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and not with a criminal? Give a little more force to the muscles, and a little more strength to these instincts and you would have the most cruel forms of impulsive and reasoning mania, always united with a most intelligent mind. This case may properly be called one of insanity, but such cases among adults would rightly be called crimes. From every side, then, it appears that in their first manifestations crime and moral insanity do not offer any difference.”

A small number of anecdotes, however, will not suffice to prove that the instinct of crime occurs among children to the same degree or even greater than among adults. Consequently the following examinations were ade in houses of correction and children's schools, to see if young criminals present the physical anomalies found among adults. Among 79 children, under 12 years of age, confined in houses of correction, among whom were 40 robbers, 27 vagabonds, and 7 homicides the following anomalies were found in the order of their frequency :

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30 had deformed ears.

2 had deformed mouths. 21 had a small and retreating 14 had asymmetrical faces. forehead.

10 had the forehead covered. 19 were plagiocephalic (with 10 had the physiognomy of cretins. oblique asymmetrical skull).

9 were goitrous. 16 had projecting cheek bones.

9 had deformed noses. 15 had raised sutures.

8 had small and glassy eyes. 14 had prominent jaws.

2 were prognathous. 7 had a raised frontal sinus.

2 had deflected noses. 6 were hydrocephalic.

2 had retreating.chins. 5 had oblique vision.

2 had sombre aspect. 5 had strabismus.

2 had cardiac disease 5 had arrested development.

2 were scrofulous. 4 had very thick hair.

2 had the frontal suture remaining 4 had the senile physiognomy. 1 was platycephalic. 4 were ultra dolichocephalous. 1 was oxycephalic.

3 had projecting forehead, as well 1 had premature white hair. as the orbital angle.

1 bad enormous face. 3 had large and elongated ears. 1 had superposed teeth. 3 had scars on the head.

1 had exophthalmia. 2 were ultra brachycephalous.

1 nystagmus. 1 unequal pupils.

Of this whole number only 7 (or 8.9 per cent.) had no abnormality of constitution, and, as regards heredity, 46 per cent. bad distinct hereditary anomalies. For the purpose of comparison, 160

children of the communal schools were examined with the following results :

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The most noticeable feature of this table is the excessive number of moral anomalies among these children; and we shall see that the only supposition that can be held regarding them is that with time these would have disappeared. Among the criminal children the morbid physical characteristics were 69 per cent. or more than double the number among those who had no moral anomaly, with whom the physical anomalies only reached 30 per cent. The same thing is seen in the cases of morbid heredity among the immoral children, where the bad heredity reaches 52 per cent., while among the others it reaches only 15 per cent. This difference would appear even more striking if the children who are called semi-delinquents are studied (i. e., the masturbators and robbers), among whom the physical anomalies reach the numbers respectively of 72 and 83 per cent., and bad heredity 70 and 66 per cent. The conclusion that Lombroso feels justified in drawing is the following (p. 138) :

The moral anomalies which in the adult would constitute criminality show themselves in children in very much larger proportions and with the same signs, due especially to hereditary causes ; these same anomalies are likely to disappear later, owing to the help of proper education, for without this disappearance it would not be possible to explain the small proportions of the criminal type among adults, even reckoning the difference resulting from mortality and the number of those who escape the laws. The psychical anomalies are in double proportion and even reach a higher pumber among the young persons tainted with immorality, the ratio being 69 per cent. among these, to 30 per cent. among the normal,- and heredity raises this proportion to triple, or 52 per cent. to 15 per cent.

But there is a well established fact that psychical anomalies and heredity may occur together, although in less proportion, in perfectly normal individuals, just as we may see honest children that are the issue of bad parents.

Arrived now at the study of the full grown criminal,- wherein does he differ from bis more honest neighbor? The lines along which we may expect to find a divergence from the normal type have already been foreshadowed in our study of children and savages. Beginning with the cranium, the capacity, circumference and angles have been subjected to the most minute measurements, but of these only the bare results can be set down here. Assuming, then, that all the conclusions which follow are based on the most carefully constructed tables, what do we find? As regards cranial capacity, the weight of authority is that it is inferior to the normal, although this one point is not so well established as the other physical anomalies. Criminals are marked by extremes of cranial capacity; the greatest numbers being of small crania, and perhaps also of the very largest is one of their characteristics. It is certain that in the intermediate and normal capacities they are wanting.

