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these Western hills, had met with some of Bishop Hobart's works, and become a thorough convert to his views of Episcopacy and the Church. The old man was also a great reader of Scripture, and spent many of his latter years in writing a full paraphrase of large portions of it,-even of the prophetical books. At his death he bequeathed them to Dr. Balmaine and myself for publication, if we deemed them worthy. A box of considerable size was full of these manuscripts, in very close, small hand. We were, of course, afraid to venture on so great an undertaking. Into this hilly region did the Rev. Mr. Nash enter, and never did man labour more faithfully than he did. It might have been said of him, if he could not say it of himself,

“Si Pergama dextra defendi possent,

• Etiam hac defensa fuissent;" for he was well suited to the work and place. Having spent his earlier days in mechanical pursuits, he diligently employed his skill in helping to erect and complete two log churches,—working with his own hands in various ways. When completed, he used every proper effort to fill them with Episcopal worshippers, and, for a time, did in a measure succeed. But there are some winds and tides against which even the power of steam proves ineffectual, and there are some places and societies where the excellencies of our Church system and service cannot avail against violent and longestablished prejudices, even though the Gospel be faithfully preached in connection with it. Such was the case in relation to this part of Virginia, where not only Norman Nash laboured zealously and preached faithfully, but where his nephew,—Mr. Sylvester Nash,who succeeded him, did the same, and where other ministers have lent their aid, and Bishops have not failed in their peculiar offices. Bishop Moore visited these churches several times. Mr. Sylvester Nash not only officiated for some years at these log churches, but, by much solicitation and perseverance, succeeded in building a neat brick church in Romney, the county seat of Hampshire, where materials more abounded and the prospects for a time were more flourishing, but he was not encouraged to make a permanent abode there. The Rev. Mr. Hedges also made a few ineffectual efforts after the resignation of Mr. Nash, and, within a few years past, the Rev. Mr. Irish repeated the same, with the same result. Since this last effort, the church has been consumed by fire. In the many changes which are continually going on in society, we will not despair of seeing her old bare walls clothed again with garments of praise, and a crown once more on her head.

I come now-if not in the order of time, yet of geography-to

— the county of Shenandoah,--originally called after Lord Dunmore, but changed to its present title by reason of the conduct of Dunmore, which made his name so hateful to Virginia. The parish was named Beckford. All this region was settled by Germans and Swedes. Hence it was that a Swedish congregation was here collected, and that the Rev. Peter Muhlenburg—son of the Rev. Mr. Muhlenburg, father of the Lutheran Church in America—was sent to take charge of it. A brief sketch of his history is necessary to the proper understanding of his settlement at Woodstock, the county seat of Shenandoah. He was born in the village of Trappe, in Pennsylvania, in the year 1747, and baptized John Peter Gabriel Muhlenburg. His father emigrated from Germany in 1742, and became the founder of the Lutheran Church in this country,- living at first, and for some years, in Philadelphia, then moving to Montgomery county, Pennsylvania, and thence back again to Philadelphia. His son was early destined in his father's mind and purpose to tho ministry, and educated with a view to the same. In the year 1763, Peter, then sixteen years of age, and his two brothers,– Frederick

, and Henry,—were sent to Halle, in Germany, for their education. Before this time, his father had begun to fear that Peier's disposi. tion and habits were not suited to the ministry. In writing to a friend, to whose care he consigned him, he says:


• My son Peter has, alas, enjoyed but little of my care and control, ou account of my extensive official duties; but he has had no evil example from his parents, and many reproofs and counsels. His chief fault and bad inclination has been his fondness for hunting and fishing. But if our most reverend fathers at Halle observe any tendency to vice, I humbly beg that they will send him to a well-disciplined garrison-town under the vame of Peter Weiser, before he causes much trouble or complaint. There he

may obey the drum, if he will not follow the Spirit of God. My prayers will follow him, and if his soul only is saved,-be he in what condition he may,—I shall be content. I well know what Satan wishes for me and mine.”

