Εικόνες σελίδας
PDF
Ηλεκτρ. έκδοση

“I have told you in my former letters, that intention. This rectitude is greatly recomthe King Minh-Menh, by his edict of the 6th mended as the rule of our actions, which will January, 1833, proscribed the Catholic religi- all be good, if our heart is right, simple and on through the whole extent of the state. just ; but evil, if a man departs from this I need not recur to the details of this frightful aprightness. It is, doubtless, a good precept, persecution ; the blood of the martyrs has but at the same time is only a republication reddened tae soil Annam, and every sign of of the Christian law; and, perhaps, Minh-Meph Christian worship has been effaced. Yet this did not doubt this. was not enough for the end whicb Minh-Menh 3D. Com.-Fulfil with diligence the duties of proposed. He knew well that religion did your state and condition.-- It is necessary to be no consist entirely in external practice, and content with one's condition, not to marmur he has sworn to stifle it, if that be possible, against the state in which, according to the in the heart of all his subjects. Reflecting, pleasure of God, one is born, to perform its then, upon the means of attaining with more duties with delight and care, and to labour certainty this fearful object of his desires, with ordour and contentment. This rule rebehold what the modern Julian bas imagined fers to all labourers, artizans, merchants and in his crafty policy. He recalled to mind soldiers ; all are to be content; then will the that the decalogue of the Christians was the happiness of his Majesty's subjects be perfect. chief rule of their conduct ; that the Pagans This is truly admirable; but it is to be regretthemselves often quoted it with praise, and ted that the legislator bas not given himself that the faithful assembled in great numbers the trouble to point out the means of obtainfour times a year to celebrate in a body, the ing it. It is well to say men, be content,-but holy mysteries. The King had too much it would be more useful to teach them how sense to believe that it was possible to extin- to attain it. guish a religion, without substituting somc- 414. Com.-Be sober in eating and drinking. thing in its place. Like a philosophical - This commandment prescribes the moderate prince, therefore, he resolved to oppose in use of the good things which Heaven gives some measure religion to religion, festival to us; and not the imitation of those who on festival, and decalogue to decalogue. He certain days of debauchery, consume all they has, therefore, caused a great number of have, and strave for the rest of the year. It works upon morals to be collected, and those is said, that intemperance as well as gamof Confucius among the rest, and he has bling, engenders poverty, theft, and high way caused the most splendid passages to be noted robbery. Tbis is to take the people of Annam down, particularly those which might bear by their weak side ; to strike them in a lender any anology to Christian doctrine ; and this part; and hence they are not a little displeahas been arranged in the best possible manner, sed with the King for this law. It is impossiand has thus furnished a complete body of ble not to compare the state of misery under doctrine. The whole has been divided into which so great a number of the people groan, ten articles. A pompous preface announces with the plenty which reigns in the volupto the people of Annam, that the King, desir-tuous Court of Minh-Menh ; so easy is it to ous of treading in the steps of his illustrious preach sobriety to the miserable, when a man predecessors, has, in his paternal solicitude, denies himself nothing. composed these ten precepts. And it is re- 5th. Com.- Preserve riles and usages. The marked, that an exact observance of them developmnet of this precept does not correscannot fail to obtain from above, a happy pond with its title. As it consists only of long peace for all the inhabitants of the country, and vague dissertations, which have no connecand abundant harvests.”

tion with the text, I need not pause to exaThe Bishop then proceeds to describe the mine it. ceremonial which has been prescribed, re- 6TH. Com. - Fathers and mothers ought to garding the reception of the decalogue by all bring up their childern with care, and elder brothe pablic officers in the empire.

