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with. His manner was an index to his opinions of those he was with in this respect; and often he would admonish persons of their vices. His integrity and honour were of the highest order, and he detested all meanness and double-dealing with his whole heart. No advantage of position, or fortune, or official distinction, saved the profligate or unjust and oppressive from his open and strong denunciation ; and no man had at his command a more ready wit and biting sarcasm. But goodness of life and character—though clothed in rays and despised of men-com

ommanded not only his sympathy but open respect. From these traits, I have often heard my excellent mother express her fears that her father looked too much to good works; but my opinion is that the Christian's faith only could have produced and preserved so high a standard of morality and so keen a sense of moral duty. My grandfather was possessed of high powers of mind, and they had been well developed and cultivated. He was a ripe Latin scholar, and familiar with all the best English writers. He was remarkable for conciseness of style and condensation of matter in composition. He admired a plain and nervous as much as he disliked a florid and diffuse style : the more of the old Saxon and the less of French or Latin and Greek derivatives the better. Addison and Swift pleased him as much as Dr. Johnson displeased in this particular. He niet death without fear: his last words were, The great mystery will soon be solved and all made plain.'

• In person he was six feet high and finely proportioned : his eyes were a deep blue, and expressive to the last, and his nose and mouth well shaped. I have often fancied that in his youth he must have possessed much manly beauty. He made his mark on his age and generation, for many traditions are preserved of him and his sayings. “With sincere esteem and regard, yours truly,

“J. T. STODDERT. “P.S.—In the burial-ground of one of the Episcopal churches first erected in Maryland, near the site of St. Mary's City, is a beautiful monument of Italian marble erected to the memory of the Rev. Lee Massey, by his parishioners, “as a testimony of their grateful affection for the memory of their much-loved pastor.' It was placed there not many years after the settlement of the Colony, and is now in excellent preservation. This divine, who died in his youth, but not before he had deeply stamped his image on the heart and minds of his charge, was the uncle of my grandfather.

“ The memory of the devoted zeal and piety of this young clergyman may have had its influence in determining my grandfather to enter the ministry. This, however, is mere speculation.

J. T. S."


The following extract is from a second letter in answer to further inquiries :

“In answer to your note of the 14th instant, this day received, I state that my grandfather was married three times. His first wife (my grandmother) was the daughter of George Johnston, Esq., a distinguished lawyer residing at Alexandria, with whom my grandfather read law, and who drew the resolutions against the Stamp Act,* which were moved, at his


* In ascribing the authorship of the resolutions, offered by Mr. Henry, to his distinguished ancestor, Mr. Johnston, I think it probable my friend, Mr. Stoddert, is

instance, by Patrick Henry in the Virginia Legislature in 1765.

Mr. Johnston always claimed the credit of being the first man who discovered the great but hidden powers of that uprivalled orator. He had great difficulty in persuading Mr. Henry that he was the only man who was fitted to make such a speech as suited the occasion,—which would electrify the State and rouse the people to resistance. His own powers, being only argumentative, would fail to produce such an effect. Such is the history of this bold and effective movement, which, in the language of Mr. Jefferson, “gave the first blow to the ball of Revolution.' His son George was a member of General Washington's military family as aid and confidential secretary. When ill-health compelled him to retire, Washington looked to the same family to find his successor, and selected Colonel Robert Hanson Harrison-son-in-law of Mr. Johnston, and then a practising lawyer in Alexandria, though a native of Maryland—for this delicate trust. This gentleman would have declined the appointment but for the influence of my grandfather, whose whole heart was in the struggle, and who removed the only difficulty by agreeing to receive his two orphan-daughters in his family on the footing of his own children. Colonel Harrison, after the war, returned to Maryland and was made Chief Justice of the General Court. On the organization of the Supreme Court, President Washing. ton selected him as one of the Associate Justices,—an appointment at first declined, as it would separate him from his daughters, whose education he was conducting, but accepted on an appeal to his duty by his old military chief, who said he must select by his own knowledge the officers to insure success to the new government.' He died at Bladensburg on his way to Philadelphia to take his seat on the bench. These things show the many links in the chain of friendship which bound together the hero and patriot of Mount Vernon and his pastor and early associate.

“ The second wife of my grandfather was a Miss Burwell, who died nine months after marriage. She was a lady of rare excellence, and my grandfather often dwelt on her memory with the tenderest affection. His last marriage was with Miss Bronaugh, of Prince William county, by whom he had two children,-a son, who was an officer in the navy and was drowned at Norfolk, and Mrs. Triplett. I think it probable her mother was a sister of Colonel George Mason, though I cannot state it as a fact.*

mistaken. Mr. Wirt, in his life of Mr. Henry, says that he left the original of these resolutions, drawn on the blank leaf of an old law-book, with his will, to be opened by his executors. A copy of that original is framed, and may be seen at Red Hill, one of his places of residence in Charlotte county, and now owned by his son, John Henry. Mr. Wirt says that Mr. Henry, after having prepared the resolutions, showed them to two members of the House only,- Mr. John Fleming, of Cumberland, and George Johnston, of Fnirfax. Mr. Wirt alludes to a report of the day, that they were drawn by M1. Johnston, but says that it was unfounded. He speaks of Mr. Johnston, however, in the highest terms. The religious reflections of Mr. Henry, attached to the copy of the resolutions left behind him, are worthy of insertion in this place. As to the effects of our independence he says, “Whether it will prove a blessing or a curse will depend upon the use our people make of the blessings which a gracious God hath bestowed upon us. If they are wise, they will be great and happy. If they are of a contrnry character, they will be miserable. Righteousness alone can exalt them as a nation. Render, whoever thou art, remember this, and in thy sphere practise virtue thyself, and encourage it in others.

P. HENRY" * She was a first-cousin of George Mason


The Masons claimed Aunt Nancy as a cousin, and I do not know how else the relationship could originate. George Mason, the eldest son of Colonel George, married a first-cousin of my grandfather, as did Thomas Mason, a younger son. Martin Cockburn—the uncle of Admiral Cockburn, a native of Jamaica, whither his father had removed from Scotland-married a sister of this last lady. He was a fine scholar and polished gentleman and good Christian. He, a youth of eighteen years, was travelling with Dr. Cockburn in this country, when he met with Miss Bronaugh. The father objected on the score of their youth, but said if his son wished it at the age of twenty-one years, he would cheerfully assent; but the absence of three years was to intervene. Martin was faithful and constant to his first love and returned. A new difficulty then sprung up: the lady would not go to Jamaica, and the gentleman had to come to Virginia. He purchased a residence near Colonel Mason's, (an adjoining farm,) and a few miles from my grandfather, where both husband and wife lived to an advanced age. I have often heard my grandfather say that they were the only couple, he believed, who had lived fifty years together without one word, look, or act to disturb their harmony for a moment, Such was said to be the fact in their case. The courteous and affectionate attentions which each paid to the other impressed my mind when a child, and are now present to my recollection with vivid distinctness. Nothing but the gentle teachings of Him who taught as man never taught could have wrought so beautiful a picture of conjugal love, forbearance, and peace.”

It should be stated that the old church, called Payne's Church, near the railroad, and a few miles from Fairfax Court-House, as well as the new one at the court-house, are both in Truro parish,

Vou. IT -16


The Religious Character of Washington. An interesting question in relation to Washington will now be considered,—viz.: What are the proofs of his personal piety? This work is already done to my hands by the Rev. E. C. McGuire, of Fredericksburg, from whose careful and faithful volume on the “Religious Opinions and Character of Washington” I select the following particulars. He was the child of pious parents and ancestors, was baptized in his second month, - Mr. Beverley Whiting and Captain Christopher Brooks godfathers, and Mrs. Mildred Gregory godmother,—at a time when care was taken to instruct the children in our holy religion, according to the Scriptures as set forth in the standards of the Episcopal Church. Until he had passed his eleventh year he enjoyed the superintending care of both parents, and after that of his mother and uncle. It is also believed that, besides the instructions of the parish sexton and Mr. Williams, he also sat under the ministry of the Rev. Archibald Campbell, and perhaps was for a time at his school in Washington parish, Westmoreland county. While with his mother in Fredericksburg, there can be no doubt of his receiving pious instruction from her and her minister, the Rev. Mr. Marye. While at school, he was remarkable for his abhorrence of the practice of fighting among the boys, and, if unable to prevent a contest, would inform the teacher of the design. When about thirteen years of age he drew up a number of resolutions, taken from books, or the result of his own reflections. Among them is the following :-“When you speak of God or his attributes, let it be seriously, in reverence.” “Labour to keep alive in your breast that little spark of celestial fire called conscience.” At the age of fifteen his filial piety was remarkably displayed in relinquishing an earnest desire to enter the navy, just when about to embark, out of a tender regard to his mother's wishes. The religious sentiments of his mother and of himself were drawn from the Bible and, Prayer-Book, and next to them, from the “Contemplations, Moral and Divine, of Sir Matthew Ilale," judging from the great use which seems to have been made of this book by both of them; and in no uninspired book do we find a purer and more


elevated Christianity.* Should it be said that, notwithstanding his early religious education and some indications of youthful piety, he may have fallen into the irreligion and skepticism of the age, and should proofs of his sincere belief of Christianity, as a divine revelation, be asked for, we will proceed to furnish them. At a time when so many of the chief men in France and America, and even some in England, were renouncing the Christian faith, and when he was tempted to be silent at least on the subject, in his public adılresses, he seems to have taken special pains to let his sentiments be known, and to impress them upon the nation, in opposition to the skepticism of the age,-a skepticism which was sought by some leading men to be propagated with great zeal among the youth of Virginia.

In his address to the Governors of the States, dated at HeadQuarters, June, 1783, when about to surrender up his military command, speaking of the many blessings of the land, he says, “And, above all, the pure and benign light of revelation.He also speaks of that humility and pacific temper of mind which were the characteristics of the divine Author of our blessed religion.

In his farewell address to the people of the United States, on leaving the Presidential chair, he again introduces the same subject :—Of all the dispositions and habits which lead to political prosperity, religion and morality are indispensable supports. A volume could not trace all their connections with private and public

felicity.He warns against the attempt to separate them, and to think that “national morality can prevail to the exclusion of religious principles.

No candid man can read these and other expressions, in the public addresses of Washington, without acknowledging that, as though he were the great high-priest of the nation, availing himself of his position and of the confidence reposed in him, he was raising his warning voice against that infidelity which was desolating France and threatening our own land. That Washington was regarded throughout America, both among our military and political men, as a sincere believer in Christianity, as then received among us, and a devout man, is as clear as any fact in our history. Judge Marshall, the personal friend, the military and political associate, of Washington, says, He was a sincere believer in the Christian faith, and a truly devout man.” Judge Boudinot, who knew him

* The book appears to have been much used, and has many pencil-marks in it, noting choice passages.

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