I take the following account of him, until his settlement in Virginia, from his life, written by Mr. Henry Muhlenburg, who was either his brother or some near relative:

“ These anticipations were soon realized. Perhaps the young Americans were looked upon as demi-savages by their German fellow-students, and perhaps Peter's disposition was too tiery to submit to the strict discipline of a German school, at that time strict even to the verge of cruelty. Be that as it may,—whether caused by one or the other reason, or by a combination of both; -Peter was continually in trouble. Things went on from bad to worse, until some time in the year 1761, upon the occasion of a public


procession in the presence of the heads of the University, some insult was offered to him by his tutor, which his hot temper would not brook, and it was revenged upon the spot by a blow.

“ This outrage rendered his expulsion inevitable. He did not, however, wait for its official notification, but, collecting his little property, fied from the University. A regiment of dragoons was passing through the town, in which, upon the spur of the moment, he enlisted, little thinking that his father had recommended that very remedy to cool his hot blood. Although not eighteen, he was tall and well proportioned, and so desirable a recruit was readily accepted. He thus left the University, little caring what became of him, so rejoiced was he in being freed from what he deemed the tyranny of rectors and proctors.

The precise length of time he remained with this regiment, the writer has no means of ascertaining. He must, however, have fully upheld the character he had gained at the University, as appears from the following anecdote connected with this regiment, related by himself, and still preserved as a family tradition. Ten or eleven years after, the battle of Brandywine was fought. In that action General Muhlenburg commanded a brigade of Virginians, which, with Weedon's, was thrown forward, at the close of that hard-fought day, to repel the victorious advance of the enemy and give time to our shattered columns to retreat. The struggle was at the point of the bayonet, and it so happened that this very regiment dismounted was one of those opposed to Muhlenburg's command. The General, mounted on a white horse, tall and courmanding in his figure, was very conspicuous at the head of his men leading on the long line of Continentals : when the contending parties came near enough to be recog. bised, many of the older soldiers (German enlistments being for life) remembered their former comrade, and the cry ran along their astonished ranks, 'Hier kommt teufel Piet!' (Here comes devil Pete !) Finally he was freed from the obligations he had so rashly assumed, in the following manner. A colonel in the British army, whose name is unfortunately forgotten, was leaving Hanover, where he held some official appointment, for America. He had been, prior to this, long stationed in that country, was a frequent visitor at the house of Dr. Muhlenburg, and knew the family and Peter well. On his journey he happened to pass through the town in which this regiment was then quartered, and, to his utter surprise, recognised his young American acquaintance among its soldiers. He sought him out, and learned the cause of his present position, after which, by representing the matter in its true light, as a boyish student's freak, and certifying to the respectability of his family, he easily procured his discharge. Peter took leave of his comrades and accompanied his kind friend to America, where he arrived some time in the year

1766. This interposition was probably the most fortunate event of his life ; for, although his family would sooner or later have procured his discharge, yet

, from the rarity of intercourse and length of time necessarily occupied, he might have remained there a year or two longer and become utterly disqualified for any other pursuits As it was, the occurrence had a beneficial effect upon his character and disposition, rendering him more tractable, although most probably the taste for military life here acquired influenced bis whole future career.

“His father, who, as we may well conceive, had suffered much anxiety on account of his son, in his joy at the lost being found, received him with Open arms, and granted him forgiveness for, and oblivion of, the past.


For some time Peter remained at home, his father personally superintend ing the completion of his education.

“It was now time for him to turn his thoughts to the selection of a profession, and, had bis own wishes only been consulted, he would doubtless have chosen the army; but his father very earnestly desired that the Church which he had founded in America should be supported and sustained by the efforts of his sods. The uniform kindness which his many youthful follies had met with at his father's hands inclined him to yield to his wishes; and accordingly he commenced the study of theology, under his father's directions.

Early in the year 1768, he was ordained a minister of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, according to the rules and discipline of that sect, and on the 12th of May was appointed assistant rector of Zion's and St. Paul's Churches, in New Jersey. These congregations, commonly known as the Valley Churches, were situated at New Germantown and Bedminster, in Hunterdon and Somerset counties. On the 5th of February in the ensuing year, he commenced officiating, and remained in that capacity for several years.