thers should do the same by their younger bro 1st. Com.- Preserve exactly all the Social thers.—The King considers domestic educaRelations. This is the same as if one should tion as the base of the social edifice, and certes, talk of the Rights of Man. But in Tom King, with reason. This article has, therefere, been they put a different construction on it, from received without contradiction, and even with that which is given in France. Social rela- applause. tions are those of the King with his subjects ; 7TH. Com.- Avoid evil doctrines, and study the rights of the King are every thing ; those only those which are good.-The legislator is of the subject nothing. Then follow the rela- desirous that all inen should give ihemselves tion of the father with the son; of the hus- up to study, and allow no day to pass without band to the wife ; of brothers among each reading, or study ; but they must be careful other; and of friends to strangers. These not to swallow the poison with the aliments five kinds of relations, are conspicuously which are destined to nourish them. It is brought forward in all the books of Chinese in this place, that Minh-Menh abandons himmorality, which have been used in this com- self, without restraint, to all the hatred which pilation. Much is said on the subject, which he feels for the Christian name. He says, after all means little ; but it is all very clas. that of all false doctrines that of Christianity sic, and every scholar who does not know it is the most opposed to reason, an the most by heart, would be taxed with ignorance. dangerous as it respects good manners ; that

[ocr errors]

like the brutes ; tliat many had already paid Surrounded as he is with a numerous seraglio, with their heads for the folly which had en. he preaches chastity with an ill grace to his gaged them in the superstitions of this wor- people who will end it much more easy, ship ; that the people ouyht to be careful doubtless, to imitate his conduct than to obey not to imitate them ; but that all ought to his precepts. follow in all things the ancient usages and 9ra. Com.-Observe exactly the laws of the the accustomed rites of the Kingdom, both in hinydom. -Among other recommendations givmarriages and in interments, in the worship en in this article exactness in the payment of of deceased ancestors, of the tutelary genii ; the tribute is insisted on. This has made that is to say, he wishes all Christians to take all those who heard it murinur ; for nothing part in idolatruos ceremonies. This decree in this country more irritates men, than to reveals on the part of the Prince, the most hear of imposts ; nothing flatters them so unfriendly intentions ; it is to be hoped that much as to hear of their remission. I believe the first edict may efface at length from the that if I had money enough to pay for eight memory of the people the habitual levity of years all the contributions to which the Pagal the nation, and give them something to think subject of Minb.Menh are subjected, in site on. But this edict is to be published four of his edicts and his precepts, they would all times a year ; how, then, are we to hope that be converted to Christianity, at least, so far the idolators will forget that they have a right as external observances go. to persecute the Christians, and to force them 10th. Com.- Practice good works.—This preto superstitious usages and to extort money cept is, doubtless, borrowed from Christian from them ? This is, without doubt, the ac- morality ; for there is noining expressed on complishment of that order which the King this subject in Chinese books. Il is saiil, agave to his Mandarins to invent against us mong other things, persevere in the practico such contrivances as none of his predecessors of good works ; that is to say, in other words, bad thought of, and thus to eradicate, sooner Oportet semper orare, el nunquam deficere.-- Do, or later, the Christian religion from all his says he again, one good work to-day ; another states. He has but too well succeeded hither-to-morrow ; do not relax, and you will have to in this infernal project, for soon after the an inexhaustible abundance of good works. publication of that piece, the Pagans, whose This is as though he should say, "Habebis thefury had been a little calmed, redoubled their suurum non peficientem. Thus the King himzeal to pursue u3, and from that time in many self by bis piracy pays a homage to the exparishes, the sick have died without the sa- cellency of oar morals, and to their necessity, crament, because no one wished to receive a even for the Pagans. priest for fear of exposing himself to arrest. Such is in substance the famous decalogue But in the midst of all these miseries, there is of Minh Mento, in which it will be remarked one thing that reassures us, and it is that if that there is no allusion to robbery, falseGod be for us, we liave nothing to fear from hood, homicide, or other such crimes. Permen. Si Deus, nobiscum quis contra nos ? haps, the legislating and philosophical prince Strengthened by this thought, we can leave tbe despairs of obtaining any ihing from his sobfuture to the cares of his merciful providence.ject, upon the two first points. Perhaps he

