Εικόνες σελίδας
PDF

HUMAN LIFE.

SCIENCE.
WRITTEN IN THE AGE OF SHAKSPEARE.
The world's a bubble,

MR. PERKINS' STEAM ENGINE.
And the life of Man

It being reported that an accident had Less than a span,

occurred in some part of the apparatus,

during the working of Mr. Perkins' new In his conception wretched,

engine, we are enabled to give the folFrom the womb

lowing accurate statement of the acciTo the tomb.

dent, and the probable cause of its origin. Curs'd from his cradle,

Mr. Perkins having, on two or three

previous occasions, designedly burst open · And brought up to years, With cares and fears.

the cylinder called the “generator," by

way of ascertaining the internal pressure Who then to frail

of the heated water, he tried the experiMortality shall trust,

ment on the working engine, by urging But lines the Water

the fire beyond its ordinary intensity. And doth write in dust :

At this period, whilst Mr. P. was explainYet whiles with Sorrow

ing to a few gentlemen the construction Here we live opprest,

of its parts, a mass of steam was observ. What life is best?

ed issuing from the cylindrical fire-place

which surrounds the generator ; the acCourts are but

tion of the engine immediately ceased. Superficial schools

On extinguishing the fire, and examining To dandle fools.

the generator, it was found to be cracked The rural parts

across the bottom, through which crevice Are turn'd into a den

the water had issued, and produced the Of savage men.

steam before-mentioned. After the first And where is a city

surprise of the parties had subsided, that From all vice so free,

no report or explosion accompanied the But may be term'd

bursting of the generator, the ingenious The worst of all the three?

inventor proceeded to account to the

gentlemen present for the occurrence. Domestic care

That the water of the generator, though Afflicts the husband's bed,

perhaps at the time little short of 5000 Or pains his head.

Fah., was still a liquid, or non-elastic • Those that live single,

fluid; and consequently would be governTake it for a curse

ed by the same laws of expansion as Or do things something worse. other fluid bodies, which, when subjectSome wish for children;

ed to heat, will expand, and burst the Those that have them, none;

vessel or metal which contains them, but

will not disperse or explode. Or wish them gone.

This accident, however, has afforded What is it then to have,

proof of a most important fact, and which Or have no wife,

must eventually serve to banish the apBut single thraldome,

prehension entertained by some gentle• Or a double stryfe ?

men as to any danger from the use of Our own affections

this new engine. Whilst the expansive, Still at home to please,

or, more accurately, the elastic force of Is a disease,

steam, renders the utmost vigilance neTo cross the seas

cessary to guard against accidental exTo any foreign soil,

plosion, a vessel containing water, or a Peril or toyl:

non-elastic fluid, even at a temperature of

500°, may be rent asunder with perfect Wars with their noise affright us, impunity to the by-standers. The acciAnd when they cease,

dent, therefore, proves the perfect safety We are worse in peace. of the principle upon which Mr. Perkins What then remains ?

constructed his engine that of subjectBut that we should cry,

ing water to an immense pressure, which Not to be born,

enables it to bear an elevation of tempeOr being born, to die.

rature above 500°, without producing

steam beyond the small quantity requisite for giving motion to each succeeding

THE DIVING BELL. stroke of the piston.

Mr. Perkins seems inclined to attri. The first diving-bell we read of was bute the accident to an unequal degree of nothing but a very large kettle suspended expansion. from unequal distribution of by ropes, with the mouth downwards. the fire: but from an inspection of the and planks to sit on fixed in the middle fracture. we are of opinion, that the of its concavity. Two Greeks at Toledo, tenacity of the metal was destroyed by in Spain, in the year 1588, made an exthe very elevated temperature (probably periment with it before the Emperor 7000 to 800°) producing a semi-fusion. Charles V. and a great concourse of It is well known that all the alloys of spectators. They descended in it, with copper melt at a lower degree of heat a lighted candle, to a considerable depth. than that of metal per se ; and although

although In 1683, William Phipps, the son of a a cylinder of gun-metal, from its superior

Or blacksmith, formed a project of searching hardness, may retain its figure better than

and unlading a rich Spanish ship sunk a copper vessel, the large portion of crude

on the coast of Hispaniola. He repreincond in which i ntained in the sented his plan in so plausible a manner, ordinary gun-metal, must, doubtless, ren

that Charles II. gave him a ship, and der that metal both more brittle and more furnished him with every thing necessary fusible than copper. We understand

