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patriotism and talents of these young men. Then followed two odes, by Mr. C. B. Blanchard, of Norfolk, and Mr. Le Roy Anderson, of Williamsburg, which were interesting to the assembly.

Two days and nights were spent in these and other exercises of a different character. After feasting and mirth on the island, which continued two days and nights, the scene was transferred to Williamsburg, where another day and night was spent in like manner,—very unlike the manner of the first days of our forefathers on the island, whose first act was the solemn celebration of the Lord's Supper.

No. III.

ORIGIN OF THE NAMES OF PARISHES.

[The following was furnished at my request by my friend, Mr. Hugh Blair Grigsby, of Norfolk, to whom I am indebted for many other things in the foregoing articles.]

MY DEAR SIR :-Your letter of the 18th was received last evening, and I hasten to reply at once to your interrogatories.

1. AUGUSTA.—So called from the Princess Augusta, wife of Frederick, Prince of Wales, who was the eldest son of George II., but died before his father. The county of Augusta was created in 1738, and Frederick in the same year, and were thus named after the Prince and Princess of Wales.

2. DALE.—This is a fancy name, probably applied from the local propriety of the name,-probably from Dale Manor in England, from which some of the vestry may have emigrated; just as George Mason the first called the county of Stafford from Stafford in England. (See note to George Mason's Life in Virginia. Convention of 1776.) Thomas Dale was HighMarshal of Virginia in 1611.

3. BECKFORD.—The name of a place in England, and a common name of persons; but I know not its application here. By-the-way, its true meaning is bec fort, (a strong beak.)

4. South FARNHAM.—Farnham is the name of a town in Surrey, England, in which the Bishop of Winchester has a castle. Its products are hops and corn. It is on the banks of the Wey.

5. Truro.—This is the name of a borough in Cornwall, England, and is the shipping-port of the tin and copper ore found in its vicinity. Probably there were mines in the vicinity of Truro parish, in Virginia, or some of its people came from Truro.

6. FINCASTLE.—The name of this parish was taken from the county of Fincastle, which was so called after the country-seat of. Lord Botetourt, in England. Fincastle county was taken from Botetourt in 1774. In Oce

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tober, 1776, the county of Fincastle was divided into Kentucky, Wash. ington, and Montgomery,—the name of Fincastle having been dropped. The town of Fincastle, however, which had been incorporated in 1772, retained the name.

7. PETSWORTH.—The true name is Petworth, and is the name of a town in Surrey, England, which contains a church in which the Percys were buried.

If the parish were created before 1630, it was doubtless so called in honour of Percy, who was for a short time Governor of Virginia, and was of the noble house of Northumberland. A likeness of Percy (with his amputated finger) is in our Historical Hall,-having been presented by Conway Robinson, who saw the original portrait in England. The name Petso, to which you allude, is only an abbreviation of “ Petswo.," which was the old way of recording the word, as Norfolk was written "Norff.," or “ Norfo."

8. ANTRIM.—This is the name of a parish in the county of Antrim, on the northeast coast of Ireland, of which Belfast is one of the principal towns, as also Lisburn and Carrickfergus,-all noted in the history of that great effort to Saxonize Ireland. It is the head-quarters of the Protestants and Scotch-Irish. It is an immense county of two hundred and seventy. one thousand inhabitants. Some descendant of the Scotch-Irish (as were the Lewises) gave one parish that name.

9. ST. JAMES's NORTHAM.-Northam is a common name of a hundred places in England, (signifying north settlement,) and corresponds with Southam, Easthram, and Westham.

10. STRATTON MAJOR.-Stratton is the name of a town in Cornwall, England, and individuals took the name from the town. The Strattons came over to Virginia early and were scattered on the eastern and western shores of the Chesapeake. It was doubtless named by some minister who came over from Cornwall. That is to say, the minister suggested the name to the representative of the county, who proposed it in the House of Burgesses.

11. SHELBURNE.—Called after Lord Shelburne, who was prime minister in England for a short time, and was regarded as friendly to the Americans.

12. BLISLAND.—This is a common name in England, and is synonymous with “happy land.” It is evidently applied from some local incident long lost, or from some place in England connected with some of its parishioners. The word was originally Bliss-land.

13. Saint BRIDE.—This should have been printed “St. Bride's.” It alludes to the spiritual marriage of St. Catharine, who, according to the Catholic legends, had the bridal ring placed on her finger by our Saviour in his childhood. Correggio- I think it is—has given us a superb painting of the scene. The picture (partly original) is at the house of the late Miss Ann Herson, a Catholic lady of Norfolk, who died during the yellow fever, and who was during her life a ministering angel to the poor,-bestowing her vast wealth freely in the cause of charity. As St. Catharine

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was never married corporeally, she has been called the bride of Heave 1,that is, Saint Bride. We have a street in Norfolk called Catharine, named about the time of the erection of the parish of St. Bride.

14. BROMFIELD.-I overlooked Bromfield in its proper place. The term “ brom,” which signifies wild oats, is a common prefix in England; as, Bromley, Bromwich, Bromgrove, Bromton, (now Brompton,) &c.

There are seven different places in Staffordshire, England, called Bromley, and in Kent; and it is probable that some Staffordshire colonist or Kentish man suggested the name Bromfield, as appropriate to the position of the church in the county of Culpepper.

15. LYNNHAVEN.—This was so called from the port of Lynn in the county of Norfolk, England, and before Princess Anne, in which it now is, was set apart as a distinct county.

16. OVERWHARTON.—This name, like that of Stratton, is that of an English town in the first place, and, secondly, of an individual. It may have been called in honour of George Wharton, a native of Westmoreland, in England, who lost all during the civil wars, and who may have been a friend to the George Mason—the first of the name—who was a Staffordshire man and a royalist. Or it may have been called after the Marchioness of Wharton, who was a daughter of Sir Henry Lee, of Ditchley,—a great royalist,--and who inherited his wealth. If Stafford had not been settled by some strong Cavaliers, and the parish had been created after the Revo. lution of 1688, I would suppose it was called Wharton in honour of the author of the celebrated ballad of Lillibulero.

17. COPLE.—This should correctly be written Copple. The word is common in Cornwall and in the mining-counties of England, and means a vessel used in refining metals. It was common, three hundred years ago, to name taverns after instruments; as, the “Mortar and Pestle,” the" Bell,” &c. But I know of no place in England so called. If there were any mines in Westmoremand, the title would be appropriate enough.

18. WESTMORELAND.— This county was created between the years 1648 and 1653, near a century before any of its Revolutionary men were born; so the Northern writer cannot say properly that it was so called from its having produced so many great men in Virginia. The true meaning of Moreland is “greater land," from the comparative "more,” which is used in the sense of great by Gower, Chaucer, and even as late as Shakspeare, who says, in King John, Act II. 5th sc., “a more requital.” But, if Moreland is derived from the Celtic word “more," then Moreland signifies great land, or high land; as, Maccullum More is the Great Maccullum. “Gilmore" means the henchman of the more or great man. The name of Westmoreland was given originally without doubt to a scene of high land or a great stretch of land of some kind, and never had allusion to the men who were born or died in any place so called.

19. MARTIN'S BRANDON. – Brandon was so called from the town of Brandon, in Suffolk, England. It gives the British title to the Scotch

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Duke of Hamilton. It is situated on the river Ouse, and its name was given, like that of Surrey, Sussex, and Suffolk, from emigrants from those parts of England. It appears from the appendix of Burke's History, vol. i. p. 334, that one John Martin brought out a patent from England of five hundred acres, which was located on the tract, or hundred, called Brandon, on Chapoke Creek; and, in the early enumeration of the different settlements or plantations in the Colony, the farm of John Martin was always called “ Martin's Brandon.” This was as early, I think, as 1630.

No. IV.

NAMES OF SOME OF THE OLD AND LEADING FAMILIES IN EASTERN

VIRGINIA IN COLONIAL TIMES AND IMMEDIATELY SUCCEEDING THE
REVOLUTION.*

[The following has been furnished by Mr. Francis Cabell, of Warminster, Va., to whom I am indebted for other valuable communications.]

Allen, Alexander, Ambler, Archer, Armistead, Atkinson, Aylett, Acril.

Bacon, Baker, Ball, Baldwin, Ballard, Bankhead, Banister, Bassett, Baylor, Baynham, Berkeley, Beverley, Birchett, Blair, Bland, Bolling, Bouldin, Booth, Bowyer, Bradley, Brent, Braxton, Bowdoin, Browne, Brooke, Broadnaxe, Burwell, Burnley, Butler, Buckner, Byrd, Baskerville, Branch, Booker, Blow.

Cabell, Calloway, Carr, Carrington, Carter, Cary, Catlett, Chamberlayne, Christian, Clopton, Claiborne, Clayton, Clarke, Cocke, Coleman, Coles, Colston, Cooper, Conway, Corbin, Custis, Crawford.

Dabney, Daniel, Davenport, Davis, Dandridge, Digges, Dulany.

Edmunds, Edwards, Eggleston, Eldridge, Ellis, Embry, Eppes, Everard, + Eyre.

Fairfax, Farley, Faulcon, Field, Fitzgerald, Fitzhugh, Fleming, Fry.

* The above list of names is a copy of one which was drawn up for the writer's own use, and which, having grown by gradual accretion from a small nucleus, is still very imperfect. Especially is it defective in the names of many who resided in the lower counties, or in the Northern Neck, or the other necks between the large rivers. It is not pretended that these families were all of the ancient “aristocracy,” so called, although most of them might have certain representatives among the gentry of the country. Some of them were “ novi homines” within the memory of the living. They are here arranged in alphabetical order: those who are acquainted with our political and social history will know how to classify them according to another standard. Neither are they assigned to any determined locality. The original ancestral seats might be assigned to certain counties in most cases; but their posterity in many shers is too widely dispersed.

Gay, Gibbon, Gilmer, Goode, Goodwyn, Graves, Grayson, Green, Grif. fin, Grymes, Grammar, Greenway, Garnett, Garland, Gaines, Gholson.

Hackley, Hansford, Hardaway, Harmer, Harrison, Harvie, Herbert, Hill, Holliday, Holmes, Hooe, Howard, Hubard, Hairston, Heath, Heth, Hicks, Hopkins, Hawkins, Hodges, Henderson, Haynes.

Innes, Irby.
Jefferson, Jennings, Johnson, Jones, Joynes.
Kennon, King.

Lanier, Lee, Lewis, Lightfoot, Littlepage, Littleton, Lomax, Ludweil, Lyons, Left wich.

Mallory, Martin, Marshall, Marye, Mason, Massie, Matthews, Mayo, Meade, Mercer, Minor, Meredith, Merriwether, Michie, Minge, McCarty, Moore, Moseley, Munford, Morris, Morton, Mosby.

Nash, Nelson, Newton, Nicholas, Nivison, Norvell, Noland.

Page, Parke, Parker, Peachey, Pegram, Pendleton, Penn, Peter, Pey. ton, Phillips, Pierce, Pleasants, Pollard, Pope, Powell, Poythress, Prentiss, Price, Prosser, Posey.

Randolph, Reade, Riddick, Roane, Robertson, Robinson, Rose, Ruffiu, Russell, Royall.

Savage, Saunders, Scarburgh, Selden, Shepherd, Short, Skelton, Skipwith, Slaughter, Spottswood, Stanard, Stevenson, Stith, Stokes, Steptoe, Strother, Swann, Syme, Spencer.

Tabb, Talbot, Taliafero, Tayloe, Taylor, Tazewell, Terry, Thornton, Todd, Travis, Trent, Tucker, Tyler.

Upshur, Upshaw; Venable, Vaughn.

Waller, Walker, Walton, Wade, Ward, Waryng, Washington, Watkins, Watson, West, Wickham, Webb, Whiting, Westwood, Wilkins, Wilcox, Willis, Winston, Williams, Withers, Wood, Woodson, Wise, Wormley, Wyatt, Wythe.

Yates, Yelverton.

A very few Scotch and Irish names are found in this list,-still more of Welsh; but the great body of them are English or British, (other than Saxon.)*

* Welsh Names to be found in the United States and many of them in Virginia. Atkins, Adams, Apjohn, Apthorp, Aubrey.

Balch, Barlow, Bayly, Benlow, Bevan, Bowen, Boydell, Breese, Broadus, (Broadhurst,) Broughton, Bulkley.

Cadwallader, Catesby, Clements, Cloyd, Conway, Coates, Cobbs, Cerwin, Craddock, (Caradoc,) Crute, (Crwt,) Cunliffe.

Davis, Davies, Dawkins, Denby, Dickins, Dickinson, Dewey.
Edmunds, Edwards, Evans.
Fane, Fielding, Floyd, Fluellen.

Garland, Gerald, Glyn, Godwin, Griffin, Griffith, Gwathney, Gwillyn, Gwynn, Gwinnett, Graves.

Hawkins, Hanmer, Harris, Haskins, Hawkins, Havard, Haynes, Hopkins, Hoskins, Herbert, Hickes, Holland, Howell, Howland, Hughes, Humphreys, Ilurst.

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