8th. Com.-Preserve chastity and modesty. waits for the end of the war to treat of the last ; Minh-Meph recommends this virtue to the perhaps, he may not have thought of them at people, doubtless, with the view of imitating all. As for the rest, in many places, they have our decalogue. He promises rewards to those already neglected the reading of the ten prewho shall distinguish themselves in the prac- cepts, and the preaching which ought to follow tice of this virtue, and he threatens lo punish it; in other places, scarcely any one is prethe opposite vice. But it will require some sent at the sermon. We have much else too other sanction besides that of the King to do, say the Pagans, than to learn that it is make the people of Annam relish a virtue of necessary to pay tribute to support the seragli which they know only the name ; and the prac- of our much loved King and Lord.”-Friend tice of which is found only among Christians. of India.

EGYPT AS IT WAS IN 1837.

By Thomas Waghorn, General agent in Egypt

PREFACE. for steam intercourse, via the Red Sea, between The object of this pamphlet is to draw the England, India, Ceylon, China, &c. &c. attention of the British Parliament to the preDEDICATION.

sent state of Egypt, and, from facts, to shew This pampbet is dedicated to the members that it is both our interest and duty, as a naof the British Parliament, both Lords and tion, to aid in the civilization of that fine Commons, in the hope that it will induce in country, instead of adhering to a line of polithem some sort of sympathy for Egypt ; instead cy which, by encouraging the extortionate deof that indifference to her interests which per-mands of Turkey upon Egypt, tends to paramits her to be sacrificed to the bolstering up of lyze the efforts of the latter towards the aitain

1600
1150
7800
100
1900

1000

200

The above are irregulars.

[ocr errors]

Egypt although, at the present time, posses- established their independence of Turkey. The sing the elements of becoining an independent victory at Koniah confirmed it ; and surely no nation, in a greater degree than bas been en- man will inaintain that Constantinople was joyed by any other, except the United States not then open to the march of the Egyptian of America, is still tributary to a power which forces, under Ibrahim Pacha. And did not, she has fought and conquered.

I would ask, the results of that battle awaken In order to explain this anomaly, I will the European powers most sensibly to the fallen proceed to adduce facts, which I would fain state of the Turkish empire ? Nothing saved hope may weigh with the British Government, it from being overrun by the Egyptian forces to iheir recognition of Egypt as an indepen- but the powerful influence of England, France, dent kingdom.

and Russia, who then thrust themselves The following table, drawn from its army forward, and, by threats, compelled Egypt and navy at he beginning of 1836 will show to pause in her career of victory. Egypt comits preponderance as a nation :

plied, but her doing so could not hide the

fact that she had virtually redeemed her freedom STRENGTH OF THE EGYPTIAN NAVY.

from Turkey. Yet, from that period till now, the same fetters are kept upon her by the con'sent of England, and Egypt is consequently

still doomed to continue as a tributrary state Ierol

to the power she has conquered. The plea of

expediency, probably, will be put forth to jus. sueue IV

tify this,-a plea wbich is too often adopted 29 S sipar

elsewhere to cover unjust measures towards a SelcatH

particular country, for the bolstering up ano

ther. sarnopag

Proceeding to the main points of this pam

phlet, I would inquire - for what does Egypt uất100 IV Jp!กลือ 11

continue to pay tribute to Turkey? It is for aid ?- Egypt wants none. Is it for the soil ?

Mahomed Ali redeemed it from anarchy and S10

bloodshed, establishing in their stead order

and tranquillity. Is she to pay tribute for siau!

that? pue siəddes

Tribute I take to be a right only when imSnues

posed by a Government on a particular pro-up jepnday

vince of its own, which is bound to the mother

country for aid, protection, influence, or some •Ajan!

other advantage ; but as Egypt neither wants, JV jejnosti

nor receives, any of these, and moreover has Allea

most wonderfully become strong, while Tar• -Bg senday

key, on the other hand, has become weak, I maintain that there remains no justifiable reason for the exaction of tribute money.

If, however, tribute money was only requir. ed by Turkey I should not have troubled my countrymen with my opinions on the matter ;

but I cannot refrain from making ibose opiniLine of Battle Ships.

ons public when I behold such sweeping sums, Guns

as below stated, taken from Egypt by Turkey, Cairo, Acre, Homs, and Konish.. 4 of 110

and all, loo, during the last year, 1836, beMellec el Kebire, and Mansora.. 2 102

cause I consider our national character ought Alexandria,

90

not to be lent to such extortion. If it be asked, Abouker.

1

What has England to do with it? I answer, Frigates.

England justifies it, by always interfering in Babira...

1

the Porte's favour, no matter in what, and thus

60 Reschid..

1 58

upholds the double absurdity, that the strongShuringhat.

1

est, (Egypt) must yield to the weakest, (TurDamietta.

1, 50

key). But to the proof : Nile.....

Steam Frigate. The first of these items was exacted in Corvettes

Brigs.

the true oriental style ; namely, as presents Guns

Guns for the Sultan's daughter, on her marriage. 1

24
2

20 Mahomed Ali, on his part, sent 100,000 dollars. 1

22
1

The second item, his part of the Porte's debt 3

20
2

18 to Rassia, as the Sultan called it. Wbat had Cutters.

2

16 Mahomed Ali to do with the Turkish debt? 2 10 2

10

However, he sent 600,000 dollars. The third Besides, there are three ships of the line on item was a trumped up affair in December the stocks, a frigate and a steamer.

last, for ten years' possession of Candia. MaThese were the materials with which, in homed Alisent 750,000 dollars. What the next 1832 the Egyptians fought, and practically'item will be, we shall presently see ; but mark,

Strength and Distribution of the Egyption Army.

6300 Egypt....... 1300 3200 21000 2200 27700 300 600 700

5200 6000 33000 3000 47200 800 5000 2000 200 5900 200

6100 200 6300

Total..1650099001 78000 6000 100400 2000 7050 3200 12001 13450

The above are regulars.

UI

[ocr errors]

84

56

22

that all these sams are over and above the without the aid of foreign and profligate mere tribute money in one year : and the amount to cenaries. He then endowed schools which 1,450,000 dollars. Thus is Mahomed Ali ob- accommodate, with comfort, upwards of 20,000 liged to portion the daughters of the Sultan, to youth, most of whom are taken from the mud pay his debts, &c. &c. Is not this opposed to huts of the Nile; and, as age and education fit common sense, and therefore intolerable? Nay them, they are placed in offices of trust and it is monstrous, that the very sap of Egypt emolument ; while the most intelligent of them should be applied to objects so foreign to the are sent to England and France, in pursuit of benefit of that country.

knowledge, which they even now begin to imNow I would ask why Turkey shonld be to part to others. That they do so, is best shewn lerated in such extortions? Will not our re- by the fact, that, on their return to their native forming Government feel some sort of sympa- land, they supersede the European mechanics, thy for Egypt, whose peasant, or fallah, I feel in those branches of which the latter were bea pride in stating, is delighted at the sight of fore the head ; and this equally applies to the our countrymen, above all others who visit steam engine, the coinage at the mint, to the their land ?

cotton manufactories, and, indeed, to all the Is Egypt, I ask, to be the only nation of the schools of improvement in Egypt. world that is not to be permitted by England From such sources, and with such means, to work out her independence, through her own Egypt's regenerators are now springing up by means, when England allows that right to all hundreds, encouraged by the example of their other countries ? Am I to be told, that she more than father. Who, then, on weighing must remain a province of the Porte, now she this matter properly, will maintain that all this is its superior in every thing that constitutes will pass away at the death of Mahomed Ali ? power ? How much longer is Egypt to be thus trea-survive; and even were death to call him, many

His son, Ibrahim, the conqueror of Syria, may ted with the consent of England, where, to its parent male branches remain ; not, perhaps, honour, the principle is adinitted, that each equal to their original stem, but quite able to nation of the earth shall be encouraged in ma-uphold and carry on Egypt's regeneration, and turing its own greatness ?