à for his undertakiug ; but being unsuccesMr. Perkins has devised an entire new

ful, he returned in great poverty. He arrangement, by which a series of pipes,

then endeavoured to procure another either copper or iron, are to be substituted

vessel from James II., but failing in this, for the gun-metal generator.

he got a subscription opened for the purpose, to which the Duke of Albemarle largely contributed. In 1687, Phipps set

sail in a ship of 200 tons to try his for POWER OF MOONLIGHT.

tune once more, having previously enGurney, in his Lectures on Chemistry, gaged to divide the profits according to says, “With regard to light, we would the twenty shares of which the subscripmention the singularly useful, and hi- tion consisted. At first all his labours therto unobserved “effect of moon-light," proved fruitless; but at last, when he in assisting the completion of certain im- seemed almost to despair of success, portant phenomena." The crystallization he was fortunate enough to bring up of water, under the form of those light so much treasure, that he returned to frosts which so much prevail during the England with the value of 200,0001. sterearly spring, and which are of such im- ling. Of this sum he got about 20,0001. portant service in assisting the operations and the duke 90,0001. Phipps was of agriculture, by rendering the surface of knighted by the king, and laid the foudthe earth mellow, and better susceptible dation of the fortunes of the present of the manure that is necessary to it, are noble house of Malgrave. Since that greatly assisted, and in many cases en- time diving-bells have been very often tirely brought about by the intervention employed. The situation of the Royal of moonlight. It is well known, that George, a first rate, which sunk at Spitunder certain circumstances, water will head many years ago, has been frequently sink to the temperature of 220. before it examined, and the impossibility of again freezes or takes the form of crystals. In weighing her ascertained by means of deed, it will invariably do so in the ab- this machine. In the beginning of the sence of any mechanical agitation, and in late war, the Lutine, an English frigate,

but I can nones having a great quantity of gold and silver tionable fact, but one which has not on board, and bound to Holland, was lost hitherto been observed generally or at- on the coast of that country. The wreck tended to: and indeed, at other periods, remained undiscovered till the year 1822, before the moon rises on a still clear night. when the very low tides which took place when the atmosphere is at a lower tem- in March of that year showed it to the perature than 32, the water remains in a eyes of some delighted fishermen. In geliquid state; but immediately on the neral, however, it is some fathoms under moon rising, and diffusing its lights water, and at the present time people are around, the water freezes, and performs employed, who go down in a diving-bell, the salutary offices required of it, with- and have already recovered a large quanout subjecting us to the severity of a low tity of this long-lost treasure. temperature.

the

immersions or instant disappearance of ASTRONOMY.

the Satellite, by entering into the shadow It has ever been a considerable source of Jupiter, is carefully calculated for the of regret that so little attention is paid in Meridian of Greenwich in the Nautical our schools to the science of Astronomy. Ephemeris, and the difference between There are many young men who with this time and the time by a well regulated laudable exertion have made themselves clock or watch, under any other memaster of Euclid, yet are ignorant of the ridian where the same observation can name and place of a single star. This be made, will give the longitude by alperhaps arises from the simplicity of lowing fifteen degrees to an hour of time. means and frequency of opportunity for viewing the heavenly bodies. We contemplate them as things of course, and

ANECDOTES OF ANIMALS are there too apt to rest, without entering into the wonders and glories which every

AND INSECTS. where present themselves. Saturn and

No. IV. Jupiter have now become beautiful telescopic objects, affording a rich and gratifying sight to the lovers of science, and THE ITALIAN FIRE FLY. not confined to them alone. Saturn is The beauty of the bees and butter. visible a little below and to the right of flies in Italy, whose warm sun gives the Seven stars, and may readily be luxuriant brilliancy to all the tints of known by his superior brightness and nature, may easily be imagined; but fixed light, without scintillation or twink- there is one insect of so fairy-like a ling. He has not fewer than seven moons, nature and lustre, that it would be albesides a beautiful and luminous ring sur- most worth going to Italy to look at, if rounding his body, but detached from it; there were no other attraction. It is and small as this planet appears to us, it the Fire-Fly.--Imagine thousands of is nevertheless nearly 78,000 miles in di- flashing diamonds every night powderameter, and upwards of 900 millions of ing the ground, the trees, and the air, miles from the Sun: and though the earth especially in the darkest places, and is at one season of the year 190 mil- the corn-fields. They give at once a lions of miles nigher to him than at an- delicacy and brilliance to Italian darkother, yet we perceive no alteration in ness, inconceivable. It is the glow. his size or appearance. Saturn for some worm winged, and flying in crowds. time to come will continue to rise between In England, you know, the female the hours of six and seven in a N. E. by E. alone gives light; at least, that of the direction. Jupiter rises between nine male, who is the exclusive possessor of and ton, a little more to the Northward the wings, is hardly perceptible. Worm and to the right of the Twins. He has a is a wrong word, the creature being a brilliant and beautiful appearance, and is real insect. Thé Italian name is lucthereby easily distinguished. This planet civla, little light; in Genoa, cæe-belle is calculated to be 81,155 miles in diame- (chiare belle), clear and fine. Its aspect, ter, and 254,908 in circumference; his when held in the hand, is that of a axis is perpendicular to the plane of his dark coloured beetle, but without the orbit; consequently there is no variety hardness or sluggish look. The light of seasons, and the poles are constantly is contained in the under part of the illuminated. He turns on this axis once extremity of the abdomen, exhibiting a in about nine hours fifty-six minutes of dull golden-coloured partition by day, our time, and has several belts formed and fashing occasionally by day-light, round him, which change in their appear- especially when the hand is shaken. ances. He is attended by four satellites At night, the flashing is that of the or moons, that revolve very regularly purest and most lucid tire, spangling round him : the first three are eclipsed the vineyards and olive trees, and their every revolution, and come in conjunc- dark avenues, with innumerable stars. tion with him every seventh day. These Its use is not known. In England, and eclipses are of very great importance to I believe here, the supposition is, that us, as they afford the readiest and best it is a signal of love. It affords po method of determining the longitudes of perceptible heat, but is supposed to be places on our globe; and it is much to be phosphoric. In a dark room, a single lamented that persons who visit distant one is sufficient to flash a light against countries do not more frequently make the wall. I have read of a lady in the observations and report the results. The West Indies, who could see to read by the help of three under a glass, as of Prussia, and which at first sight long as they chose to accommodate her. might be thought to be the same as the A few of them are generally in our present insects of that country, has rooms all night, going about like little found that they in fact often belong to sparkling elves. It is impossible not the same genera, but not to the same to think of something spiritual, in see. species as those living at the present ing the progress of one of them through day. Among the small number of ina dark room. You only know it by the sects described and figured in the work flashing of its lamp, which takes place of this author, we observe, in particular, every three or four inches apart, some an unknown species of scorpion, and a times oftener, thus marking its track spider which differs from all the species in and out the apartment or about it. living at present, in not having the head It is like a little fairy, taking its rounds. of a single piece with the thorax, M. These insects remind us of the lines in Germar, Professor at Halle, has given Herrick, inviting his mistress to come the result of a similar investigation in to him at night-time, and they suit them an Entomological Journal, where he still better than his English ones. tries to determine some species of those Their lights the glow-worms lend thee, amber insects, the analogues of which The shooting stars attend thee;

are not found alive at the prevent day And the elves also,

Whose little eyes glow, Like the sparks of fire befriend thee. SINGULAR PRODUCTION.

Mr. Pym, a farmer at Heywood, in It may not be generally known that the parish of Diss, in Norfolk, had a the male spider is supplied with a little kitten, produced by a cat in his posbladder, somewhat similar to a drum, session. This kitten was of four disand that ticking noise, which hath been tinct colours, a thing said to be exceedtermed the death-watch, is nothing ing scarce. What was more remarkmore than the sound he makes upon able, it had eight legs and two tails : this little apparatus, in order to sere- it lived twenty-four hours, and is prenade and allure his mistress..

served in spirits for the inspection of

the curious. A lamb, six months old, the property of Mr. Charles Hall, jun. of English. batch, near this city, was seen by him A cat in the possession of a person on the 31st of August: On the follow. of Exeter, on Monday three weeks ing morning (Sept. 1.) the lamb was kittened three kittens, which lived but missing from the field'; when Mr. H. two days; on the same day fortnight made every enquiry and search after it, she again brought forth three more; but all in vain. On Sunday se'nnight and, after a lapse of five days from her (Sept. 28) Mr. Hall was walking in the second, and almost three weeks from same field, accompanied by his dog, the period of her first kittening, one through whose sagacity he discovered more made its appearance—this last is the lamb in an old drain, living, and the largest and strongest of the four, apparently in good health, though of all of which are living. course wasted in flesh. Mr. H. dug out the poor animal, and conveyed it home, where proper care has been bestowed on it, and it appears likely to THE HOUSEWIFE. live. Its place of concealment was three feet deep, two feet wide, and five feet long. The ground must have sunk

No. VIII. under the creature, as there was no appearance of the old drain.-Buth

TO EXTRACT OIL FROM Gazette.

