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ments of the Missisippi Territory and the Choctaw nation.--And the said nation does by these presents relinquish to the United States and quit claim forever, all their right, title and pretension to the land lying between the said line and the Missisippi river, bounded south by the thirty-first degree of north latitude, and north by the Yazoo rivery where the said line shall strike the same; and on the part of the commissioners it is agreed, that all persons who may be settled beyond this line shall be removed within it, on the side towards the Missisippi together with their slaves, household furniture, tools, materials and stock, and that the cabbins or houses crected by such persons shall be demolished.
The president of the United States, may, at his discretion, proceed to execute the second article of this treaty; and the third article may be carried into effect as soon as may be convenient to the government of the United States, and without unnecessary delay on the part of the other, of which the president shall be the judge; the Choctaws to be seasonably advised, by order of the president of the United States, of the time when, and the place where, the re-survey and re-marking of the okl line referred to in the preceding article, will be commenced.
The commissioners of the United States for, and in consideration of the foregoing concessions on the part of the Choctaw nation, and in full satisfaction for the same, do give and deliver to the Mingos, chiefs and warriors of the said nation, at the signing of these presents, the value of two thousand dollars in goods and inerchandise, nett cost of Philadel phia, the receipt whereof is lately acknowledged, and they further agree to give three sets of blacksmith's tools to the said nation.
This treaty shall take effect and be obligatory on the contracting parties, so soon as the same shall be ratified by the president of the United States of America, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof.
Done at Fort Adams, on the Missisippi, the seventh day of December in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and one.
Articles of a Treaty
Concluded at Hopewell, on the Keowee, near Seneca Old Town, on the tenth day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and ciglay-six, between Benjamin Hawkins, Andrew Pickens, and Joseph Martin, Commissioners plenipotentiary of the United States of America, of the one part; and Piomingo, Head Warrior and first Minister of the Chickasaw Nation; Mingatushka, one of the leading Chiefs; and Latopoia, first beloved Man of the said Nation, Commissioners plenipotentiary of all the Chickasaws, of the other part.
HE commissioners plenipotentiary of the United States of Amethe favor and protection of the sail states, on the following conditions;
The commissioners plenipotentiary of the Chickasaw nation, shall restore all the prisoners, citizens of the United States, to their entire liberty, if any there be in the Chickasaw nation. They shall also restore all the negroes, and all other property taken during the late war, from the citizens, if any there be in the Chickasaw nation, to such person, and at such time and place, as the commissioners of the United States of America shall appoint.
The commissioners plenipotentiary of the Chickasaws, do hereby acknowledge the tribes and the towns of the Chickasaw nation, to be under the protection of the United States of America, and of no other sovereign whosoever.
The boundary of the lands hereby allotted to the Chickasaw nation to live and hunt on, within the limits of the United States of America, is, and shall be the following, viz. Beginning on the ridge that divides the waters running into the Cumberland, from those running into the Tennessee, at a point in a line to be run north-east, which shall strike the Tonnessee, at the mouth of Duck river; thence running westerly along the said ridge, till it shall strike the Ohio; thence down the sou thern banks thereof to the Missisippi; thence down the same, to the Choctaw line of Natches district; thence along the said line, or the line of the district eastwardly as far as the Chickasaws claimed, and lived and hunted on, the twenty-ninth of November, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-two. Thence the said boundary, eastwardly, shall be the Jands allotted to the Choctaws and Cherokees to live and hunt on, and the lands at present in the possession of the Creeks; saving and reserve. ing for the establishment of a trading post, a tract or parcel of land to be laid out at the lower post of the Muscle shoals, at the mouth of Ocochappo, in a circle, the diameter of which shall be five miles on the
river, which post, and the lands annexed thereto, shall be to the use and under the government of the United States of America.
If any citizen of the United States, or other person not being an Indian, shall attempt to settle on any of the lands hereby allotted to the Chickasaws to live and hunt on, such person shall forfeit the protection of the United States of America, and the Chickasaws may punish him or not, as they please.
If any Indian or Indians, or persons residing among them, or whơ shall take refuge in their nation, shall commit a robbery or murder, or other capital crime, on any citizen of the United States, or person under their protection, the tribe to which such offender or offenders may be long, or the nation, shall be bound to deliver him or them up to be punished according to the ordinances of the United States in Congress assembled: Provided, that the punishment shall not be greater, than if the robbery or murder, or other capital crime, had been committed by a citizen on a citizen.
The name of the River not in the original.
If any citizen of the United States of America, or person under their protection, shall commit a robbery or murder, or other capital crime, on any Indian, such offender or offenders shall be punished in the same manner as if the robbery or murder or other capital crime had been committed on a citizen of the United States of America; and the punishment shall be in presence of some of the Chickasaws, if any will attend at the time and place, and that they may have an opportunity so to do, due notice, if practicable, of such intended punishment, shall be sent to some one of the tribes.
It is understood that the punishment of the innocent under the idea of retaliation is unjust, and shall not be practised on either side, except where there is a manifest violation of this treaty; and then it shall be preceded, first by a demand of justice, and if refused, then by a decla ration of hostilities,
For the benefit and comfort of the Indians, and for the prevention of injuries or oppressions on the part of the citizens or Indians, the United States in Congress assembled shall have the sole and exclusive right of regulating the trade with the Indians, and managing all their affairs in such manner as they think proper.
Until the pleasure of Congress be known respecting the eighth ar ticle, all traders, citizens of the United States, shall have liberty to go to any of the tribes or towns of the Chickasaws to trade with them, and they shall be protected in their persons and property, and kindly treated. ARTICLE X.
