« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
and saddle makers, not specified textiles, bakeries, watch and clock factories, other iron and steel workers, other wood workers, other food preparers, sail, awning and tent makers, makers of blank books, dyeing and finisbing textiles and print works, rope and cordage factories and paper box factories. Naturally, the largest percentage of accidents to women was among the corset makers, of whom they made up 89 per cent of the total number employed.
Only one fatality arising out of employment was reported among women.
A GALLERY OF INJURED EMPLOYEES.
Photographs of a number of injured employees, with a statement of the manner in which their injuries were received, and, in some cases, suggestions for the prevention of similar accidents, are shown in the pages which follow. Principal among the causes of these injuries are ignorance, carelessness, lack of experience in the operation of the machines with which they were intrusted, unsuitable clothing, defects of machinery and the absence of safeguards. In nearly every case the accident was preventable.
A study of these selected injuries shows that there is a strong basis for the statements made by leading safety engineers that 50 per cent. of all the accidents which occur in industry can be prevented, one-third by the use of practicable and accessible safeguards and devices, and two-thirds by the education of employees to the constant exercise of care, and the co-operation of employers and employees in the movement to reduce all accidents to a minimum by the constant elimination of all conditions which make such accidents possible.
Every serious injury which results in the permanent partial incapacity of the employee for work brings him automatically under the Workmen's Compensation Act for the full period of three hundred weeks provided by the statute for the payment of compensation based upon half the difference between his average weekly wages at the time of the injury and the wages which he is able to earn thereafter.
The economic loss to the employee and his family by reason of preventable accidents is enormous, and the cost to the insurance company covering the employer averages over $1,000 in every case of permanent partial disablement. It is but a simple matter to figure the ultimate net saving to the employer who safeguards his machinery in every possible way, and strengthens that safeguard by instilling the “ safety first” idea into the minds of all his employees through a well-organized system of safety education. The benefit to the employee and his family is practically incalculable.
No. 74017. Boy receives Serious Injury. INEXPERIENCED WORKER RECEIVES PERMANENT DISABLING INJURY. This sixteen-year-old boy, while putting starch on the rolls of a machine, had his hand caught between the rolls, the result, as shown in the illustration, being substantially the loss of the use of the hand. He was a helper on a nougatine and caramel cutter in a candy factory and received a weekly wage of $5.
This employee was born in Italy and speaks only broken English and does not understand the language at all. Injuries under such circumstances, generally due to improper instruction in the use and operation of the machine, occur frequently. What would be regarded as proper instruction for an American boy of the same age would be inadequate for this employee. Such instructions, when given, should be thorough and fully understood by the learner. The use of an interpreter who could properly convey the instructions is always advisable, unless the instructor himself speaks the language of the learner.
The operation of machinery by boys who do not understand the dangers of their employment often results in serious injuries. Every effort should be made to reduce such injuries by properly instructing the employee how to operate the machine and avoid its dangers. The Travelers Insurance Company is the insurer in this No. 44180. Anthrax due to Infection. A BRUSH MAKER SCRATCHES HER FACE AND ANTHRAX SUPERVENES. A brush drawer scratched her face in close proximity to the left eye in November, 1912, and late that month was obliged to give up her occupation as a result of an affection of the left eye. She was treated privately for several days without success, and was then sent to a hospital for further treatment. Her face and eyes had become terribly swollen, and total blindness ensued for a considerable length of time. A careful examination led to a diagnosis of anthrax, due to infection in handling the bristles from which the brushes were made. Patient and skillful treatment gradually reduced the swelling, but the left eyelid had been so damaged that in March, 1913, a skin-graft was successfully undertaken. The eye itself does not respond to treatment, and in June, 1913, the examining specialist reported that "it is remarkable that the patient is alive." In September, 1913, the examining specialist reported “increasing stiffness of the grafted eyelid; it has been impossible for her to close the eye without manual aid, and the eyelid can only be opened to two-thirds of normal.” A later report shows that the patient's condition is somewhat worse; that the injured eye is in a constant state of lacrimation, frequent massage being required to permit of the closing of the eyelid; that she has lost considerable weight and is very much dispirited.
Anthrax is a rare disease among brush makers and can be prevented by the observance of the greatest possible care on the part of the worker. The insurer, the Royal Indemnity Company, is paying compensation regularly in this case.
No. 73359. Hand caught in Creasing Machine. YOUTHFUL EMPLOYEE SUSTAINS Loss OF Right HAND ABOVE WRIST. Inexperience in operating the machine upon which he was engaged was the remote cause of the injury to this sixteen-year-old boy, the employee only having a week's experience at the creasing machine when the injury occurred.
He was working on a hand-power Thompson Cutting and Creasing Press, in the carton department of a large printing establishment, when his right hand was caught in the press in some unexplained way, tearing it so badly that amputation became necessary.
It is stated in the report of the injury that it is not possible to provide a guard or other safety appliance to prevent such an accident, and that no safety appliance was in use at the time it occurred.
His average weekly wages were $6, and he received the minimum of $4 a week during his total incapacity for work and $4 a week, in addition, on account of the amputation of the hand, for a period of fifty weeks after the injury. The employer was covered by insurance in the Massachusetts Employees Insurance Association.