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nized, while the careless workman who refuses to exercise care, and whose carelessness results in injury to himself or his fellow worker, will find himself equally under the ban. We recognize that all these desirable things cost money, and that employers have already complained of the burdens put upon them through legislation. It is not our desire to add to these burdens, but to point out a way to lessen those already being carried, by common sense methods that have prevailed in Europe for many years.
The elimination of waste means decreased cost and increased output. The saving to the Commonwealth through the administration of the Workmen's Compensation Act, in lessened court costs and the reduced calls on State, county and municipal charity, is already several times more than the cost of administering the act.
If the lives of hundreds of wage earners can be saved annually, and the prevention of thousands of serious accidents or cases of occupational diseases can be secured, — as they can be through the agencies the Commonwealth has already provided, – much in a material way will have been contributed to society in general, and thousands of homes that in the past have been saddened by these preventable accidents and diseases will no longer know the pinch and suffering occasioned by those two great enemies of society, carelessness and waste.
Dr. W. H. Tolman, director of the American Museum of Safety, in his book on “Safety,” says:
Industrial hygiene now occupies the same plane of social welfare as general hygiene. Workmen suffering from occupational ailments are also, through lowered vitality, rendered more susceptible to infectious diseases by which the general health of an entire community is sometimes imperiled.
The principles of industrial hygiene are the same as those of hygiene in general. The ventilation, heating, lighting, dust removal and water supply in foundry, mill and workshop should receive the same care and consideration as in the most sanitary dwelling.
Unsanitary workrooms have an economic bearing on the output of a plant. Sanitary conditions mean that the employer has the continuous service which results in the fullest co-operation. The small outlay for accident prevention and better health conditions is always very quickly made up by the lessened charges for accident compensation and payments for sick benefits. The larger industries have their own laboratories for testing the noxious qualities of substances and for new investigations. But for the thousands of smaller plants an organization like a museum of safety is a necessity, for only from such a source may this specialized knowledge be secured.
In industry there are certain occupational diseases and dangers not met with in other callings and professions; among these may be mentioned the dangers to health due to industrial poisons, such as lead, antimony, mercury, phosphorus, etc., and to the animal, vegetable, fiber, mineral and metal dusts encountered in the various trades.
The prevention of occupational diseases is not merely a social duty,
the duty of every man towards his brother man. Economic consideration and the world's competitive struggle make it imperative that the health and strength of our wage earners be maintained at the highest point of efficiency for the maximum period. Those familiar with the subject of industrial hygiene recognize the value of healthy, skilled workers. The means used to promote the health of workers, therefore, are worth many times over what they cost the employer in money, time and thought.
For example, work in foundries and their various branches is generally of a complex nature, and because of this conditions vary in different shops and localities.
Of first importance in depriving the management of continuous service at high efficiency are pulmonary and bronchial troubles, tuberculosis in its various forms, diphtheria, hernia, rheumatism, heart and kidney troubles. Then follow burns, bruises, sprains and internal injuries. Causes for the ailments first mentioned are poorly lighted, ventilated and heated shops, unsanitary lockers, washing facilities and waterclosets, besides lack of room for drying and changing clothing. Injuries in the second category are generally due to insufficient space, lack of inspection of mechanical devices and improper footwear in the case of men handling molten metal.
AIDS TO ACCIDENT PREVENTION. The Legislature of Massachusetts, recognizing the economic value of the conservation of life and limb by accident prevention in the form of safeguards and educational methods, and the conservation of health through a study of occupational diseases, placed the responsibility for bringing about better conditions in industry upon the Joint Board, consisting of the Board of Labor and Industries and the Industrial Accident Board, and has given power to the Joint Board to order the installation of safety devices and to make rules and regulations covering occupational diseases. Through the inspectors of both Boards this work is to be carried on under proper direction, but the active cooperation of employers and employees is absolutely required in order that the best results may be obtained. In order that this work may be carried on to the best advantage, it has been decided that the Industrial Accident Board shall establish a museum of safety which shall be a clearing house for information in regard to these important matters.
In nearly every important European country these museums are considered among the best educational features for accident prevention work. The American Museum of Safety, in New York, which is affiliated with all the European Safety Museums, is the only one in the United States to-day, and has done a wonderful work under its director, Dr. W. H. Tolman. It simplifies greatly the work of the inspectors because there are exhibited safety appliances of all kinds, covering practically every grade of hazard, and a manufacturer can select from among the devices thus exhibited such as will meet his need, and this avoids the indorsement or advocacy on the part of the inspectors of any particular safety device. Here must be collected the results of the best shop practices at home and abroad. It is a new work that the employers of Massachusetts must now engage in, and one which the Industrial Accident Board wishes to make as little burdensome as possible, consistent with the carrying out of the spirit and intent of the law.
Through such a Museum of Safety much information can be sent out to the industrialists of the Commonwealth. Here they can come and see just what types of guard have been found best fitted, by actual use in daily shop practice, to meet their requirements. From the Museum of Safety can go men trained to talk, safety methods with manufacturers, to illustrate, by lantern slides and moving pictures, to the workers the dangers that confront them in their every-day work, and how they can be avoided. How to organize shop committees on safety in different plants, committees consisting of managers, superintendents, foremen and workmen, can be explained and worked out, for it is the human element, after all, that is to accomplish the greater part of this safety work.
Second, lectures and stereopticon and moving-picture slides are considered among the very best methods of securing intelligent co-operation on the part of the public and of the workers, by illustrating the dangers that constantly confront a large part of our working population.
Third, education in the schools. This has been tried out most successfully in the Borough of Brooklyn by the American Museum of Safety, and is to be carried on in every public school in New York City, and the results already obtained have demonstrated the great value of beginning early to instill into the minds of children the safety habit.
It is admitted by safety experts and engineers that the mere installing of safety devices will not bring the proper results unless we secure the hearty cooperation of superintendents, foremen and workers themselves, and shop committees embracing all three bring about the best results.
Under the first heading of safety devices, if we go at once to the fountain head, we can accomplish more in a given space of time than in any other way, that is, by insisting that manufacturers of machinery shall put on effective safety appliances before the machines have left the factory. Several States have already passed laws upon this matter, requiring that machines coming into that State from outside manufacturers, or machines put on the market by manufacturers within the State, shall be equipped with safety devices before they are forwarded to their purchasers. Some machinery manufacturers have already done this from their own initiative, just as some plants have already been made safe by use of safety appliances from their own initiative, or as the result of suggestions by insurance inspectors.
Second, the guarding of the principal danger points which may be roughly classed as belts, projecting set screws and gears that are common to all industries. Engineering experts recognize the fact “ that all power generators, transmission systems and operative machines are composed of certain wellknown mechanical elements, few in number though countless in variation of form and method of application. By requiring these few elements to be properly safeguarded the entire field is covered without danger of accidental omission and with the certainty of including all new machinery that human ingenuity can at present anticipate."
The insistence on fire drill and fire-extinguishing and firepreventing provisions as a prevention to accidents resulting from fire, - this should apply to schools as well as business places, — and the equipment of buildings, used in common with many tenants for manufacturing purposes, with automatic fire prevention sprinklers, fire escapes and places of egress. For example: Under fire prevention a manufacturer in Worcester, who is engaged in the manufacture of clothing, took out a policy in one of the large insurance companies doing business in this State. The insurance company's inspector found 100 girls working on the manufacture of clothing in a frame building, with gasoline stored under the stairways, with rags in the basement, with no fire escapes, and with two inadequate stairways, both dangerous. He was told that unless he put in fire escapes and made other changes his policy would be cancelled. He treated the matter with absolute indifference, and the company was compelled to cancel his policy on the ground of too great a hazard. The Industrial Accident Board should have the power, in a case like this, to notify all insurance companies not to write this risk until the employer had complied with suitable requirements. Such conditions as this insurance company met in Worcester can be found in several hundred similar cases right here in the city of Boston, and the greatest loss of life in industrial establishments in America