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30. How many are 17 less 1 ? 17 less 3 ? 17 less 5 ?

17 less 7 ? 17 less 8 ? 17 less 12 ? 31. How many are 18 less 2 ? 18 less 4 ? 18 less 7 ?

18 less 8? 18 less 10? 18 less 12 ? 32. How many are 19 less 1 ? 19 less 3 ? 19 less 5 ?

19 less 7 ? 19 less 9 ? 19 less 16 ? 33. How many are 20 less 5 ? 20 less 8 ? 20 less 9 ?

20 less 12 ? 20 less 15 ? 20 less 19 ? 34. How many are 30 less 5 ? 30 less 10 ? 30 less 15 ?

30 less 20 ? 30 less 25 ? 35. Bought a horse for 63 dollars, and sold him for 70 ;

what did I gain? 36. Sold a barrel of flour for 8 dollars, which cost me

10 dollars ; what did I lose ? 37. John travels 25 miles a day, and Samuel 32 miles ?

what is the difference ? 38. I have 100 dollars, and after I shall have given 17 to Benjamin, and paid a debt of 30 dollars to J. Smith ; how many dollars have I left ?

The pupil, having performed the above, will perceive, that

SUBTRACTION teaches to take a less number from a greater, and to find the difference.

FOR THE SLATE.

OPERATION.

1. If I have 624 dollars and lose 342 of them, how many remain ?

In this question, we take the 2 From 624 units from 4 units and 2 units remain, Take 342 which we write down under units,

as the first figure in the answer. 282 In attempting to take the 4 tens, we

find a difficulty, as 4 cannot be taken from 2. We therefore borrow 1 (hundred) from the 6 (hundred), which being equal to 10 tens, we add it to the 2 tens in the upper line, making 12 tens, and 8 (tens) remain, which we set down. We then proceed to the hundreds. As we have borrowed 1 from the 6 hundreds, the 6 is too large by 1. We must, therefore, take the 3 from 5, and we find 2 (hundreds) remain, which we set down. Or because the 6 is too large by 1, we may add 1 to the 3 and say 4 from 6=2. This process is called borrowing and carrying. Hence the following

RULE.

Place the less number under the greater ; units under units, tens under tens, fc. Begin with the units; and, if the lower figure be smaller than the upper, take it therefrom, and write the difference below; but, if the upper figure be less than the lower figure, add ten to the upper one, and place the difference between them under the units as before, and carry one to the next number at the bottom, and proceed thus, till all the numbers are subtracted.

Note. The upper line is called the Minuend, and the lower one the Subtrahend. The result of the question is called the Remainder.

PROOF.

Add the Remainder to the Subtrahend, and, if their sum be like the Minuend, the work is right.

[blocks in formation]

12.

Minutes.

10.

Miles, 67 895 19999

From Take

11.

Dollars.
4 5 6 798
190899

13.
Seconds.
5 5 5 5 5 5
177777

7 6 5 3 2 1
177777

14.

Rods.
From 10020030 040 0500
Take 90.8 0 0 6 05 04 03 0

15.

Acres. 1000000000000 999999999999

Ans. 39 years.

16. From 1728 dollars, I paid 961 dollars ; how many remain ?

Ans. 767 dollars. 17. Independence was declared in 1776 ; how many years from this period to the close of the last war, in 1815 ? 18. The last transit of Venus was 1769, and the next will be 1874, how many years will intervene ?

Ans. 105 years. 19. In 1830, the number of inhabitants in Bradford was 1856 ; and in 1840 it was 2222 ; what was the increase ?

Ans. 366. 20. How many more inhabitants are there in New York city than in Boston, there being, by the last census, 312,710 inhabitants in the former, and 93,383 in the latter city ?

Ans. 219,327 inhabitants. 21. In 1821 there were imported into the United States 21,273,659 pounds of coffee, and in 1839, 106,696,992 pounds ; what was the increase ?

Ans. 85,423,333 pounds. 22. By the last census, 11,853,507 bushels of wheat are raised in New York, and 13,029,756 bushels in Pennsylvania ; how many bushels in the latter State more than the former ?

Ans. 1,176,249 bushels. 23. The real estate of James Dow is valued at 3,769 dollars, and his personal estate at 2,648 dollars ; he owes John Smith 1,728 dollars, and Job Tyler 1,161 dollars ; how much is J. Dow worth? Ans. 3528 dollars. 24.'If a man receive 5 dollars per day for labor, and it cost him 2 dollars per day to support his family ; what will he have accumulated at the close of one week?

Ans. 18 dollars. 25. The city of New York owes 9,663,269 dollars, and Boston owes 1,698,232 dollars ; how much more does New York owe than Boston ?

Ans. 7,965,037 dollars. 26. From five hundred eighty-one thousand take three thousand and ninety-six.

Ans. 577,904. 27. E. Webster owns 6,765 acres of land, and he gave to his oldest brother 2,196 acres, and his uncle Rollins 1,981 acres ; how much has he left ?

Ans. 2,598 acres.

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MENTAL OPERATIONS.

1. What cost three bushels of wheat at three dollars per

bushel ? 2. What cost 5 barrels of flour at 6 dollars per barrel ? 3. What cost 6 bushels of beans at 2 dollars

per

bushel ? 4. What cost 5 quarts of cherries at 7 cents per quart ? 5. What will 7 gallons of vinegar cost at 12 cents per

quart? 6. What cost 9 acres of land at 10 dollars per acre ? 7. If a pint of currants cost 4 cents, what cost 9 quarts ? 8. If, in 1 penny, there are 4 farthings, how many in 9 pence ? In 7 pence? In 8 pence? In 4 pence

? In 3 pence? 9. If 12 pence make a shilling, how many pence in 3 shillings? In 5 shillings? In 7 shillings? In 9 shillings? 10. If 4 pecks make a bushel, how many pecks in 2 bushels ?. In bushels ? In 4 bushels ? In 6 bushels ? In 7 bushels ? In 9 bushels ? 11. If 12 inches make 1 foot, how many inches in 3 feet ? In 4 feet ? In 5 feet? In 7 feet? In 8 feet ? In 9 feet? In 10 feet ? In 12 feet ? 12. If there be 9 feet in a square yard, how many feet in 4 yards? In 5 yards ? In 6 yards ? In 8 yards ? In 9 yards? In 12 yards ? 13. What cost 3 yards of cloth at 5 dollars per yard ? 4 yards ? 5 yards ? 6 yards ? 7 yards ? 8 yards ? 9 yards ? 10 yards ? Il yards? 12 yards ? 20 yards? 14. If 1 pound of iron cost 7 cents, what cost 2 pounds ? 3 pounds ? 5 pounds ? 6 pounds ? 7 Pounds ? 8 pounds ? 9 pounds ? 12 pounds ? 15. If 1 pound of raisins cost 6 cents, what cost 4 pounds ? 5 pounds ? 6 pounds ? 7 pounds ? 8 pounds ? 9 pounds? 10 pounds? 12 pounds? 16. In l'acre there are 4 roods, how many roods in 2

In 3 acres ? In 4 acres ?. In 5 acres ? In 6 acres ? In 9 acres ? 17. A good pair of boots is worth 5 dollars ; what must

I give for 5 pair ? For 6 pair ? For 7 pair ? For 8 pair ? 18. A cord of good walnut wood may be obtained for 8 dollars what must I give for 4 cords ? For 6 cords ? For 9 cords ?

acres

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