BOARDS OR STONE.
Make a strong lye of pearl-ashes

and soft water; and as much unslaked INSECTS IN AMBER.

lime as it will take up; stir it together, · Mr. Schweigger having very atten- and then let it settle for a few minutes; tively examined the insects contained put the mixture into a bottle, which in the bits of yellow amber of the coasts cork well. Have ready some water to lower it as used, and scour the part When Moliere, the Comic Poet, died, with it. Take care that the liquor does the Archbisop of Paris would not let not remain longer on the boards than is his body be buried in consecrated just necessary to extract the oil, other-' ground. The King, being informed of wise the colour of the material is sure this, sent for the Archbishop, and exto be affected.

postulated with him about it but find

ing the Prelate inflexibly obstinate, bis INSTRUCTIONS FOR CLEANING

Majesty asked how many feet deep

the consecrated ground reached? This TEETH.

question coming by surprise, the ArchClean your teeth at night, because bishop replied, "About eight.” “Well," when eating, particles of meat are apt answered the King, “ I find there's no to cleave about the mouth, and enter getting the better of your scruples; the crevises of the teeth, and which, therefore, let his grave be dug twelve through the natural heat of the mouth,' feet deep,--that's four below your conwill putrify if they be left in till the secrated ground, and let him be buried morning; consequently, these putrid there." particles will become harbours of animalculæ, which are the ruin of the teeth. Also, the grossness which is Two Irish labourers, who were lately collected in the day, will not be so serving some masons, happened to quareasily erased in the morning, as at rel, when one of them, who was remarknight. Never use any powder (or at ably stout and tall, struck his neighleast very seldom) the composition of bour a smart blow on the ear, without which being in general prejudicial to betraying any very marked symptoms the teeth, as it rubs off the enamel, the of irritation. “Is that in earnest or preservation of which constitutes the joke, Pat?” cried the sufferer, smarting goodness of the teeth ; only use a dry under the chastisement, but frightened brush, or else water that is milk-warm to retaliate. " In earnest,” said his to wash your mouth with-liquids relentless antagonist. “Och, then its either too hot or too cold, ought to be all very well," replied the injured man avoided-ice creams, for instance :- coolly, “ for I like no such jokes." drawing of corks with the teeth, or cracking of nuts, are very prejudicial to the teeth, as they destroy the enamel. The clerk of a retired parish in a Transitions from hot soups to cold neighbouring county, during the late water, instead of bracing up the teeth, heavy rains, inquired of his Rector, only tends to enervate and make them

evidently piquing himself upon his own ache.

intelligence, whether St, Swithin's Day

was not the anniversary of the Deluge? L'ALLEGRO.

No. VII.

Garrick roused the feelings more WINE SHARPENS WIT.

than any actor on record, and most

probably suffered as much from their A gentleman on a time going to see

exertion. A gentleman once making his son at Westminster School, when

the above remark to Tom King, the the celebrated Dr. Busby was master

comedian, he received this reply :thereof, was invited to partake of a « Poohl'he suffer from his feelings! bottle of wine by the Doctor. Whilst

-why, Sir, I was playing with him they were in discourse, the Doctor sent

one night in Lear, when, in the middle for the boy. On his entering--“Come,"

e," of a most passionate and afflicting part, said the Doctor," as your father is here,

and when the whole house was drowntake a glass of wine;" at the same

ed in tears, he turned his head round time the Doctor quoted the Latin sen

to me, and putting his tongae in his tence: Paucum vini, acuit ingenium, (a cheekwhispered- D--me, Tom, it'ill little wine sharpens wit). The boy do!'»' So much for the stage feeling. immediately replied--Sed plus vini, In fine, an actor may make others feel plus ingenii! (the more wine the more

without feeling himself, as a whetstone wit!)-“ Hold young man,” exclaimed the Doctor, " for though you argue

can work up steel until it cuts, which

the whetstone never does. mathematically, you shall have but one

glass.

« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »