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scending from the pulpit, ordered the drums at the church-door to beat for recruits. From all the foregoing, we must conclude that though he was doubtless conscientious and respectable, for that day at least, as a minister, yet he still loved his juvenile sports of hunting and fishing too much to excel in the duties of the sacred office, and that he had never ceased to be more of the soldier than the divine.
“Quo semel est imbuta, recens, servabit odorem,
Testa diu." Of the subsequent history of that Swedish Episcopal congregation in Woodstock I have as yet been unable to obtain any accurate information. Some time after the revival of the Episcopal Church in Virginia, an effort was made by General Steenbergen, the Arthurs, Blackfords, and Allens, to establish it in their neighbour hood, and I paid them several visits; but the effort failed. The same was done more than once by some friends of the Church at Woodstock, headed by Mr. Williams, the old and much-esteemed clerk of the county and staunch member of the Church; but with like success.
I cannot take leave of this county and parish without a brief notice of one remarkable locality in it. In the very centre of Mr. Muhlenburg's parish, and only a few miles from his residence at Woodstock, commence the mountains, almost touching each other at first, and running parallel, so as to form a valley between. After running some distance, they unite in one, which is called the Massamatti Mountain. The valley between is called Powell's Fort, and contains some thousands of acres.
The mountains on either side are called the East and West Fort Mountains. The entrance to this valley is through a narrow defile, along which a small but bold stream runs out into the surrounding country, with high, steep mountains on each side, as if some convulsion of nature had opened a passage for the waters. If the whole Valley of Virginia was once a lake, emptying itself at Harper's Ferry, this may be regarded as a lake within a lake, the smaller emptying itself into the larger through this narrow passway, and both of them sending their waters through Harper's Ferry and the Potomac into the great Atlantic. Washington and Muhlenburg had doubtless often been within and around this place, and the military eye of each may have been caught by it, as one of the strongest of nature's fortifications. In one of the darkest and gloomiest seasons of the Revolution, when even the soul of a Washington began to fear the stability of his fellow-citizens, they may have communed together about this, as the last retreat of their diminished and retreating forces. Certain it is that Washington once referred to it as the place to which he should conduct his wasted remnant, there to call the God of nature to its defence, and bid defiance to the British army; thus hoping to arouse his countrymen to renewed and more vigorous efforts for liberty and independence. I can never look ai, (for it is, on a clear day, in sight of my own residence,) pass by, or read of this spot, and recollect that proposal of Washington, without remembering the Edom of Scripture,—the strong city, as it is called; for, if travellers and historians be true, there is a strong resemblance between them, as to their entrance, their valley, and high surrounding mountains. The loose stones almost overhanging this narrow pass, and covering the nearly-perpendicular sides of other parts of the mountains, would have furnished weapons of defence to a few brave men sufficient to overwhelm thousands of assailing foes.
Parishes in Augusta and Rockingham Counties.
We come now to that part of the valley which was the first seen by the white man. In the year 1714, Governor Spottswood and his gallant band of Cavaliers, with their attendants, ascended the Blue Ridge, at Rockfish Gap, in Albemarle county, and became the delighted beholders of the rich and beautiful valley below.* Carving the name of his King on one of the highest rocks of the mountain, while one of his followers did the same with the Governor's on another, they returned to Williamsburg,—the young gentry being established into an order, and dubbed "Knights of the HorseShoe,”—each having a small miniature golden horseshoe presented to him by their enterprising leader. They were followed, after some years, by hardy and daring adventurers, who settled in the valley, driving back the Indians still farther westward. It was not, however, until the year 1738, that it, together with old Frederick, was separated from Orange, -which was until then the frontier-county, extending to the Pacific Ocean, and one hundred miles into it, ac. cording to a charter given by King James to the London Company for Virginia, whose dimensions were four hundred miles wide on the Atlantic, and of the same width from sea to sea, with all the islands in both seas within one hundred miles from the shores thereof. Such was old Virginia when Illinois, embracing all beyond the Ohio River, was, in 1778, made one of her counties. Such was old Virginia until, by various acts and charters of the Crown and her own liberality, she was restricted to her present boundaries. Augusta, in the year 1738, became the frontier-county, and was therefore called West Augusta. All that I could say about the parish of Augusta is so much better said in the following extracts, taken from a sermon at the opening of the new church in Staunton, a few weeks since, by the Rev. Mr. Castleman, its present minister, that no apology is needed for using it:
“The county of Augusta was organized in 1738. Its boundaries extended from the line of old Frederick on the north, along the summit of
* Some think that he crossed at a gap lower down the valley,-near the head waters of the Rappabannock.
the Blue Ridge Mountain indefinitely to the south and west. Its parish was known as the parish of Augusta, and filled up the circuit of the illimitably.extended territory of the county. The first election that was ever held in the county was the election of the vestry. This was in the year 1716, and resulted in the choice of James Patton, John Buchanon, John Madison, Patrick Hays, John Christian, Colonel John Buchanon, Robert Alexander, Thomas Gordon, James Lochart, John Archer, John Matthews, and John Smith. These were among the most prominent and influential men of the county. From the records which remain of their various meetings and deliberations for the general good, we cannot doubt that they were men of intelligence, good moral character, and fidelity in the trusts committed to them.
