation.” In this school children are reclaimed from vice, and qualified for usefulness, You have one for the same objects, called “ The Re. fuge.” These institutions I consider as second to none, except our public schools and our churches for the prevention of pauperism, and crime, and misery. They are, however, of so recent a date every where, that much is to be learned by the public, as well concerning the proper subjects for them, as the immense moral benefits to which they may be conducive; and by their directors and superintendants, respecting the true mode of conducting them. I would, however, lay it down as a principle, that every boy and every girl, under fifteen or sixteen years of age, who can neither be kept at school, nor at any regular and useful employment, and who is beyond parental control, who has begun to be a nuisance, and who, if left to go on, must and will fall into crime, should, if possible, before the guilt of crime has been incurred, be sent to this Refuge

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