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CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.

Causes of the French Revolution. Meeting of the States General, May, 1789

Predominant influence of the Third Estate. Formation of the National Assem-

bly. Destruction of the Bastile. Sacrifices made by the privileged classes.

Horrors of the civil war waged betwixt the rich and poor. Plan of the Demo-

crats to bring the King and Assembly to Paris. Mob of women march to Ver-

seilles, and compel the King and Royal Family to return with them to Paris.

La Fayette resolves to enforce order. A Baker inurdered by the rabble. Decreo
imposing Martial Law, in case of insurrection. General view of the operations
of ihe Assembly. Enthusiasm of the people for their new privileges....... ... 1

CHAPTER II.

Escape of Louis—he is captured and brought back to Paris. Riot in the Champ de

Marg. Legislative assembly-its party divisions. Views and sentiments of

foreign nations. France declares war. First results of the war. Insurrection

of the 20th June. Armed mob intrude into the Asseinbly—thence into the Tuil-

leries. La Fayette repairs to Paris-remonstrates in favor of the King. Mar-

seillois appear in Paris. The day of the 10th of August. Tocsin sounded early

in the morning. Swiss Guards. "Mandat Assassinated. Conflict at the Tuille-

ries. Massacre of the Swiss Guards. Royal Family spend the night in a neigh-

boring Convent.......

30

CHAPTER III.

La Fayette escapes from France, and is made prisoner by the Prussians. Charac-

ters of Danton, Robespierre and Marat. Great Massacre of Prisoners in Paris.

Murder of the Princess de Lamballe. The National Convention. The King

brought to Trial-sentence of Death pronounced-beheaded on 21st Jan. 1793.

- Maria Antoinette on the 16th October, same year. Fate of the rest of tho

Royal Family ....

50

CHAPTER IV.

Civil War of La Vendee. Vendean's Method of Fighting. Siege of Lyons—its

Surrender, and Dreadful Punishment. Reign of Terror. Revolutionary Tribu-

nal. Horrors perpetrated at Nantes. Assassination of Marat by Charlotie Cor-

day. Danton Condemned and Executed. Cecile Regnaud. Fall of Robespierre

and return of Tranquillity. Ball of the Victims.....

61

CHAPTER V.

Corsica. Napoleon born, 1769. Sent to the Royal Military School. Appointed

Captain of Artillery. Siege of Toulon. Anecdotes during the siege." Allied

Troops resolve to Evacuate Toulon. Dreadful particulars of the Evacuation

Napoleon appointed Chief of Battalion in the Army of Italy. Returns to France

and obtains command of the Troops of Paris. Marries. Appointed Commander-

in-Chief of the Italian Armies Battle of Monte Notte. Terrible passage of the

Bridge of Lodi....

75

CHAPTER VI.

Armistice with the Pope. Arch-duke Charles enters Italy. Beaulieu succeeded

by Wurmser. Battle of Arcola. Victory of Rivoli. The Pope breaks the Treaty

Buonaparte orders Gen. Victor to invade the Papal Territories. Pope sues for

Prace. Victories of Buonaparte over the Austrians. Peace concluded...

CHAPTER VII.

Project of invading England-Abandoned. Expedition to Egypt. Capture of Al-

ozandrla. Skirmishes with the Mamelukes. Battle of the Pyramids. Battlo

of the Nile, and destruction of the French Fleet. Massacre of the Prisonors as

Jaffa. Plague breaks out in the French army. Napoleon's courage and human-

ity. Siege of St. Jean d'Acre. 18,000 Turks occupy Aboukir. Attacked and

Defeated by Buonaparte. This victory terminates Napoleon's career in Egypt.. 99

CHAPTER VIII.

General rejoicing on the Return of Buonaparte. Political Revolution. Napoleon

appointed to command the Military Force. He enters the Council of Five Hun-

dred. His perilous situation. Napoleon chosen First Consul. He resolves to

bring back victory to the French Standards. Passes the Alps at Mont. St.

Bernard. The Van-guard takes possession of Aosta. Town of Bard captured.

Great BATTLE OF MARENGO, and complete Victory of the French. Napoleon

returns to Paris. An Armistice takes place-followed by a Treaty of Peace.... 114

CHAPTER IX.

Plot to assassinate Napoleon at the Opera House. Another attempt on his life by

means of the Infernal Machine. External Relations of France. Preparations

for invading England. Affairs of Egypt resumed. Kleber assassinated. British

Army lands in Egypt. Deseats of the French. Treaty of Peace concluded

between Great Britain and France.....

CHAPTER X.

Insurrection in St. Domingo. Horrible system of Warfare between the French

and Negroes. Buonaparte proceeds to consolidate his power at home. Consular

Guard and Legion of Honor. Renewal of the War with England. Hanover and

other places occupied by the French. Scheme of invading England continued.

Napoleon finally abandons the project.....

146

CHAPTER XI.

Conspiracy against Napoleon. General Moreau sent into exile. Napoleon crowned

Emperor of the French-Crowned King of Italy. Genoa united to the Empire.. 155

CHAPTER XII.

Napoleon addresses a Letter to the King of England. Alliance of Russia, Austria,

England, and Sweden against France. Napoleon heads his army in Germany

Skilful manœuvres of the French Generals, and successive losses of the Austrians.

Neutrality of Prussia violated. Mack is cooped up in Ulm. Surrenders to the

French on the 16th October, by which upwards of 20,000 men become prisoners

of war. Napoleon advances towards Vienna. The Emperor Francis leaves his

capital, and the French take possession of it. Successes of Massena in Italy, and

Ney, in the Tyrof. Battle or AUSTERLITZ, and the combined armies of Austria

and Russia completely defeated. Treaty of Presburg..

159

CHAPTER XIII.

Battle of Trafalgar, and death of Nelson. War with Prussia. Napoleon again

heads his army in the field. Naumberg laken. BATTLE OF JENA, and of Auer-

stadt. The French victorious, and Napoleon enters Berlin. All the strong for-

tresses of Prussia surrendered to the French. Death of the Duke of Brunswick,

and vow of revenge taken by his son........

173

CHAPTER XIV.

Napoleon welcomed with enthusiasm by the Poles. Enters Warsaw, and Bennig-

sen retreats before him. Character of the Russian Soldiery. T'he Cossacks.

BATTLE OF Pultus. French go into winter quarters. BATTLE OF Preuss

Erlau. Surrender of Dantzic. Both armies recruited. Battle of Heilsberg.

BATTLE OF FRIEDLAND, on the 13th June, 1807, and defeat of the Russians.

Treaty of Tilstt.....

185

CHAPTER XV.

Relations of Napoleon with Spain. Treaty of Fontainbleau. Junot marches to

Portugal. Flight of the Royal Family to America. French proceed into Spain.

Murat occupies Madrid. Charles and Ferdinand abdicate at Bayonne a

seph Buonaparte crowned King of Spain....

09
CHAPTER XVI.

Allianco of England with Spain and Portugal against France. Battle of Rioseco.

Joseph onters Madrid. Battle of Baylen. Dupont surrenders. Joseph quite

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Madrid. First sjego of Saragossa. British troops land in Portugal. Battlo of

Rorica. Battle of Vimiero. Convention of Cintra, and the French evacuate

Portugal. Napoleon at Erfurt. Interview with Alexander. Arrives at Paris.

Sends an army of 200,000 men into Spain. Arrives at Vittoria. Successes of

Soult. Napoleon enters Madrid. Marches against the British under Sir John

Moore. Calamitous retreat of the British. Battle of Corunna, and death of

Mocre. Napoleon leaves Spain.........

210

CHAPTER XVII.

Austria declares War. Napoleon heads his army in Germany. Battle of Land-

shut and Eckmubl. Ratisbon taken. Napoleon enters Vienna. Hostilities in

Italy, Hungary, Poland, the North of Germany and the Tyrol. Great Conflict at

Asperne. Both armies reinforced. Decisive BATTLE OF Wagram, in which the

Austrians are completely defeated. Armistice concluded..

CHAPTER XVIII.

Progress of the war in the Peninsula. Battle of Talavera. Battle of Ocana. At

tempt to assassinate Napoleon. Treaty of Schoenbrunn. Napoleon divorces Joso.

phine. Marries the Archduchess Maria Louisa. Deposes Louis Buonaparte and

annexes Holland and the whole coast of Germany to France. Bernadotto elected

Crown Prince of Sweden. Birth of the king of 'Roine....

231

CHAPTER XIX.

Rupture with Russia. Great preparations on both sides for the approaching con-

flict. Amount of Buonaparte's army. Resources of Alexander. Napoleon at

Dresden. Passage of the Niemen. Arrives at Wilna. Enthusiasm of the Rus-

sians. Their army largely reinforced. Napoleon leaves Wilna. Battle of

Smolensko. Russians burn the place and retreat. Great BATTLE OF BORODANO.

Napoleon continues his advance. Moscow abandoned by the Russian Army,

and the Inhabitants.......

238

CHAPTER XX.

Napoleon enters Moscow, and takes up his quarters in the Kremlin. The “Holy

City" plundered by the French and burnt by the Russians. Napoleon proposes

Peace.' Alexander refuses to negotiate. Napoleon quits Moscow. Battles of Vin-

cova and Malo-laraslovetz. Retreat of the French Grand Army. Repeated

Defeats and Sufferings of the French. Smolensko. Krasnol. Heroism of Ney.

Passage of the Beresina. Napoleon quits the Army. His arrival at Warsaw

at Dresden-at Paris. Loss of the French Army, 450,000 men.....

259

CHAPTER XXI.

Napoleon's reception at Paris. His Military preparations. Prussia declares War.

Bernadotte lands in Germany. The Russians advance into Silesia. Napoleon

beads his Army in Saxony. Battle of Lutzen. Battle of Bautzen. Congress of

Prague. Austria declares War. Napoleon contends single-handed against Rus.

sia, Austria, Prussia, Sweden, England, Spain, and Portugal. Battle of Dros-

den. Death of Moreau. Singular Conflict at Culm........

274

CHAPTER XXII.

Battles of Wahlstadt, Groesbeeren, and Dennewitz. Napoleon retires from the

Elbe. Great BATTLE OF LEIPsic fought on the 16th and 18th Oct. 1813. French

retreat. Battle of Hanau. Allies on the Rhine. Napoleon arrives in Paris.... 287

CHAPTER XXIII.

Manifesto of the Allied Sovereigns. Liberation of the Pope and Ferdinand VII.

Military preparations. Allies invade France with 300,000 men. Napoleon

heads the Army. Battles of Brienne and La Rothiere. Defeats Blucher on the

Marne. Battles of Nangis and Montereau. Austrians retreat. Napoleon again

marches against Blucher. Battles of Craonne and Laon. Napoleon at Rheims 29.

CHAPTER XXIV.

Energies of Napoleon. Operations of the Allies. Sufferings of the Peasantry.

Napoleon marches to Sl. Dizier. The Allies approach Paris. Proclamation of

Joseph. The Empress retires to Blois. Heroic but unavailing defence of tho

Capital. Marmont capitulates. The Allies enter Paris. Napoleon at Fontain-

bleau. His Abdication. His parting Interview with the Imperial Guard.

Death of Josephino. Napoleon commences his Journey to Elba...

30

CHAPTER XXV.

Napoleon arrives at Elba. His conduct and occupations there. Discontents to

France. French prisoners of Wat return home. Napoleon escapes from Elba,

and lands in France. His progress towards the Capital. Enthusiasm of the

Soldiery. King Louis escapes to Ghent. Napoleon enters Paris. Declaration of

the Allied Powers. Napoleon prepares for War. Murat advances from Naples
-He is Defeated, and subsequently condemned and Shot.........

39

CHAPTER XXVI.

Napoleon heads his Army on the Belgian frontier-Passes the Sambre at Charleroi.

Defeats Blucher at Ligny. Battle of Quatrebras. The English retreat on Water-

Ino. Positions of the two Armies. Detailed account of the Great Battle or

WATERLOO, fought on the 18th June, 1815........

CHAPTER XXVII.

Continuation of the History of the Campaign. Disastrous retreat of the French

from Waterloo. Slaughter at Genappe. French repass the Sambre. Narrow

escape or Napoleon. Appearance of the field of battie. Loss of the French-of

the Allies.....

CHAPTER XXVIII.

Napoleon arrives at Paris. State of France after the Battle of Waterloo. Wel

lington and Blucher cross the Frontiers. Agitation of the Chambers. Napoleon

abdicates in favor of his son. Departs for Rochfort and attempts to sail for

America. Surrenders himself on board the Bellerophon to the British Govern-

ment. Napoleon arrives in England. Sails for St. Helena..

300
CHAPTER XXIX.

Napoleon at St. Helena. The Briars. Longwood, his residence. Precautions

taken for his safe custody. Sir Hudson Lowe. Napoleon's domestic habits

amusements and exercises. Sir Pultney Malcom. Interview with Capt. Basil

Hall....

CHAPTER XXX.

Napoleon's Illness—cancer in the stomach. Removal of Las Cases from St. Hel-

ena. Treatment of Napoleon brought forward in Parliament. Symptoms of his

illness increase. Removal of Dr. O'Meara. Two Catholic Priests sent to St.

Helena. Napoleon's opinions on the subject of Religion. Dr. Antommarchi

arrives to supply the place of O'Meara. Plans for effecting Napoleon's escape.

Scheme of Johnstone the Smuggler. Disturbed state of Italy occasions fresh

vigilance. Disease increases. Napoleon omploys himself in making his Will,

and gives directions respecting his Decease. Extreme unction administered to

him. His DEATH, 5th May, 1821. Body Anatomized. His Funeral.......... 398

CoxCLUDING REMARKS...

41

APPEADII. His Will.......

Anecdotos. ..

h

CAMPAIGNS OF NAPOLEON.

CHAP. I.

Causes of the French Revolution. Meeting of the States-General, May

1789. Predominant influence of the Third Estate. Formation of the National Assembly. Destruction of the Bastile. Sacrifices made by the privileged classes. Horrors of the civil war waged betwixt the rich and poor. Plan of the Democrats to bring the King and Assembly to Paris. Mob of women march to Versailles, and compel the King and Royal Family to return with them to Paris. La Fayette resolves to enforce order. A baker murdered by the rabble. Decree imposing martial law, in case of insurrection. General view of the operations of the Assembly. Enthusiasm of the people for their new privileges.

BEFORE We proceed to narrate the brilliant achievements of Napoleon, it is necessary, in the first place, briefly to review that great and hitherto unheard of course of events which prepared, carried on, and matured the French Revolution: period of history the most important, perhaps, which the annals of mankind afford.

After the peace concluded at Versailles in 1783, the state of Europe in general was either pacific, or disturbed by troubles of no long duration. But it was in Franco that a thoucand circumstances, some arising out of the general history of ihe world, some peculiar to that country herself, mingled like the ingredients of the witches' cauldron, to produce in suco cession many a formidable but passing apparition

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