“Retaining his strong partiality for hunting and fishing, (the bad inclinations referred to earlier by his father,) he become thoroughly acquainted with that part of the country, —

-a knowledge which, during the long stay of the army at Morristown and its subsequent operations in New Jersey, became of great value. While situated in New Jersey, his marriage with Anne Barbara Meyer took place, the ceremony being performed on the 6th of November, 1770.

“For some years prior to this, the German inhabitants of the Middle States commenced emigrating in considerable numbers to Virginia, settling principally in the Valley of the Blue Ridge. These German settlements gradually became large, particularly those in Dunmore; and, being Lutheran, a congregation was formed at Woodstock, the seat of justice for that county.

This congregation desired a pastor, and accordingly application was made to Dr. Muhlenburg to appoint one, with the request that his son might be assigned to that situation. Some difficulties, however, presented themselves. In order to meet the peculiar laws of the Colony of Virginia on the subject of Church establishment, these Germans had organized themselves as members of the Swedish branch of the Lutheran Church, there being no difference between that and the German, save in point of form only. Some congregations of the former existed at this very time in Pennsylvania, and were in close connection with the Lutheran Church proper. The Swedish Church, at the Reformation, differed from the German in retaining its Bishops, and their discipline required that pastors should be ordained and consecrated by a Bishop. This had not been done in Mr. Muhlenburg's case, who had been ordained by his father in accordance with the rules and discipline of the German Lutheran Church. Another obstacle arose from the union of Church and State in Virginia, where the Church of Eogland was established by law, and, in order that the rector might enforce the payment of tithes, it was necessary that he should have been ordained by a Bishop of the English Church, in which case he came under the provisions of the law, although not a member of the Established Church. To meet these difficulties, it was deemed necessary that Mr. Muhlenburg should be ordained anew, according to the discipline prescribed by the Swedish Lutheran Church. Accordingly, he resigned his charge in New Jersey, and made preparation for a voyage to England to receive Episcopal ordination, any properly-consecrated Protestant Bishop being competent for that purpose. He sailed from Philadelphia for London on the 2d of March, 1772, and arrived at Dover on the 10th of the following month. During this journey, Mr. Muhlenburg kept a daily journal, pow in the writer's possession, which is in many parts highly interesting; but space forbids any extracts being here made. From this journal, however, we learn that, if any scruples did exist in his mind with respect to his profession at the time of his entering upon the study of it, they were now entirely removed, and he seems to have been fully impressed with the serious nature of the duties he had assumed, and to have brought to their discharge a spirit of pure and humble Christianity.”

His biographer informs us that his stay in London was brief, and that he was ordained at the same time with a Mr. Braidfoot and Mr. White, the latter being afterward Bishop of Pennsylvania. He further adds, that the disputes between the mother-country were just commencing to be of intense bitterness, when Mr. Muhlenburg removed with his family from Pennsylvania to take charge of his congregation in Virginia. Arriving among them in the fall of 1772, sufficient time was given him, before the breaking out of hostilities, to become extensively acquainted throughout the valley. With Washington and Henry he was soon on terms of personal intimacy, for in June, 1774, he was with them in the House of Burgesses, being sent as representative by the people of his county. This friendship had afterward much weight in determining Mr. Muhlenburg to enter the army. Dunmore county, afterward Shenandoah, under the controlling influence of Mr. Muhlenburg, was one of the first to step forward in opposition to British usurpation. At the first meeting of its citizens he was chosen moderator, and one of the committee of correspondence. Although still a minister, he was sent to the House of Burgesses and Convention again and again, and with all his zeal supported Mr. Henry in the boldest measures he proposed. His character became so well known that in 1775 he was elected Colonel of the 8th regiment, without any other knowledge of military matters than he had acquired when a truant youth in Germany. Washington and Henry both urged his appointment, for they had doubtless seen in which direction his talents moved. His was the first regiment completed on the field. His biographer endorses the tradition of his last sermon, which concluded with the words that there was “a time for all things; a time to fight, and that time had now come.” The sermon finished, he pronounced the benediction. A breathless silence brooded over the congregation. Deliberately pulling off the gown which had thus far covered his martial figure, he stood before them a girded warrior, and, de

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