to work out her deliverance from Turkish I will now endeavour to shew, that know-inisrule and oppression. ledge has gone on progressing in Egypt, on

It has been insisted that Malomed Ali has a most wonderful and rapid scale, during the done nothing to better the condition of the last thirty years, and solely from the master fellah. I reply, he has done every thing he mind of its present chief. I take up my posi- can do ; not perhaps for them, but for their tion from the period of the evacuation of Egypt sons. The fellahs, before his time, were by the forces of England and France. From doomed by their taskmasters, the Turks, to be that time, Egypt, under the Pacha's rule, be-slaves to the soil. Often have I witnessed gan to regenerate herself ; and so astounding, the delight with which those fellahs visit even to its own population, has been the pro: their children, while under a course of educagress of th great work of regeneration, that tion at the schools and colleges of Egypt. The they infer that a superior power is assisting, fondness with which they regard them is them to its carly attainment.

equalled only by their surprise at hearing them The most intelligent of our countrymen are, discuss matters so foreign to the habits of probably, not sufficiently informed of the pre- their fathers ; nor is it easy to describe their sent improved state of Egypt. It is quite feelings, on finding those sons commanding, different to what many of them suppose it to be instead of being made to endure the burdens who fancy that Mahomed Ali is little better imposed by their former masters. That Mathan one of its former tyrannical Beys ; that homed Ali has been obliged to take some of all he has done has no stability, and that it this class of his people for soldiers, I seek not will die with him. This I deny in toto.

The to deny.

Necessity demanded it. It did dawn of civilization emanated from him, but the same in England's wars, in the shape of it will not die with him. And now I venture to impressment, because the service of the state the proof of this assertion.

required it. The system has, however, been When Mahomed Ali became Pacha, of Egypt | discontinued in Egypt as well as in England, that country had become a waste. It was par- never, I trust, to be revived in either. As far tially rendered so by its having been made the as Egypt is concerned, recruits are now supfield of war, where France and England fought plied from Nubia and Sennaar; the fellahs of for its conquest. Overrun by foreign merce-Egypt are no longer required for the purpose. naries, and Bedouins chiefs, cultivation was With regard to Turkey, I would ask,-has at a stand still,-famine in its provinces, with not the bolstering up of that country been, for all the other miseries attendant upon war. the last forty years, a constant subject of perHow is it now? I find it improved in a degree plexity in our state policy? Is it consistent unparalleled in any other uncivilized country with the present improved situation of Egypt in the same space of time. The land yields that the should be sacrificed to that objeci? more and more luxuriantly, thus supplying to Our Government may go on supporting the imMahomed Ali the means of working its civi- potent and fallen state of Turkey; but my opilization. Having restored the productiveness nion is that the better policy would have been of its soil, he next turned his attention to to let her take her own course from the time

[ocr errors]

with Rassia, for the exclusion of our men-of-/merchants, and the destruction of its own hope war from the Black Sea ; and that at a period of future prosperity ; that Government only when we deemed her incapable of unworthy thinking of what they might gain at the mos conduct. The fact, is, that Turkey is now too ment, in robbing their own subjects and credimuch under Russian influence, to be saved tors by such acts of oppression,-a policy from becoming one of its provinces. But if which is sure to unhinge,in the end, any nation. England wishes to prevent this, she has only It must be evident, that bound as Egypt has one course to pursue, namely-giving power to been, by heartless state policy of England, to Mahomed Ali and his heirs, who will in turn the fatal destinies of the Turkish empire, the even regenerate the Turks. Perhaps many government of Mahomed Ali-enlightened will not believe that Mahomed Ali has more though it be by the councils of as eminentsecret powerin Turkey than the present Sultan. Christian merchants and financiers as any in I know that he has. Even the Turks look Europe, and fully aware of the ruinous effects upon their country as lost as a nation. Many of any violent alteration of the standard of of the more intelligent of them, both there and value-has been the innocent victim of the in Arabia, Syria, &c. &c., inquired how the barbarous momentary policy of Turkey. The Mussulman faith is to be re-organized, since Government of Egypt bas, at times, thus seen Turkey has fallen so low. The private opin- its people impoverished ; its foreign merchants ions of these several countries point at Ma- embarrassed in their legitimate commercial homed Ali and his heirs for its re-establish- operations, and the best interests of all classes ment. Their religious writings lead them to sacrificed ; but the cause of all this has origi. expect a regenerator about this period, and nated in an empire virtually separated from many of them fancy that they behold him in the country upon which it inflicts so much Mahomed Ali.