“On the 6th of April, 1747, they assembled, for the first time after their organization, to elect a minister to break to them the bread of life. Having received letters from Governor Gooch commending the Rev. John Hind. man as an able and worthy minister of the Gospel, they unanimously chose him as their spiritual instructor. He entered immediately into the duties of his pastoral office,-the first minister of the Church of England who ever set foot on Augusta soil and preached the glad tidings of Christ among the mountains of this wild home of the Indian. Owing to the sparseness of the population and inability of the people to build a church, Mr. Hindman was obliged to preach and administer the sacraments in the courthouse and in private houses in different parts of the parish during the whole of his ministry here.”
In the year 1747, the vestry determined to purchase a glebe near Leper's old plantation, and build a house ; also, a church on the plantation of Daniel Harris. Nothing of either now remains. The glebe was sold and the proceeds vested in the academy at Staunton. Mr. Hindman was minister for about three years. Nothing is known of his ministry or of his death.
“On the 6th of August, 1750, the vestry met and empowered its wardens -James Lochart and John Madison—to employ any minister they might think fit to serve them in the Lord. And on the 16th of October, 1752, the following letter was presented to the vestry from Governor Dinwiddie:
“ "GENTLEMEN :- The Rev. John Jones has been recommended to me by many of good repute and undoubted credit as a worthy and learned divine. As such I recommend him to you, gentlemen, to be your pastor, not doubting but his conduct will be such as will entitle him to your favour by promoting peace and cultivating morality in the parish. Your receiving him to be your pastor will be very agreeable to
" • Your very humble servant,
ROBERT DINWIDDIE.' "Just one month after the reading of this letter, Mr. Jones was upani. mously received into the parish and assigned a salary of fifty pounds per annum for his services and twenty pounds per annum for board, until the glebe-buildings were improved and put in order for his occupancy.
“ Between 1756 and 1759, John Matthews, Samson Archer, Robert Breckenridge, and Israel Christian, were added to the vestry.
“On the 20th of May, 1760, it was unanimously resolved to erect a church-building in the town of Staunton, forty feet by twenty-five. It stood partly on the spot now occupied by the new church, just completed, the foundation of its southern wall being covered by the northern wall of the present building.
Either the infirmities of age, or enfeebled health, had so worn upon the constitution of Mr. Jones as to render him unequal to the duties of his office. He therefore called a meeting of the vestry and advised the employment of a curate, and offered to relinquish one-half of his salary (which by this time had been increased to two hundred pounds) toward his support. In obedience to his wishes, the vestry procured the services of the Rev. Adam Smith, who entered upon his duties as curate in the spring of 1772. Of Mr. Smith's character and use ulness as a preacher, or in what way his connection with the parish was severed, we have no information. Ile did not, however, remain longer than one year. On the 9th of November, 1773, the Rev. Alexander Balmaine was unanimously chosen to fill his place. From this time onward, we hear no more of Mr. Jones. Though the history which remains of his labours as a preacher and pastor is exceedingly meagre and unsatisfactory,-confined almost entirely to his meetings with the vestry and to the records which he kept as its clerk,—we cannot but revere his memory as a devout and faithful minister of God. The only substantial and valuable relic of him which remains to us is the old worn and defaced Bible which is constantly used in our pulpit.
“How long, precisely, Mr. Balwaine remained in the parish, we are not informed. The time was drawing near which tried men's souls. The spirit of '76 began to swell and agitate the American breast. Of this spirit Mr. Balmaive seems to have partaken in no small degree. The following proceedings of a meeting of the freeholders of Augusta county, held at Staunton ou the 22d of February, 1775, will throw no little light on bis character as a patriot :
"After due notice given to the freeholders of Augusta county to meet in Staunton, for the purpose of electing delegates to represent them in Colony Couvention, at the town of Richmond, on the 20th day of March, the freeholders of said county thought proper to refer the choice of their delegates to the judgment of the committee, who, thus authorized by the general voice of the people, met at the court-house, on the 22d of February, and unanimously chose Mr. Thomas Lewis and Captain Samuel McDowell to represent them in the ensuing Convention.
“ Instructions were then ordered to be drawn up by the Rev. Alexander Balmaine, Mr. Samson Matthews, Captain Alexander McClanahan, Mr. Michael Bowyer, Mr. William Lewis, and Captain George Matthews, or any three of them, and delivered to the delegates thus chosen, which are as follows:
“ To Mr. Thomas Lewis and Captain Samuel McDowell. mittee of Augusta county, pursuant to the trust reposed in them by the freeholders of the same, have chosen you to represent them in Colony Couvention, proposed to be held in Richmond on the 2d of March instant. They desire that you may consider the people of Augusta county as impressed with just sentiments of loyalty and allegiance to his Majesty King George, whose title to the imperial crowu of Great Britain rests on no other foundation than the liberty, and whose glory is inseparable from the happiness, of all his subjects. We have also respect for the parent State. which respect is founded on religion, ou law, and on the genuine priuciples