The said Indians shall give notice to the citizens of the United States of America, of any designs which they may know or suspect to be formed in any neighboring tribe, or by any person whosoever, against the peace, trade or interests of the United States of America.
The hatchet shall be forever burica, an i the peace given by the United States of America, and friendship re-established between the said states on the one part, and the Chickasaw nation on the other part, shall be universal; and the contracting parties shall use their utmost endeavors to maintain the peace given as aforesaid, and friendship re-established.
A Treaty of reciprocal Advantage and mutual Convenience,
Between the United States of America, and the Chickasaws, concluded aṛ Chickasaw Bluffs, on the twenty-fourth day of October, in the year one thousand eight hundred and one.
HIE president of the United States of America, by James Wilkinson, brigadier-general in the service of the United States, Benjamin Hawkins of North-Carolina, and Andrew Pickens of South-Carolina, Commissioners of the United States, who are vested with full powers,
and the Mingeo, principal men and warriors of the Chickasaw nation, representing the said nation, have agreed to the following articles. ARTICLE I
The Mingeo, principal men and warriors of the Chickasaw nation of Indians, give leave and permission to the president of the United States of America, to lay out, open and make a convenient waggon-road through their land between the settlements of Mero district in the state of Tennessee, and those of Natchez in the Missisippi Territory, ia such way and manner as he may decin proper; and it shall be a highway for the citizens of the United States and the Chickasaws. The Chickasaws shall appoint two discrect men to serve as assistants, guides or pilots, during the time of laying out and opening the road, under the direction of the officer charged with that duty, who shall have a reasonable compensation for their service; Provided always, that the necessary ferries over the water courses crossed by the said road shall be held and deemed to be the property of the Chickasaw nątion. ARTICLE
The commissioners of the United States give to the Mingeo of the Chickasaws, and the deputation of that nation, goods to the value of seven hundred dollars, to compensate him and them and their attendants for the expense and inconvenience they may have sustained by their respectful and friendly attention to the president of the United States of America, and to the request made to them in his name, to permit the opening of the road. And as the persons, towns, villages, lauds, hunting-ground, and other rights and property of the Chieke, Saws, as set forth in the treaties cr stipulations heretofore entered into between the contracting parties, more especially in and by a certificate of the president of the United States of America, under their seal of the first of July 1794 are in the peace and under the protection of the United States. The commissioners of the United States do hereby further agree, that the president of the United States of America sha I take such measures from time to time, as he may think proper, to assist the Chickasaws to preserve entire all their rights against the che croachments of unjust neighbors, of which he shall be the judge, an 1 also to preserve and perpetuate friendship and brother..ood between the white people and the Chickasaws.
The commissioners of the United States may, if they deem it advisable, proceed immediately to carry the first article into operation, and the treaty shall take effect and be obligatory on the contracling parties as soon as the same shall have been ratified by the president of the United States of America, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate of the United States.
A Treaty of Peace and Friendship
Male and concluded at the city of New-York, on the seventh day of August, one thousand seven hundred and ninety, between the President of the Unit ed States of America, on the he part, and the Kings, Chiefs and War riors of the Creek Nation of Indians, on the other past.
HE parties being desirous of establishing permanent peace and friendship between the United States and the said Crock. Nation,
and the citizens and members thereof, and to remove the causes of war by ascertaining their limits, and making other necessary, just and friendly arrangements: The president of the United Statesby Henry Knox, secretary for the department of war, whom he hath constituted with full powers for these purposes, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate of the United States, and the Creek Nation, by the kings, chiefs and warriors, representing the said nation, have agreed to the following articles.
There shall be perpetual peace and friendship between all the citizens of the United States of America, and all the individuais, towns and tribes of the Upper, Middle and Lower Creeks and Semanoties, composing the Creek nation of Indians.
The kings, chiefs and warriors, for themselves and all parts of the Creek nation within the limits of the United States, do acknowledge themselves, and the said parts of the Creek nation, to be under the protection of the United States of America, and of no other sovereign whosoever; and they also stipulate that the said Creek nation will not hold any treaty with an individual state, or with individuals of any state, ARTICLE II!.
The Creek nation shall deliver as soon as practicable to the commanding officer of the troops of the United States, stationed at the Rock-Landing on the Oconee river, all citizens of the United States, white inhabitants or negroes, who are now prisoners in any part of the said nation. And if any such prisoners or negroes should not be sọ delivered, on or before the first day of June ensuing, the governor of Georgia may empower three persons to repair to the said nation, in order to claim and receive such prisoners and negroes.
The boundary between the citizens of the United States and the Creek Nation is, and shall be, from where the old line strikes the river Savannah; thence up the sai liver to a place on the most northern branch of the same, cominorly called the Keowee, where a north-east line to be drawn from the top of the Occune mountain shall intersect; thence along the stid line in a south-west direction to Tugdo river; thence to the top of the Currahee mountain; thence to the head or source of the main south branch of the Oconee river, called the Appalachee ; thence down the middle of the said main south branch and river Oconee, to its confluence with the Oakmulgee, which form the river Altamaha ; and thence down the middle of the said Altamaha to the old line on the said river, and thence along the said cldine to the river St. Mary's.
And in order to preclude forever all disputes relatively to the head or source of the main south branch of the river Oconee, at the place where it shall be intersected by the line aforesaid, from the Currahee mountain, the same shall be ascertained by an able surveyor on the part of the United States, who shall be assisted by three cll citizens of Georgia, who may be appointed by the governor of the said state, and three old Creek chiefs, to be appointed by the said nation; and the said surveyor, citizens and chiefs shail assemble for this purpose, on the first day of October one thousand seven hundred and inety-ene, at the