evil; over which it neither bas the power, nor Egypt is continually receiving checks from can pretend again to have, in herself, even the hands of Turkey, that impede or stagnate the hope of enforcing homage or obedience, the great work of civilization, which would How long, then, will it be deemed necessary otherwise roll on in its own course. I bave by England, for the bolstering up of Turkey, before mentioned those checks, in the shape of to perpetuate the views of that Government extortionate demands of tribute money ! Be- over a country actually in itself an indepensides these, the large force, both on land and dent empire? Who can pretend to maintain sea, which Egypt is obliged to maintain in self that it is for the real interest of Egypt, that it defence against Turkish tyranny, naturally should remain, and be forced by England to impoverishes her. This last evil, however, remain, in alliance with all that is ignorant, must and will be submitted to so long as Tur- brutal, and destructive? Now Egypt yearns key, backed by England, France, or Russia, for European civilization, and gives pledges have the power to menace her. Indeed, this for its future prosperity, by basing all its hopes armed position is absolutely necessary to secure of wealth, power, and greatness, upon the proto Egypt cren the produce of her own soil, duce of its own soil. Such being the facts, which would otherwise be taken by Turkey ; then, what member of the British Parliament but the greatest evil of all is that the men com- is there that will not execrate the present posing this large naval and military force, are policy of England towards Eżypt? What a wanted in two-fold manner in Egypt : 1st to field is there open to some aspiring and intel. increase its fertility, and 2dly, to assist in po. ligent member of the British Parliament to pulating it.

take the lead in the great work of Egypt's inThe Tarkish Government, by its successive dependence !mat any rate, of her freedom from depreciation of the coin of that country bas the misery that attends Turkey. Why should involved herself, past redemption, in all the Egypt be involved in the ruin of the Turkish ruinous consequnces of such a suicidal policy. Government? Not only is that fall certain in To give an idea of the extent to which this the eyes of all reasonable lookers on, but even barbarous mode of meeting a financial emer- the Turks themselves look upon it in the same gency has been carried on in Turkey, I need light. In a word, there is nothing on earthonly refer to the reign of the present Sultan, no policy to be pursued - to save Turkey from who has been, I know not upon what grounds, decay, except it be re-organized by Mahomed eulogized as the reformer of Turkey. I find Ali, or his heirs. But why is Egypt, with the the rate of exchange at Constantinople upon connivance of the European Cabinets, thus London in 1818, thirty-one piasters tlie potind impeded in her work of civilization by the sterling ; at the present time (1837) I find it Satanic system of Turkish misrule? So clear, is at 106 piasters ; thus, in the interval of less so justifiable, a path would any member have than twenty years, the rate of exchange has in advocating justice for Egypt in the English advanced more than 350 per cent. ; and as this Parliament, that it is inconceivable to me that has taken place in a country from which the it has not been taken in hand ere this. And exports are invariably more than the imports, now to the disarming system. it must be referred to some other cause than The disarming of Egypt would give such an the natural course of commercial events ; in additional stimulus to that country, that it fact, it has arisen from the successive depre- would then go on progressing in every thing ciation of its currency, which has, during the twenty-fold. All that is necessary to effect it last twenty years, been nine times debased by the is, that France and England acknowledge Turkish Government to the manifest impove- Mahomed Ali and his heirs as the sovereigns

[ocr errors][ocr errors]
« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »