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EXTRACT FROM Join Rolf's LETTER TO KING JAMES WHEN HE WAS IN
ENGLAND with PocaHONTAS, CONCERNING THE FIRST PLANTATIONS OR SETTLEMENTS IN THE COLONY.
Ar Henrico, on the north side of the river, ninety odd myles from the mouth thereof, and within fifteen or sixteen myles of the Falls or head of
Jenyns, Jenkyns, Judkins, Junkin, Jeffreys, Jefferson, Jacobs, James, Jones, Johnes, Isaacs.
Langhorn, Leigh, Lewis, Lewellyn, Lister, Lloyd, Ludlow, Lyman.
Maddock, (Madoc,) Matthews, Mansel, Meredith, Meyrick or Merrick, Morgan, Miles, Morris, Morse, Mosby, Mostyn, Middleton.
Nichols, Norris, Nevin or Nevins.
Pannill, Par, Parry, Parkins, Perkins, Perkinson, Peacock, Peters, Penn, Pendergast, Pennant, Pickens, Phillips, Poole, Polwhell, Powell, Powys, Price, Pratt, Pricharı), Pugh, Pym.
Richards, Rees or Reece, Rice, Rivers, Rowland, Roberts, Rogers, Ragland.
Watkins or Gwatkin, Williams, Winn, Wilkins, Wilkinson, Watts, Walters or Waters, Wills, Willis, Wallis, Wall, Warner, Wayles, Wilks, Womack, Wootan, Wayne.
1. The following surnames are taken from those of the ancient princes of the country:-Cadwallader, Griffin, Gwynnett, (Gwynnedd,) Craddock, (Caradoc,) Howell, Lewellyn, Madoc, Owen, Rice, (Rhuys,) Tudor, (Tewdor.)
2. These by adding “g” to Scripture names, -viz. : Adams, Daniels, Davies, (Davids,) Ellis, (Elias,) Johnes or Jones, James, Isaacs, Jacobs, Matthews, Phillips, Stephens, Symonds, Peters, Thomas.
3. And these by adding “g” to common Christian names:-Clements, Edmunds, Edwards, Evans, Hughes, Humphreys, Jeffreys, (Geoffreys,) Richards, Roberts, Rowlands, Wills, Williams, Watts, Walters.
4. “ Ap” or “ab” means son, and is often prefixed to other names; and the affix "kins” denotes a collateral relation : thus, Bevan is equivalent to Ap-Evan; Bowen, Ap-Owen; Breese, Ap-Rees; Parry, Ap-Harry; Powell, Ap-Howell; Pugh, ApHugh; Price, Ap-Rice; Prichard, Ap-Richard; Penry, Ap-Henry. Atkins, (Arthurs'-kin,) Dickens-son, Dawkins, Haskins, Hawkins, Hopkins, Jenkins, Judkins, (Judas-kin,) Pickens, Perkins-son, Tomkins, Watkins, Wilkins.
5. Some of the above names may be Cornish, old British, or otherwise Celtic, rather than strictly Welsh ; thus, the English have a proverb, —
"By Tre, Pol, and Pen
You may know the Cornish men." 6. It is curious to note how many of the original Puritans of New England, of the Quakers of Pennsylvania, of the Baptists of Virginia and elsewhere, of advocates of extreme republican opinions in matters of State, as well as of Revolutionary leaders, bore names to be found in the above list. Of very many of the citizens of the Piedmont district, in Virginia, the same may be said. Their ancestors may have been attracted thither from its resemblance to the Principality in its physical features.
that river, (being our furthest habitation within the land,) are thirty-eight men and boyes, whereof twenty-two are farmors, the rest officers and others, all whom maintayne themselves with food and apparrell. Of this towne one capten Smaley hath the command in the absence of capten James Davis. Mr. Wm. Wickham minister there, who, in his life and doctrine, give good examples and godly instructions to the people.
At Bermuda Nether Hundred, (seated on the south side of the river, crossing it and going by land, five myles lower then Henrico by water,) are one hundred and nineteen-which seate conteyneth a good circuite of ground-the river running round, so that a pale running cross a neck of land from one parte of the river to the other, maketh it a peninsula. The houses and dwellings of the people are sett round about by the river, and all along the pale, so farr distant one from the other, that upon anie alarme, they can succor and second one the other. These people are injoyned by a charter, (being incorporated to the Bermuda towne, which is made a corporacoun,) to effect and performe such duties and services whereunto they are bound for a certain tyme, and then to have their freedome. This corporacoun admit nu farmors, unles they procure of the governor some of the colony men to be their servants, for whom (being no members of the corporacoun,) they are to pay rent corne as other farmors of this kindthese are about seventeen. Others also comprehended in the said number of one hundred and nineteen there, are resident, who labor generallie for the colonie; amongst whom some make pitch and tarr, potashes, charcole and other works, and are maintayned by the magazin—but are not of the corporacoun.
At this place (for the most part) liveth capten Peacıly, deputy marshal and deputy governor. Mr. Alexander Whitaker, (sonne to the reverend and famous divine, Dr. Whitaker,) a good divine, hath the ministerial charge here.
At West and Sherley Hundred (seated on the north side of the river, lower then the Bermudas three or four myles,) are twenty-five, commanded by capten Maddeson-who are imployed onely in planting and curing tobacco,—with the profitt thereof to clothe themselves and all those who labor about the generall business.
At James Towne (seated on the north side of the river, from West and Sherley Hundred lower down about thirty-seven myles,) are fifty, under the command of lieutenant Sharpe, in the absence of capten Francis West, Esq., brother to the right ho'ble the Le. Lawarre, --whereof thirtyone are farmors; all theis maintayne themselves with food and rayment. Mr. Richard Bucke minister there—a verie good preacher.
At Kequoughtan (being not farr from the mouth of the river, thirtyseven miles below James Towne on the same side,) are twenty-whereof eleven are farmors; all those also maintayne themselves as the former. Capten George Webb commander.
Mr. Wm. Mays minister there. At Dales-Gift (being upon the sea, neere unto Cape Charles, about thirty myles from Kequoughtan,) are seventeen, under the command of ove lieutenant Cradock; all these are fedd and maintayned by the colony. Their labor is to make salt and catch fish at the two seasons aforementioned.
So the nomber of officers and laborers are two hundred and five. The farmors 81; besides woemen and children, in everie place some—which in all amounteth to three hundred and fifty-one persons—a small nomber to advance so great a worke.
Theis severall places are not thus weakly man'd, as capable of no greater nomber, (for they will maintayne many hundreds more,)—but because no one can be forsaken without losse and detriment to all. If then so few people, thus united, ordered and governed, doe live so happily, every one partaking of the others labor, can keepe in possession so much ground as will feed a far greater nomber in the same or better condition; and seeing too, too many poore farmors in England worke all the yeare, rising early and going to bed late, live penuriously, and much adoe to pay their landlord's rent, besides a daily karking and caring to feed themselves and families, what happines might they enjoy in Virginia, were men sensible of theis things, where they may have ground for nothing, more than they can manure; reape more fruits and profitts with half the labor, void of many cares and vexacions, and for their rent a matter of small or no moment, I leave to your singular judgment and consideracoun, nothing doubting, but He (who, by his infinite goodnes, with so small means, hath settled these poore and weake beginnings so happily,) will animate, stirr up and encourage manie others cheerfully to undertake this worke, and will assuredly add a daily strength to uphold and maintayne what he hath already begun.
Seeing then this languishing action is now brought to this forwardness and strength, no person but is provided for, either by their owne or others labors, to subsist themselves for food, and to be able to rayse commodities for clothing and other necessaries, envy it selfe, poysoned with the venom of aspes, cannot wound it.
Now, to drawe to a conclusion of this my poore oblacon, I would crave your Highnes' patience a little longer—and that you would turne your heart to a more heavenly meditacoun, wherein much joy and comfort is to be reaped and found, of all such as shall truly, sincerely and unfeynedly seeke to advance the honor of God, and to propagate his gospell. There is no small hope by pietie, clemencie, curtesie and civill demeanor, (by which meanes some are wonne to us alreadie,) to convert and bring to the knowledge and true worship of Jesus Christ thousands of poore, wretched and misbelieving people on whose faces a good christian cannot looke without sorrow, pittie and compsssion, seeing they beare the image of our Heavenlie Creator, and we and they come from one and the same mould, especiallie we knowing that they, merely through ignorance of God and Christ, doe run headlong, yea, with joy, into destruction and perpetuall damnation,—for which knowledge we are the more bound and indebted to Almightie God, (for what were we before the gospell of Christ shined anjongst us ?) and cannot better express our duties and thankfulness for so great mercies, then by using such meanes to them, as it pleased him to lend unto others to bring our forefathers and us into the waies of trueth, -it is much to be mourned and lamented how lightlie the workes of God are now a days generallie regarded, and less sought after; but the worke of the world, as though they were eternall, hungered for, and thirsted after with insatiable greedines. But should we well consider, examine and search into ourselves, what we were, and now are, there can be no heart, (if not hardened as the nether nill stone,) but would even break itself to pieces, and distribute to manie poore soules some parte thereof, to purge them from their lees of synne, and to sette them in the right pathes of holives and righteousnes, to serve the King of Heaven; by which meanes and God's holy assistance, no doubt they will soone be brought to abandon their old superstitions and idolatries, wherein they have been nursed and trayned from their infancies, and our greatest adversaries shall not taunt us with this reproach, “Whom of you have you wonne to christianitie?" What a crowne of glorie shalbe sett upon their heads who shall faithfullie labor herein, I leave to the enjoying of them, who shall endeavour unfeynedly to meritt the same. Finallie, as Caleb and Joshua in the verie heate of grudgings, murmurings, and assemblies of the children of Israell, stood stoutlie for the Lord's cause, commending the goodnes of the land they discovered, to the faces of their oppressors, and the easines to obtain it even to the perill of their lives, so many right ho'ble and worthie per. sonages, both here and in Virginia, (whom generallie the most parte withdrew themselves, that the action was almost sunck downe in forgetfulnes,) have mightilie upheld this christian cause—for God, even our owne God, did helpe them. For neither evill reports, nor slanders, nor murm
rmurings, no, backbitings of others, nor any disaster, did once dismay or hinder them from upholding thereof with their good reports, incouragements, and meanes yearelie sent to the planters, to nourish life and being in this zealous worke. I beseech God to raise up many more such, so zealous for God's glory, to forward the same-we have tasted of some fruits thereof. There are no great nor strong castles, nor men like the sons of Anack, tu hinder our quiet possession of that land. God's hand hath been mightie in the preservacoun thereof hitherto; what need we then to feare, but to goe up at once as a peculiar people, marked and chosen by the finger of God, to possess it, for undoubtedly he is with us. And as for murmurers, slanderers and backsliders, a due porcoun shalbe given them for their reward. So the blessings of Caleb and Joshua shall fall upon all those that constantly persevere to the end. Thus, craving your gracious pardon for my rude boldnes, beseaching God to send you the fulnes of his blessings in this world and in the world to come, I
rest, Your highnes' most faithful and loyall subject,
The following address and resolutions of the patriots of the Northern Neck of Virginia, in the year 1765, immediately after the passage of the Stamp Act, properly belongs to the article on Washington parish, Westmoreland. It was drawn up by Richard Henry Lee, whose name is first on the list. It is said to have been the first public association in the land for the resistance to that act.
Roused by danger, and alarmed at attempts, foreign and domestic, to reduce the people of this country to a state of abject and detestable slavery, by destroying that free and happy constitution of government under which they have hitherto lived, -We, who subscribe this paper, have associated, and do bind ourselves to each other, to God, and to our country, by the firmest ties that religion and virtue can frame, most sacredly and punctually to stand by, and with our lives and fortunes to support, maintain, and defend each other in the observance and execution of these following articles.
First.We declare all due allegiance and obedience to our lawful Sovereign, George the Third, King of Great Britain. And we determine to the utmost of our power to preserve the laws, the
peace and good order of this colony, as far as is consistent with the preservation of our constitutional rights and liberty.
Secondly. - As we know it to be the birthright privilege of every British subject, (and of the people of Virginia as being such,) founded on reason, law, and compact, that he cannot be legally tried, but by his peers, and that he cannot be taxed, but by the consent of a Parliament, in which he is represented by persons chosen by the people, and who themselves pay a part of the tax they impose on others.
If therefore any person or persons shall attempt, by any action or proceeding, to deprive this colony of those fundamental rights, we will immediately regard him or them as the most dangerous enemy of the community; and we will go to any extremity, not only to prevent the success of such attempts, but to stigmatize and punish the offender.
Thirdly.--As the Stamp Act does absolutely direct the property of the people to be taken from them without their consent expressed by their representatives, and as in many cases it deprives the British American subject of his right to trial by jury; we do determine, at every hazard, and, paying no regard to danger or to death, we will exert every faculty to prevent the execution of the said Stamp Act in any instance whatsoever within this colony. And every abandoned wretch, who shall be so lost to virtue and public good, as wickedly to contribute to the introduction or fixture of the Stamp Act in this colony, by using stamp paper, or by any other means, we will, with the utmost expedition, convince all such pro