We cannot follow out all the details of the measurements, but may record at once the conclusions from the anthropometrical measurements upon the cadavers which show the inferiority of criminals, especially robbers, in cranial capacity (which is on the contrary enormous in certain assassins), and in the circumference of the cranium; they are also inferior in the exaggerated cephalic index, in the orbital capacity, in the marked development of the jaw, and in the increase of the diameter and of the height of the face.

The brain shows abnormalities of an analo_ous order; in general the volume is inferior to the normal except in a few cases of hypertrophy; and the convolutions show frequent atavistic anomalies, as in the separation of the calcarine fissure from the occipital, the formation of an operculus of the occipital lobe, and in certain absolutely atypical deviations in the frontal lobe.

As regards the other parts of the body, the delinquent has a taller figure, a greater stretch of arms, a more ample thorax, a darker head of hair, and a greater weight than in the normal man or in the insane; the cranial index compared with the ethnic index is exaggerated ; and there are frequent cranial and fac al asymmetries, especially in ravishers and robbers, but these are not so common as in the insane ; less frequently than in the insane, too, he has atheroma of the temporal arteries, abnormal implantation of the ears, lack of beard, nystagmus, mydriasis ; prognathism, inequality of the pupils, deformed nose, and projecting forehead occur in equal proportions with the insane; more frequently than in the insane or in normal individuals, the delinquent has an extraordinary development of the zygomatic apophyses, and of the jaw; the sombre eye, the coarse, black hair,- these last being especially common among highway robbers. Incendiaries and robbers always have a figure, a weight, and a muscular force inferior to that of brigands and homicides; blond hair is common among ravishers and black among robbers, murderers, and incendiaries. A study of the photographs of criminals shows that they are sufficiently characteristic; that the physiognomical type of the criminal can be fixed in twenty-five per cent. with a maximum of thirty-six per cent. for assassins, and a minimum of six to eight per cent. for bigamists. Photographs also show the frequency of the feminine aspect among certain robbers and paederasts, and of virility among certain female criminals, especially murderers. A study of 800 free men showed that there were sometimes found among them degenerative physiognomical characteristics, but these usually occurred in the same persons, and were many times justified by latent criminality or by cretinic degeneration. The study of living subjects confirms, although less exactly and less constantly, this frequency of microcephalies, of asymmetries, of oblique orbits, of prognathism, and of developed, frontal sinuses. It shows new analogies between the insane, the savage, and the delinquent class.

The prognathism, the abundant black and crisp hair, the scanty beard, the common brown skin, the oxycephalous head, the

, oblique eyes, the small cranium, the developed jaw and zygomas, the projecting forehead, the large ears, the increased stretch of the arms,— these are the new characteristics which, joined to the necroscopic characteristics, ally. the European criminal to the Australian or Mongol type ; while the strabismus, the cranial asymmetry, and the grave, histological anomalies, the osteomata, the meningeal and cardiac lesions, show us, in the criminal, a man abnormal before his birth, either by the arrest of development, or by acquired disease of different organs, especially of the nervous system, as in the insane; and, in fact, the delinquent is a veritable malade.

Before leaving the physical anomalies of the criminal class, reference may be made to one or two more recent researches than those we have been considering. "At the first Congress of Russian alienists, within the year (1887), Dr. Prascovia N. Tarnovskaia, of St. Petersburg, communicated the results of the anthropometric examination of fifty habitual prostitutes, who had all been inmates of brothels for a period of not less than two years. For the sake of comparison, she examined, in the same way, fifty peasant women of the same age, and, as far as possible, of the same intellectual development, etc. The result of this, probably, unique investigation may be summed up as follows: 1. The prostitutes presented a shortening amounting to half a centimetre of the antero-posterior diameter of the skull. 2. As many as eighty-four per cent. of habitual prostitutes showed various signs of physical degeneration, such as irregularity in the shape of the skull, asymmetry of the face, anomalies of the hard palate, teeth,

ars, etc. 3. In eighty-two per cent. of the prostitutes, the parents were habitual drunkards. 4. In eighteen per cent. of cases, the prostitute examined was the last survivor of a large family of eight to thirteen children, all of whom had died at an early age.

5. These facts afford ground for the belief that prostitutes, as a class, furnish the largest contingent of subjects predisposed to nervous and mental affections."

The second observation comes from Italy again, which has been so fertile in these studies. “A study bas been made by Dr. Peracchia of the differences between criminals and law-abiding

1 Medical Record, July 16, 1887. Quoted from British Medical Journal.

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