Εικόνες σελίδας
PDF
Ηλεκτρ. έκδοση

An Experiment in Feeding Calves. Twelve calves were divided into three lots of four each and fed for 74 days. The following table shows the kind and amount of food consumed and the gain of the calves in weight:

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][subsumed][merged small][ocr errors][merged small]

1. Find the average daily gain per head, and the cost of food per pound of gain, the following being the value per cwt. of each kind of food : Skim-milk, 12c.; hay, 30c.; oat meal, 75c.; corn meal, 65c.; flaxseed, $ 2.50.

Experiments in Feeding Swine.* The following gives the averages of many fundred experiments in feeding swine. “ Pounds of feed” means pounds of grain or its equivalent. Six pounds of skim-milk or 12 pounds of whey were counted as 1"pound of feed.” This is in accord with the Danish valuation.

Weight of pigs in

pounds.

Pounds of feed Pounds of gain Feed required for per head per day. per head per day. 100 pounds gain.

[blocks in formation]

2. Find the number of pounds of feed required for 100 lb. of gain in each instance.

* The data given under this head are from FEEDS AND FEEDING by Prof. W.A. Henry of the University of Wisconsin. The tests were made at Agricultural Experiment Stations in many states.

• Nutritive Ratio." The chemist sometimes divides the dry part of food constituents into three groups, namely: protein compounds, carbohydrates, and ether-extract.*

Protein contains nitrogen and is a “muscle former.”
The carbohydrates contain no nitrogen and are “fat formers.”
Ether-extract contains no nitrogen and is a “fat former.”

The nutritive ratio is the ratio of the muscle formers to the fat formers in any article of food. Since ether-extract is more valuable as a food constituent than the carbohydrates, it is customary to multiply the digestible ether-extract by 2.4 before making the comparison. Thus; the digestible constituents of 100 lb. of clover hay are as follows; Protein, 6.8 lb. ; carbohydrates, 35.8 lb.; ether-extract, 1.7 lb. In determining the nutritive ratio of clover hay, 6.8 lb. is compared with 35.8 lb. + 2.4 times 1.7 lb., or 6.8:39.88 = 1:5.8+.+

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small]

1. Find the nutritive ratio for each kind of food mentioned in the table. †

* The protein compounds, or proteids, include gluten, albumin, casein, etc. The carbohydrates consist of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen, and include sugar, starch, and cellulose. The term ether-extract is applied to a variety of compounds, the most important of which is oil or “fat."

+ This ratio is usually given with a unit for the first term and with the second term true to tenths.

The figures in this table are taken by permission from FEEDS AND FEEDING by Prof. W. A. Henry of the University of Wisconsin.

§ “The dry stocks of corn from which the ears have been removed.” HENRY.

The “ Balanced Ration." 1. What is the nutritive ratio of a ration consisting of equal parts of clover hay and oat straw ?

2. What is the nutritive ratio of a feed of corn and skim-milk, mixed in the proportion of 2 lb. of milk to 1 lb. of corn ?

3. The theoretical nutritive ratio of food adapted to the needs of a horse engaged in light work, is 1:7. Find the nutritive ratio of each combination of foods named below and note whether it is wider or narrower* than 1:7.

(a) Two parts by weight of timothy hay to one of corn. (b) Two parts clover hay to one part of oats.

(c) Five parts clover hay, five parts timothy hay, five parts corn, and one part oil meal.

4. The theoretical nutritive ratio of food adapted to fattening swine, first period, † is 1:5.9. Find the nutritive ratio of each combination of foods named below, and note whether it is wider or narrower * than 1:5.9.

(a) One part by weight of corn to one part of oats.

(b) Ten parts corn, ten parts skim-milk, and one part oil meal.

5. The theoretical nutritive ratio of food adapted to the needs of a milch cow weighing 1000 lb. and giving daily 22 lb. (about 11 quarts) of milk, is 1:5.7. Find the nutritive ratio of each combination of foods named below, and note whether it is wider or narrower than 1:5.7.

(a) Three parts timothy hay and one part of corn.

(b) Ten parts clover hay, ten parts corn stover, five parts corn, five parts wheat bran, and two parts oil meal.

* A nutritive ratio in which the proportion of fat formers to muscle formers is large (as, oat straw, 1:33.7) is said to be a wide ratio ; while one in which this proportion is comparatively small (as oil meal, 1:1.7) is said to be a narrow nutritive ratio. The nutritive ratio of corn (1:9.8) is wider than that of oats (1:6.2).

+ Writers upon this subject divide the fattening time into three periods. The proper nutritive ratio is wider for the second period than for the first ; and wider for the third period than for the second.

On the Farm.

1. If hills of corn are 33 ft. apart each way,

how

many hills to the acre ?

2. If, in a field of corn planted as stated in Problem 1, there is on the average 11 lb. of corn to each hill, counting 80 lb. to the bushel to allow for shrinkage, what is the yield per acre ?

3. If potatoes are planted in rows 3 feet apart, and in hills 2 feet apart in the row, how many hills to the acre ?

4. If, in a field planted as stated in Problem 3, the yield on the average is 1} lb. to the hill, what is the yield per acre?

5. How many rods of fence will inclose a 40-acre square field and divide it into 10-acre square fields ?

6. If the posts are placed exactly 1 rod apart, how many will be required for the fencing described in Problem 5 ?

7. How far must a man travel in plowing 3 acres of land (a) with a 16-inch plow ? (b) With a gang of 2 12-inch plows?

8. How many 160-acre farms in a township 6 miles long and 6 miles wide?

9. If there is a 4-rod road on every section line * of a township exactly 6 miles square, (a) how many acres of the township in its roads ? (b) How many acres of each square 160-acre farm are taken for roads ?

10. If in mowing a square 10-acre field, one begins on the outer edge of the field and mows around it thus working towards the center, what part of the field is mowed when a strip 4 rods wide has been cut?

11. If corn is planted as stated in Problem 1, and when mature is cut and put into shocks each shock containing the corn from a piece 12 hills square, how many shocks to the acre ?

* A section is 1 mile square, and half of the width of the road is on each side of every section line.

SUPPLEMENTARY PROBLEMS.

To supply the necessary amount of work for schools in which there are nine grades below the high school and for such other teachers and pupils as desire to devote more time to the subject of arithmetic than is required to complete the work on the preceding pages, the following supplementary problems are provided. The figures in black type refer to supplemented pages.

25. Add the following by column and by line: 1. $34.25 $146.10 $321.94 $7.36 $31.37 $4.20 2. $55.32 $241.34 $465.74 $3.27 $52.30 $5.20 3. $65.75 $853.90 $678.06 $2.64 $68.63 $5.80 4. $44.68 $758.66 $534.26 $6.73 $47.70 $4.80 5. $37.50 $254.90 $175.32 $8.21 $35.27 $8.05 6. $14.64 $541.39 $371.16 $5.55 $51.15 $6.84 7. $73.25 $627.31 $808.82 $7.46 $38.94 $5.47 8. $62.50 $745.10 $824.68 $1.79 $64.73 $4.32 9. $85.36 $458.61 $628.54 $4.45 $54.32 $1.95 10. $26.75 $372.69 $191.18 $6.54 $48.85 $3.16 11. $58.42 $164.94 $765.43 $2.54 $61.06 $4.53 12. $41.58 $876.54 $325.16 $5.05 $38.83 $6.66 13. $98.76 $835.06 $674.84 $4.95 $61.17 $3.34 14 15

17

18 19

16

20. Find the sum of the sums of the lines.
21. Find the sum of the sums of the columns.

TO THE PUPIL. - Do not shrink from such a task as this.

The question is not, - Do you know how to add ? but, - Can you add accurately? Without reference to the Answer Book or comparison with the work of other pupils, find every sum called for on this page. Do this with so much care that you will be absolutely certain of the accuracy of the results. Without the ability to add without errors, you will be worthless as an accountant.

« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »